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  • Insert Figure 2.1
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  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 2: Representations of Earth Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
    • 2. 2.1 Location on Earth
      • Maps and Mapmaking
        • History
        • Language of location
        • Cartography
    • 3. U.S. Landforms in 1954
    • 4. 2.1 Location on Earth
      • Size and Shape of Earth
        • Eratosthenes
        • Oblate spheroid
          • Equator bulges outward due to earth’s rotation.
          • Equator (12,758 km, 7927 miles)
          • Pole to pole (12,714 km, 7900 miles)
        • Mt. Everest (29,035 feet)
        • Mariana Trench (36,200 ft)
    • 5. 2.1 Location on Earth
      • Globes and Great Circles
        • Great Circle
        • Hemispheres
        • Circle of illumination
        • Small circle
        • Great circle routes
    • 6. 2.1 Location on Earth
      • Latitude and Longitude
        • Coordinate system
    • 7. 2.1 Location on Earth
      • Measuring Latitude
        • Reference points: North and South Pole
        • Reference Line: Equator
        • Latitude
          • degrees North or south of equator
          • Lines that run east and west
        • sextant
    • 8. 2.1 Location on Earth
      • Measuring Longitude
        • Reference Line: Prime Meridian
        • Longitude
          • degrees East or West of Prime Meridian
          • Lines that run north and south from pole to pole
    • 9. 2.2 The Geographic Grid
      • Geographic Grid: Lines of Latitude and Longitude
        • East to West lines are also called parallels
        • North to South lines are also called Meridians
    • 10. 2.2 The Geographic Grid
      • Longitude and Time
        • Time Zones: relationships between longitude, Earth’s rotation, and time.
        • Solar noon
        • Central meridian
        • Greenwhich Mean Time (GMT), Zulu time, Universal time (UTC)
    • 11. World Time Zones
    • 12. 2.2 The Geographic Grid
      • International Date Line
        • Generally follows 180 th meridian
        • Jogs to separate Alaska and Siberia as well as some pacific Island groups
        • Going east across IDL, subtract a day
        • Going west across IDL, add a day.
    • 13. 2.2 The Geographic Grid
      • U.S. Public Lands Survey System
        • Also called Township range system
        • Divides towns based on north-south lines called meridians and east-west lines called base lines.
    • 14. 2.2 The Geographic Grid
      • Township: square plot 6 miles on a side.
        • Divided into 36 sections of 1 square mile.
        • Sections divided into quarter sections
        • Quarter-quarter sections
        • Forties (each with an area of 40 acres.
    • 15. Public Lands Survey System
    • 16. 2.2 The Geographic Grid
      • Global Positioning System
        • Uses a network of satellites.
        • Determines latitude, longitude, and elevation.
    • 17. 2.2 The Geographic Grid
      • Global Positioning System
        • Uses a network of satellites.
        • Determines latitude, longitude, and elevation.
    • 18. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections
      • Advantages of Maps
        • Spatial relationships
        • Enormous amount of information
        • Limitless possibilities
    • 19. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections
      • Limitations of Maps
        • Impossible to present a “spherical” planet on a flat surface.
        • All flat maps are distorted.
    • 20. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections
      • Properties of Map Projections
        • Planar
        • Cylindrical
        • Cone
    • 21. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections
      • Shape
        • Conformal maps: correct shape but incorrect size.
        • Example: Mercator Projection
          • Compare Greenland and South America
          • South America is 8 times larger.
    • 22. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections
      • Size
        • Equal-area maps: correct size but incorrect shape.
        • Essential when examining spatial distribution of any element:
          • People
          • Churches
          • Cornfields
          • Volcanoes
    • 23. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections
      • Distance
        • No flat map depicts correct distance
        • On small maps, distances errors are minor
        • Equidistance: constant scale
    • 24. Direction
    • 25. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections
      • Examples of Map Projections
        • Mercator Projection
    • 26. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections
      • Examples of Map Projections
        • Gnomonic Projection
        • Conic Projection
    • 27. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections
      • Compromise Projections
    • 28. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections
      • Map Basics
        • Title
        • Legend
        • Scale
          • Verbal scale
          • Representative fraction
          • Graphic (bar) scale
        • Distance
    • 29. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections
      • Scale
        • Small scale
          • Large areas in a relatively small area
          • Little detail
          • Large denominators
        • Large scale
          • Small areas in greater detail
          • Smaller denominators
    • 30. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections
      • Direction
        • Magnetic north
        • Magnetic field
        • Magnetic declination
        • Isogonic map
    • 31. 2.3 Maps and Map Projections
      • Isogonic map
    • 32. 2.4 Displaying Spatial Data and Information on Maps
      • Thematic Maps
        • One feature (or a few related ones)
          • Climate, Vegetation, Soils, Earthquakes, Tornadoes
        • Discrete data
          • Point, area, or line
          • Examples: school, roads, hurricane path
          • Regions: discrete areas with common characteristics
        • Continuous data
          • Element exists at all points on earth
          • Examples: elevation, air temperature, air pressure
    • 33.
      • Discrete and Continuous data
      2.4 Displaying Spatial Data and Information on Maps
    • 34.
      • Direction
        • Magnetic north
        • Magnetic field
        • Magnetic declination
        • Isogonic map
      2.4 Displaying Spatial Data and Information on Maps
    • 35.
      • Topographic Maps
        • Contour lines: lines that connect points of equal elevation
      2.4 Displaying Spatial Data and Information on Maps
    • 36.
      • Gradient
        • Steeper (stronger) gradient
          • lines are closer together
          • Example: steeper slope; A to top of hill
        • Smaller (weaker) gradient
      2.4 Displaying Spatial Data and Information on Maps
    • 37. 2.5 Modern Mapping Technology
      • Digital Mapmaking
        • Digital elevation models (DEM’s): computerized, 3-D view of topography.
        • Vertical exaggeration
    • 38. 2.5 Modern Mapping Technology
      • Geographical Information Systems
        • Map layers
        • Data
          • Geocoding: entering spatial data in relation to grid coordinates
          • Attributes: specific features (e.g. name of river)
        • Registration and Display
    • 39.
      • Visual Models: Salt Lake City, Utah
      2.4 Displaying Spatial Data and Information on Maps
    • 40.
      • Visual Models: Cape Town, South Africa
      2.4 Displaying Spatial Data and Information on Maps
    • 41.
      • GIS in the Workplace
      2.4 Displaying Spatial Data and Information on Maps
    • 42. 2.5 Remote Sensing of the Environment
      • Remote Sensing: collection of information and data about distant objects or environments.
        • Digital image
        • Spatial resolution
        • Pixels
        • Megapixels
    • 43. 2.5 Remote Sensing of the Environment
      • Aerial Photography and Image Interpretation
        • Oblique
        • Near Infrared (NIR)
          • Light reflected off of surfaces, not radiated heat.
    • 44. 2.5 Remote Sensing of the Environment
      • Specialized Techniques
        • Thermal Infrared (TIR)
          • Patterns of heat and light
          • Day or night
          • Many weather satellites
    • 45. 2.5 Remote Sensing of the Environment
      • Specialized Techniques
        • Radar ( Ra dio D etection A nd R anging)
          • Transmits radio waves and reads reflected energy signal
          • Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR)
    • 46. 2.5 Remote Sensing of the Environment
      • Weather Radar systems
        • produce map-like images of precipitation
        • Penetrates clouds
        • Day or night
        • Reflects off raindrops (or other precip.) producing a signal
        • Doppler radar – precip. Patterns, direction of storm and speed of storm
    • 47. 2.5 Remote Sensing of the Environment
      • Multispectral Remote Sensing Applications
        • Using and comparing more than 1 type of image
        • Example: radar and TIR image
    • 48. Physical Geography End of Chapter 2: Representations of Earth

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