Chapter 6: Moisture, Condensation, and Precipitation Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen ...
Ch. 6: Moisture, Condensation, and Precipitation
Hydrosphere <ul><li>Hydrosphere: liquid river, lakes, oceans, rain, ice water droplets, and water vapor. </li></ul><ul><li...
6.1 Hydrologic Cycle <ul><li>Hydrologic cycle: circulation of water over earth.  A closed system. </li></ul><ul><li>Can yo...
6.1 Hydrologic Cycle <ul><li>Earth’s Water Resources </li></ul><ul><li>How might global warming or cooling alter the image...
6.1 Hydrologic Cycle <ul><li>Hydrologic system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water changes of state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red...
6.2 Water in the Atmosphere <ul><li>Water Budget and Heat Budget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water vapor absorbs and reflects en...
<ul><li>Saturation: air at a certain temperature holds all of the water vapor possible.  It has reached capacity. </li></u...
<ul><li>Humidity: Amount of water vapor in the air. </li></ul><ul><li>3 different ways to measure Humidity: </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>What do you notice about the relationship between these two lines? </li></ul>6.2 Water in the Atmosphere
<ul><li>Evapotranspiration: Plants giving up water. </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of Evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Evap...
<ul><li>Distribution of Actual Mean Evapotranspiration </li></ul>6.3 Sources of Atmospheric Moisture
<ul><li>Water Budget System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When would irrigation at this site be necessary? </li></ul></ul>6.3 Sour...
<ul><li>Condensation: occurs air is saturated to the dew point.  The R.H. becomes 100%. </li></ul><ul><li>Condensation req...
<ul><li>Dew: condensation of water vapor at or near Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>White frost </li></ul><ul><li>Rime <...
<ul><li>Clouds: source of all precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strato (low) </li></ul></...
<ul><li>Cirrus </li></ul><ul><li>Stratus </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulus </li></ul><ul><li>Stratocumulus </li></ul><ul><li>Nimbu...
<ul><li>Fog is a cloud at the ground surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Fog: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation Fog </li></u...
<ul><li>Adiabatic heating: descending air is compressed by increasing pressure and thus warms at 5.6 o F/1000 feet (10 o C...
<ul><li>Dry adiabatic lapse rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling of a parcel  before   condensing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>The wet and dry adiabatic rate is NOT the same as the normal lapse rate (environmental lapse rate). </li></ul>6.4 ...
<ul><li>Stability: environment lapse rate < dry adiabatic  </li></ul><ul><li>Instability (unstable): environment lapse rat...
<ul><li>Relative sizes of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raindrops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cloud droplets </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>The wet and dry adiabatic rate is NOT the same as the normal lapse rate (environmental lapse rate). </li></ul>6.5 ...
<ul><li>Cloud droplet formation process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collision-coalescence (warm clouds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Q: What is the difference between water and supercooled water? </li></ul>6.5 Precipitation Processes
<ul><li>Major forms of Precipitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drizzle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Factors necessary for precipitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moist air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condensation nuclei...
<ul><li>Uplift mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convectional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Convectional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot air rises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooler air sinks </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Frontal: Boundary zone between relatively warm and cold air </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclonic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>also ...
<ul><li>Orographic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>air forces upward due to land barriers (mountains, plateaus) </li></ul></ul><ul><...
<ul><ul><li>What kind of air movement is common to all four diagrams? </li></ul></ul>6.5 Precipitation Processes
<ul><li>Distribution of Precipitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li># of raindays (0.01 inches of rain or more) </li></ul></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Horizontal Distribution of Precipitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Lifting mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tem...
<ul><li>In general, where on Earth’s surface does the heaviest rain fall? </li></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Q: Compare this figure with 5.11.  What is the relationship between world rainfall patterns and pressure distr...
<ul><ul><li>Q: Compare this figure with 6.23 (World average annual precipitation).  What are some of the similarities and ...
Physical Geography End of Chapter 6: Moisture, Condensation, and Precipitation
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  • Insert cover image for Chapter 6 (p. 140).
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  • Insert Table 6.1
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    1. 1. Chapter 6: Moisture, Condensation, and Precipitation Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
    2. 2. Ch. 6: Moisture, Condensation, and Precipitation
    3. 3. Hydrosphere <ul><li>Hydrosphere: liquid river, lakes, oceans, rain, ice water droplets, and water vapor. </li></ul><ul><li>If the ice floating in a beverage glass melts completely before you can drink it, will the liquid rise, fall, or remain the same? </li></ul>
    4. 4. 6.1 Hydrologic Cycle <ul><li>Hydrologic cycle: circulation of water over earth. A closed system. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you distinguish between the snow on the land, Greenland's ice sheet, and the seasonal pack ice? </li></ul>
    5. 5. 6.1 Hydrologic Cycle <ul><li>Earth’s Water Resources </li></ul><ul><li>How might global warming or cooling alter the image below? </li></ul>
    6. 6. 6.1 Hydrologic Cycle <ul><li>Hydrologic system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water changes of state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redistribution of energy </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. 6.2 Water in the Atmosphere <ul><li>Water Budget and Heat Budget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water vapor absorbs and reflects energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Budget: Total quantity of water remains the same. Any deficit must balance gains. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latent Heat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat transfer involved with evaporation and condensation is huge! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The energy stored and transferred in phase changes provides the power for Earth’s storms! </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Saturation: air at a certain temperature holds all of the water vapor possible. It has reached capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Dew Point: the temperature at which the air becomes saturated. The dew point is changes. </li></ul>6.2 Water in the Atmosphere
    9. 9. <ul><li>Humidity: Amount of water vapor in the air. </li></ul><ul><li>3 different ways to measure Humidity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute Humidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific Humidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative Humidity (R.H.) </li></ul></ul>6.2 Water in the Atmosphere
    10. 10. <ul><li>What do you notice about the relationship between these two lines? </li></ul>6.2 Water in the Atmosphere
    11. 11. <ul><li>Evapotranspiration: Plants giving up water. </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of Evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Evapotranspiration </li></ul>6.3 Sources of Atmospheric Moisture
    12. 12. <ul><li>Distribution of Actual Mean Evapotranspiration </li></ul>6.3 Sources of Atmospheric Moisture
    13. 13. <ul><li>Water Budget System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When would irrigation at this site be necessary? </li></ul></ul>6.3 Sources of Atmospheric Moisture
    14. 14. <ul><li>Condensation: occurs air is saturated to the dew point. The R.H. becomes 100%. </li></ul><ul><li>Condensation requires the presence of Condensation Nuclei. These provide a surface for the water vapor to condense on. </li></ul><ul><li>Fog and Clouds form when water vapor condenses and a large number of these droplets form a mass. </li></ul>6.4 Condensation
    15. 15. <ul><li>Dew: condensation of water vapor at or near Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>White frost </li></ul><ul><li>Rime </li></ul>6.4 Condensation
    16. 16. <ul><li>Clouds: source of all precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strato (low) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alto (middle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cirro (high) </li></ul></ul>6.4 Condensation
    17. 17. <ul><li>Cirrus </li></ul><ul><li>Stratus </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulus </li></ul><ul><li>Stratocumulus </li></ul><ul><li>Nimbus: rain falling </li></ul><ul><li>Nimbostratus </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulonimbus </li></ul>6.4 Condensation
    18. 18. <ul><li>Fog is a cloud at the ground surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Fog: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation Fog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advection Fog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upslope Fog </li></ul></ul>6.4 Condensation
    19. 19. <ul><li>Adiabatic heating: descending air is compressed by increasing pressure and thus warms at 5.6 o F/1000 feet (10 o C/1000 meters) </li></ul><ul><li>Adiabatic cooling: rising parcel of air cools as with decreasing pressure. It cools at the same rate as above. </li></ul>6.4 Condensation
    20. 20. <ul><li>Dry adiabatic lapse rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling of a parcel before condensing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.6 o F/1000 feet (10 o C/1000 meters) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wet adiabatic lapse rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling of a parcel after condensing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.2 o F/1000 feet (5 o C/1000 meters </li></ul></ul>6.4 Condensation
    21. 21. <ul><li>The wet and dry adiabatic rate is NOT the same as the normal lapse rate (environmental lapse rate). </li></ul>6.4 Condensation
    22. 22. <ul><li>Stability: environment lapse rate < dry adiabatic </li></ul><ul><li>Instability (unstable): environment lapse rate > dry adiabatic </li></ul>6.4 Condensation
    23. 23. <ul><li>Relative sizes of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raindrops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cloud droplets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>condensation nuclei </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Q: If the diameter of a raindrop is 100 times larger than a cloud droplet, why does it take a million droplets to produce one raindrop? </li></ul>6.5 Precipitation Processes
    24. 24. <ul><li>The wet and dry adiabatic rate is NOT the same as the normal lapse rate (environmental lapse rate). </li></ul>6.5 Precipitation Processes
    25. 25. <ul><li>Cloud droplet formation process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collision-coalescence (warm clouds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bergeron (ice crystal) process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold cloud </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supercooled water </li></ul></ul></ul>6.5 Precipitation Processes
    26. 26. <ul><li>Q: What is the difference between water and supercooled water? </li></ul>6.5 Precipitation Processes
    27. 27. <ul><li>Major forms of Precipitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drizzle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Snow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freezing rain </li></ul></ul>6.5 Precipitation Processes
    28. 28. <ul><li>Factors necessary for precipitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moist air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condensation nuclei </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uplift mechanism (rising air) </li></ul></ul>6.5 Precipitation Processes
    29. 29. <ul><li>Uplift mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convectional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyclonic (convergence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orographic </li></ul></ul>6.5 Precipitation Processes
    30. 30. <ul><li>Convectional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot air rises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooler air sinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common humid equatorial and tropics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In which case, will clouds appear due to convectional lifting? </li></ul></ul>6.5 Precipitation Processes
    31. 31. <ul><li>Frontal: Boundary zone between relatively warm and cold air </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclonic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>also known as convergence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air moves counterclockwise towards the center of a low pressure. </li></ul></ul>6.5 Precipitation Processes
    32. 32. <ul><li>Orographic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>air forces upward due to land barriers (mountains, plateaus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain shadow occurs on the leeward side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>windward </li></ul></ul>6.5 Precipitation Processes
    33. 33. <ul><ul><li>What kind of air movement is common to all four diagrams? </li></ul></ul>6.5 Precipitation Processes
    34. 34. <ul><li>Distribution of Precipitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li># of raindays (0.01 inches of rain or more) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average monthly precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: How would this rainfall pattern affect agriculture? </li></ul></ul>6.5 Precipitation Processes
    35. 35. <ul><li>Horizontal Distribution of Precipitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Lifting mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature (warmer air holds more water) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General atmospheric circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latitude zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windward side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land masses </li></ul></ul>6.5 Precipitation Processes
    36. 36. <ul><li>In general, where on Earth’s surface does the heaviest rain fall? </li></ul>
    37. 37. <ul><ul><li>Q: Compare this figure with 5.11. What is the relationship between world rainfall patterns and pressure distribution? </li></ul></ul>6.5 Precipitation Processes
    38. 38. <ul><ul><li>Q: Compare this figure with 6.23 (World average annual precipitation). What are some of the similarities and differences? </li></ul></ul>6.6 Variability of Precipitation
    39. 39. Physical Geography End of Chapter 6: Moisture, Condensation, and Precipitation

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