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  • 2

    1. 1. Chapter 2: Representations of Earth Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
    2. 2. 2.1 Location on Earth <ul><li>Maps and Mapmaking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language of location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartography </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. U.S. Landforms in 1954
    4. 4. 2.1 Location on Earth <ul><li>Size and Shape of Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eratosthenes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oblate spheroid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equator bulges outward due to earth’s rotation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equator (12,758 km, 7927 miles) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pole to pole (12,714 km, 7900 miles) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mt. Everest (29,035 feet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mariana Trench (36,200 ft) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. 2.1 Location on Earth <ul><li>Globes and Great Circles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Circle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemispheres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circle of illumination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small circle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great circle routes </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. 2.1 Location on Earth <ul><li>Latitude and Longitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate system </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. 2.1 Location on Earth <ul><li>Measuring Latitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference points: North and South Pole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference Line: Equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>degrees North or south of equator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lines that run east and west </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sextant </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. 2.1 Location on Earth <ul><li>Measuring Longitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference Line: Prime Meridian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>degrees East or West of Prime Meridian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lines that run north and south from pole to pole </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. 2.2 The Geographic Grid <ul><li>Geographic Grid: Lines of Latitude and Longitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East to West lines are also called parallels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North to South lines are also called Meridians </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. 2.2 The Geographic Grid <ul><li>Longitude and Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Zones: relationships between longitude, Earth’s rotation, and time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar noon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central meridian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenwhich Mean Time (GMT), Zulu time, Universal time (UTC) </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. World Time Zones
    12. 12. 2.2 The Geographic Grid <ul><li>International Date Line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally follows 180 th meridian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jogs to separate Alaska and Siberia as well as some pacific Island groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Going east across IDL, subtract a day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Going west across IDL, add a day. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. 2.2 The Geographic Grid <ul><li>U.S. Public Lands Survey System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called Township range system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divides towns based on north-south lines called meridians and east-west lines called base lines. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. 2.2 The Geographic Grid <ul><li>Township: square plot 6 miles on a side. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into 36 sections of 1 square mile. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sections divided into quarter sections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quarter-quarter sections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forties (each with an area of 40 acres. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Public Lands Survey System
    16. 16. 2.2 The Geographic Grid <ul><li>Global Positioning System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a network of satellites. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines latitude, longitude, and elevation. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. 2.2 The Geographic Grid <ul><li>Global Positioning System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a network of satellites. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines latitude, longitude, and elevation. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections <ul><li>Advantages of Maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enormous amount of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitless possibilities </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections <ul><li>Limitations of Maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impossible to present a “spherical” planet on a flat surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All flat maps are distorted. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections <ul><li>Properties of Map Projections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cylindrical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cone </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections <ul><li>Shape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformal maps: correct shape but incorrect size. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Mercator Projection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare Greenland and South America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>South America is 8 times larger. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections <ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal-area maps: correct size but incorrect shape. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential when examining spatial distribution of any element: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Churches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cornfields </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanoes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections <ul><li>Distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No flat map depicts correct distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On small maps, distances errors are minor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equidistance: constant scale </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Direction
    25. 25. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections <ul><li>Examples of Map Projections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercator Projection </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections <ul><li>Examples of Map Projections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gnomonic Projection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conic Projection </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections <ul><li>Compromise Projections </li></ul>
    28. 28. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections <ul><li>Map Basics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal scale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Representative fraction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic (bar) scale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections <ul><li>Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large areas in a relatively small area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little detail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large denominators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small areas in greater detail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller denominators </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections <ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic north </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic declination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isogonic map </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections <ul><li>Isogonic map </li></ul>
    32. 32. 2.4 Displaying Spatial Data and Information on Maps <ul><li>Thematic Maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One feature (or a few related ones) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate, Vegetation, Soils, Earthquakes, Tornadoes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrete data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Point, area, or line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: school, roads, hurricane path </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regions: discrete areas with common characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Element exists at all points on earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: elevation, air temperature, air pressure </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>Discrete and Continuous data </li></ul>2.4 Displaying Spatial Data and Information on Maps
    34. 34. <ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic north </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic declination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isogonic map </li></ul></ul>2.4 Displaying Spatial Data and Information on Maps
    35. 35. <ul><li>Topographic Maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contour lines: lines that connect points of equal elevation </li></ul></ul>2.4 Displaying Spatial Data and Information on Maps
    36. 36. <ul><li>Gradient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steeper (stronger) gradient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lines are closer together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: steeper slope; A to top of hill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller (weaker) gradient </li></ul></ul>2.4 Displaying Spatial Data and Information on Maps
    37. 37. 2.5 Modern Mapping Technology <ul><li>Digital Mapmaking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital elevation models (DEM’s): computerized, 3-D view of topography. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical exaggeration </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. 2.5 Modern Mapping Technology <ul><li>Geographical Information Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Map layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geocoding: entering spatial data in relation to grid coordinates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attributes: specific features (e.g. name of river) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Registration and Display </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. <ul><li>Visual Models: Salt Lake City, Utah </li></ul>2.4 Displaying Spatial Data and Information on Maps
    40. 40. <ul><li>Visual Models: Cape Town, South Africa </li></ul>2.4 Displaying Spatial Data and Information on Maps
    41. 41. <ul><li>GIS in the Workplace </li></ul>2.4 Displaying Spatial Data and Information on Maps
    42. 42. 2.5 Remote Sensing of the Environment <ul><li>Remote Sensing: collection of information and data about distant objects or environments. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pixels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Megapixels </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. 2.5 Remote Sensing of the Environment <ul><li>Aerial Photography and Image Interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oblique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near Infrared (NIR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light reflected off of surfaces, not radiated heat. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    44. 44. 2.5 Remote Sensing of the Environment <ul><li>Specialized Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal Infrared (TIR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patterns of heat and light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Day or night </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many weather satellites </li></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 45. 2.5 Remote Sensing of the Environment <ul><li>Specialized Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radar ( Ra dio D etection A nd R anging) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmits radio waves and reads reflected energy signal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    46. 46. 2.5 Remote Sensing of the Environment <ul><li>Weather Radar systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produce map-like images of precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penetrates clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day or night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflects off raindrops (or other precip.) producing a signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doppler radar – precip. Patterns, direction of storm and speed of storm </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. 2.5 Remote Sensing of the Environment <ul><li>Multispectral Remote Sensing Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using and comparing more than 1 type of image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: radar and TIR image </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Physical Geography End of Chapter 2: Representations of Earth

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