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  • Insert cover image for Chapter 20 (p. 556)
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20 20 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 20: Coastal Processes and Landforms Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
  • Coastal Processes and Landforms
    • Large percentage of world’s population lives near the coast
  • 20.1 The Coastal Zone
    • Shoreline
    • Sea Level
      • Average position of shoreline
    • Coastal zone
      • Nearshore zone
      • Breaker zone
      • Surf zone
      • Swash zone (backwash)
      • Offshore zone
  • 20.2 Origin and Nature of Waves
    • Waves
      • Wave crests
      • Wave troughs
      • Wave height
      • Wavelength
      • Wave steepness
      • Wave period
    • Tides
    • Tsunamis
    • Wind waves
  • 20.2 Origin and Nature of Waves
    • Tides
      • Gravitational pull of the moon and sun is the force that causes tides
      • Moon has a stronger pull
      • Centrifugal force
      • Tidal range
        • Difference in sea level between high and low tide
  • 20.2 Origin and Nature of Waves
    • Spring tide
    • Neap tide
    • Q: How many spring tides and neap tides occur each month?
  • 20.2 Origin and Nature of Waves
    • Tides
      • Semidiurnal tide
      • Diurnal tide
      • Mixed tide
      • Q: What is the tidal pattern on the coastal area nearest where you live?
  • 20.2 Origin and Nature of Waves
    • Tidal range varies due to:
      • Shape of coastline
      • Water depth
      • Access to open ocean
      • Submarine topography
    • Largest tidal range (Bay of Fundy, Canada)
  • 20.2 Origin and Nature of Waves
    • Tsunamis
      • Long-wavelength waves that form when a large mass of water displaced upward of downward by:
        • Earthquakes
        • Volcanic eruptions
        • Landslide
      • December, 2004 Indonesia earthquake and tsunami
  • 20.2 Origin and Nature of Waves
    • Wind Waves
      • Most waves on surface of standing body of water created by wind
      • Frictional drag and pressures cause irregularities in the water surface
      • Waves can travel thousands of miles
      • 3 Factors determine height of wind waves
        • Wind velocity
        • Duration of wind
        • Fetch
  • 20.2 Origin and Nature of Waves
    • Waves are traveling forms
    • Deep-water
    • Wave base
  • 20.2 Origin and Nature of Waves
    • Why don’t the waves break in deeper water?
  • 20.3 Breaking Waves
    • Rip currents
      • Relatively narrow zones of strong, offshore-flowing water
      • Q: Why are these currents a hazard to swimmers?
  • 20.4 Wave refraction and Littoral drifting
    • Wave refraction
      • Bending of a wave in map view as it approaches a shoreline
      • Q: How will this coastline change over a long period of time?
  • 20.4 Wave refraction and Littoral drifting
    • Wave refraction
      • Coastlines tend to straighten over time
      • Q: What happens to sediment eroded from the headlands?
  • 20.4 Wave refraction and Littoral drifting
    • Not all waves refract completely before they break
    • Littoral drifting
      • Incomplete refraction produces sediment transport in the coastal zone
  • 20.4 Wave refraction and Littoral drifting
    • When a wave crest approaches a straight, gently sloping shoreline at a large angle, it interacts with the bottom and starts to slow down
    • Beach drifting
    • Longshore current
    • Longshore drifting
  • 20.5 Coastal Erosion
    • Key Terms
      • Corrosion
      • Hydraulic action
      • Abrasion
    • Coastal Erosional Landforms
      • Coasts of high relief are dominated by erosion
      • Sea cliffs (or lake cliffs)
  • 20.5 Coastal Erosion
    • Coastal Erosional Landforms
      • Notch
      • Cobble beach
      • Sea caves
  • 20.5 Coastal Erosion
    • Coastal Erosional Landforms
      • Sea arches
      • Sea stack
  • 20.5 Coastal Erosion
    • Coastal Erosional Landforms
      • Abrasion platform
      • Marine terraces
  • 20.6 Coastal Deposition
    • Coastal Deposition
      • Sediments accumulate where wave energy is low
      • 3 principal sources of coastal sediment:
        • Streams
          • Delta
          • Estuary
        • Coastal cliff erosion
        • Offshore sources
  • 20.6 Coastal Deposition
    • Coastal Depositional Landforms
      • Beach
        • Most common form
        • Wave-deposited feature
        • Sandy beach
        • Cobble beach
  • 20.6 Coastal Deposition
    • Coastal Depositional Landforms
      • Middle latitudes beaches are generally narrower, steeper and composed of coarser material in winter compared to summer
      • Longshore bar
  • 20.6 Coastal Deposition
    • Coastal Depositional Landforms
      • Spits
      • Tombolo
  • 20.6 Coastal Deposition
    • Coastal Depositional Landforms
      • Barrier beaches
      • Lagoons
      • Barrier spit
      • Barrier islands
  • 20.6 Coastal Deposition
    • Coastal Depositional Landforms
      • Barrier Islands
        • Locations: Atlantic (Cape Hatteras) and gulf coasts
        • Change drastically with severe storms
  • 20.6 Coastal Deposition
    • Coastal Depositional Landforms
      • Beach systems
        • Equilibrium when input and output of sediment are equal
        • Groin
          • Human made obstruction of longshore current (increases size of some beaches)
  • 20.7 Types of Coasts
    • Coastal Classification is based on plate tectonics
      • Passive-margin
        • Low relief and broad coastal plain
        • Continental shelves
        • e.g. East Coast
      • Active-margin
  • 20.7 Types of Coasts
    • Coastal Classification
      • Active-margin
        • High relief and narrow coastal plain
        • e.g. West Coast of U.S. along Pacific Ocean
  • 20.7 Types of Coasts
    • Coastal Classification
      • Regional scale
      • Coastlines of emergence
        • Water level has fallen or the land has risen
        • Best developed along active-margin coasts (e.g. west coast of U.S)
  • 20.7 Types of Coasts
    • Coastal Classification
      • Regional scale
      • Coastlines of submergence
        • Many features of the former shore are present
      • 2 types of submerged coastlines
        • Rias coasts
        • Fjord coasts
  • 20.7 Types of Coasts
    • Fjord coasts
      • Highly irregular
      • Deep, steep sided arms
      • Locations: Norway, Alaska, Chile, and Canada
  • 20.7 Types of Coasts
    • Another Regional classification system of coasts
      • Primary coastline
        • Erosion and deposition dominant
        • Result from rapid changes in coastline
      • Secondary coastline
        • Formed by waves and aquatic organisms
  • 20.8 Islands and Coral Reefs
    • Three basic ocean types of islands
      • Continental
        • Geologically apart of continent
        • Examples: Greenland, Great Britain, New Guinea, and Borneo
      • Oceanic
      • Atolls
  • 20.8 Islands and Coral Reefs
    • Oceanic
      • Volcanoes that rise from deep ocean floor
      • Along trenches: Aleutians, Tonga, Marianas
      • Along mid-ocean ridges: Iceland, Azores
      • Along chains: Hawaiian islands
  • 20.8 Islands and Coral Reefs
    • Atoll
      • Island consisting of a ring of coral reefs
      • Grown up from a subsiding volcanic island
      • Encircle a central lagoon
  • 20.8 Islands and Coral Reefs
    • Coral Reefs
      • Shallow, wave-resistant structures
      • Remains of tiny sea animals (skeleton of calcium carbonate)
      • Types of Reefs
          • Fringing reef
          • Barrier reef
      • Challenge for human habitation
  • Physical Geography End of Chapter 20: Coastal Processes and Landforms