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  • Insert cover image for Chapter 5 (p. 112).
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  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 5: Atmospheric Pressure, Winds, and Circulation Patterns Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
    • 2. Pressure
      • Atmospheric Pressure
        • Variations in pressure create atmospheric circulation (including wind).
    • 3. Pressure
      • Mercury Barometer
        • Standard Sea level pressure is 1013.2 mb. (29.92 inches of mercury)
        • When air pressure increases, what happens to the mercury in the tube?
    • 4. 5.1 Variations in Atmospheric Pressure
      • Vertical Variation
        • Air Pressure and air density decrease rapidly with altitude (height).
        • By approximately how much does density drop between 0 and 100 km?
    • 5. 5.1 Variations in Atmospheric Pressure
      • Horizontal Variations
        • Determined by thermal (temp) or dynamic (motion of atmosphere) conditions.
        • Thermal
          • Warm/hot air is less dense and wants to rise. This creates low pressure near the equator.
          • Cold air is more dense and wants to sink, creating high pressure, near the poles.
        • Dynamic:
          • High pressure in the subtropics.
          • Low pressure in the subpolar regions (e.g. 40-60 o N and S)
    • 6. 5.2 Basic Pressure Systems
      • Low (Cyclone) = L
        • Air is ascending (rising)
        • Low pressure
      • High (anticyclone) = H
        • Air is descending (subsidence)
        • High Pressure
    • 7. 5.3 How is Temp related to the Density of Air
      • Convergence: wind going toward center (L)
      • Divergence: wind going away from center (H)
    • 8.
      • Mapping Pressure Distribution
        • Adjust to sea level pressure
        • Isobars: lines of equal pressure
        • strong pressure gradient (isobars close together causes stronger winds
        • Weak pressure gradient (isobars farther apart) causes weaker winds
      5.3 How is Temp related to the Density of Air
    • 9.
      • Wind is the horizontal movement of air due to pressure differences.
      • Pressure Gradient
        • Where on this figure would winds be the strongest?
      5.4 Wind
    • 10.
      • Coriolis Effect
        • Apparent deflection of the wind
        • N. hem: wind is deflected to the right
        • S. hem: wind is deflected to the left.
      5.4 Wind
    • 11.
      • Friction and Wind
        • Upper Levels (no friction): Ground has little effect. Wind is parallel to isobars. This is a geostrophic wind.
        • At or near surface, friction slows the wind and reduces the Coriolis force. Surface wind blows across isobars.
      5.4 Wind
    • 12.
      • Wind Terminology
        • Winds are named for where they come from
          • Wind from northeast is called NE wind
        • Windward
        • Leeward
      5.4 Wind
    • 13.
      • Anticyclone (H) – wind moves away from center in a clockwise spiral in N. hem.
      • Wind goes form high to low pressure
      • Cyclone (L) – wind moves towards center in a counterclockwise spiral in N. hem
      5.4 Wind
    • 14.
        • What do you think might happen to the diverging
        • air of an anticyclone if there is a cyclone nearby?
      5.4 Wind
    • 15.
      • Global Pressure Belts
        • Equator (trough or L)
        • 30 o N and S – subtropical High
        • Subpolar low (L)
        • Polar high (H)
        • This idealized pressure pattern is affected by landmasses and topography.
      5.5 Global Pressure Belts
    • 16.
      • Seasonal Variations in the Pressure pattern
        • Shift northward in July and southward in January due to location of sun’s direct rays.
        • January :
          • Icelandic Low
          • Aleutian low
        • July
          • Bermuda/Azores High
          • Pacific High
      5.5 Global Pressure Belts
    • 17.
        • What is the difference between the January and July average sea-level pressure at your location? Why do they vary?
      5.5 Global Pressure Belts
    • 18. 5.6 Global Surface Wind Systems
    • 19.
      • Latitudinal Zones
        • Trade Winds (5 o -25 o )
        • Doldrums
          • A zone of calm and weak winds
          • Trade winds converge
          • ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone)
          • ITCZ = region with high precip. and cloud cover.
      5.6 Global Surface Wind Systems
    • 20.
      • Subtropical Highs
      • Westerlies
      • Polar Winds
      • Polar Front
      5.6 Global Surface Wind Systems
    • 21.
      • Effects of Seasonal Migration greatest at transition zone
        • 5 o -15 o (ITCZ and subtropical high)
        • 30 o -40 o (subtropical high and polar front)
      5.6 Global Surface Wind Systems
    • 22.
      • Longitudinal Differences in Winds
      5.6 Global Surface Wind Systems
    • 23.
      • Jet Stream – very strong, narrow band of winds embedded within the upper air westerlies
      5.7 Upper Air Winds and Jet Streams
    • 24.
      • Polar front Jet Stream
      • Subtropical Jet Stream
      • Which jet stream is most likely to affect you in January?
      5.7 Upper Air Winds and Jet Streams
    • 25. 5.7 Upper Air Winds and Jet Streams
    • 26.
      • Rossby waves
      5.7 Upper Air Winds and Jet Streams
    • 27.
      • Monsoons: seasonal shift of the winds
        • Low pressure (summer) - wet
        • High pressure (winter) - dry
      5.8 Subglobal Surface Wind Systems
    • 28.
      • Local Warming Winds
        • Air is compressed and heated as it moves downslope
        • Chinooks
        • Santa Ana
      • Local Drainage Winds
        • Katabatic
      5.8 Subglobal Surface Wind Systems
    • 29.
      • Land-Sea Breeze
        • Diurnal (daily reversal of wind)
        • Differential heating between land and water
      5.8 Subglobal Surface Wind Systems
    • 30.
      • Mountain Breeze-valley breeze
        • Diurnal
      5.8 Subglobal Surface Wind Systems
    • 31.
      • Ocean Currents
      • Gyres: major surface currents
      • Warm currents
        • Gulf Stream
        • Kuroshio Current
      5.9 Ocean-Atmosphere Relationships
    • 32.
      • How does this map of ocean currents help explain the mild winters in London, England?
      5.9 Ocean-Atmosphere Relationships
    • 33.
      • El Niño: weak warm countercurrent that replaces cold coastal waters off the coast of Peru (equatorial Pacific) .
      5.9 Ocean-Atmosphere Relationships
    • 34.
      • El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO): Easterly surface winds weaken and retreat to the eastern Pacific, allowing central Pacific to warm and the rain area migrates eastward.
      • La Niña – opposite of ENSO
      5.9 Ocean-Atmosphere Relationships
    • 35.
      • El Niño and Global Weather
      5.9 Ocean-Atmosphere Relationships
    • 36.
      • North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO): relationship between Azores High and Icelandic Low.
      • + NAO = larger pressure difference between Azores and Icelandic. Eastern US may be mild and wet during winter.
      5.9 Ocean-Atmosphere Relationships
    • 37. Physical Geography End of Chapter 5: Atmospheric Pressure, Winds, and Circulation Patterns

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