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  • Insert cover image for Chapter 19 (p. 522)
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19 19 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 19: Glacial Systems and Landforms Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
  • Glacial Systems and Landforms
  • Glacial Systems and Landforms
    • Glaciers
      • Large masses of flowing ice
      • Glacier’s role
        • Climate indicator’s
        • Long-term storage of fresh water as ice
        • Hydrologic cycle
      • Process of erosion, transportation, and deposition by glaciers leaves a distinctive mark
      • Locations:
        • Alps, Rocky Mountains, Himalayas, Andes
  • 19.1 Glacier Formation and the Hydrologic Cycle
    • Glaciers
      • Masses of flowing ice that have accumulated on land
      • Annual input of frozen precipitation exceeded yearly loss by melting and other processes
      • Snowflakes
        • Compaction, melting and refreezing
        • Firn
  • 19.1 Glacier Formation and the Hydrologic Cycle
    • Glaciers
      • Open systems with:
        • Input
        • Storage
        • Output
      • Accumulation
      • Ablation
      • Sublimation
      • Calving
      • Icebergs
  • 19.1 Glacier Formation and the Hydrologic Cycle
    • Glaciers
      • Controlled by 2 basic climatic conditions:
        • Precipitation
        • Freezing temperatures
      • 2.25% of Earth’s total water
      • 70% of Earth’s fresh water
      • Moves slowly with tremendous energy
  • 19.2 Types of Glaciers
    • Two Major categories
      • Alpine
      • Continental
    • Alpine (High elevation)
      • Fed by ice and snow in mountain areas
      • Usually occupy preexisting valleys
      • Valley glaciers
  • 19.2 Types of Glaciers
    • Alpine (High elevation)
      • Piedmont glaciers
        • Ice flows beyond the valley, spreading out over flatter land
      • Cirque glaciers
        • Smallest type
      • Locations:
        • Rockies, Sierra Nevada, Cascades, Olympic, Coast Range
        • Andes, Himalaya, Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro
  • 19.2 Types of Glaciers
    • Continental glaciers
      • Much larger and thicker
      • High latitude
      • 2 polar ice sheets
        • Greenland
        • Antarctica
      • Ice caps
      • Q: How is radial ice flow both similar to and different from the radial drainage pattern observed for some stream systems?
  • 19.3 How do Glaciers flow?
    • Movement Processes
      • Internal plastic deformation
        • Weight of overlying ice, firn, and snow causes ice crystals at depth to arrange themselves in parallel layers that glide over each other
  • 19.3 How do Glaciers flow?
    • Movement Processes
      • Processes at base
        • Basal sliding
      • Processes at top
        • Brittle ice
        • Fractures and cracks
        • Crevasses
        • Icefalls
  • 19.4 Glaciers as Geomorphic Agents
    • Glaciers remove and entrain rock particles by 2 erosion processes
      • Plucking
        • Moving ice freezes onto loosened rocks, incorporating them into the flow
      • Abrasion
      • Q: How does sediment load of a glacier differ from sediment load of a stream?
  • 19.5 Alpine Glaciers
    • Zone of accumulation (input)
    • Zone of ablation (ablation exceeds accumulation)
  • 19.5 Alpine Glaciers
    • Equilibrium line (boundary)
    • Q: What additional information would be needed to assess if the boundary between the white and blue zones on this photo is the glacier’s annual equilibrium line?
  • 19.5 Alpine Glaciers
    • Factors influencing Equilibrium line
      • Latitude
      • Elevation
      • Temperature
      • Amount of insolation
      • Mountain slope
      • Wind
    • Q: Do any slope characteristics vary by aspect in the region where you live?
  • 19.5 Alpine Glaciers
    • Glacier’s head
      • Cirque headwall
      • Bergschrund
    • Terminus
  • 19.5 Alpine Glaciers
    • Equilibrium and the Glacial Budget
      • Changes throughout year
      • Growing or shrinking:
        • Observe terminus
        • Advance (further down valley)
        • Retreat
        • Most receding since 1890
  • 19.5 Alpine Glaciers
    • Erosional Landforms of Alpine Glaciation
      • Striations
        • Linear scratches, grooves, and gouges
        • Direction of ice flow
      • Q: Can the direction of ice flow be determined with certainty from the evidence in this photograph?
  • 19.5 Alpine Glaciers
    • Erosional Landforms of Alpine Glaciation
      • Roches moutonnées
        • Asymmetric bedrock hills or knobs
        • Smoothly rounded on the up-side by abrasion
        • Plucking on down-ice side
  • 19.5 Alpine Glaciers
    • Erosional Landforms of Alpine Glaciation
      • Cirque
        • Bowls
        • Cirque lakes
      • Arête
        • Jagged sawtooth-shaped spine of rock
  • 19.5 Alpine Glaciers
    • Erosional Landforms of Alpine Glaciation
      • Horn
        • 3 or more cirques meet
        • Pyramid shape
        • Matterhorn
      • Col
        • Pass formed by headward erosion of 2 cirques
      • Glacial trough
  • 19.5 Alpine Glaciers
    • Erosional Landforms of Alpine Glaciation
      • Paternoster lakes
        • Glacier creates rock steps and excavated basins
        • This forms Lake chains
      • Fjord
        • Abandoned glacial trough that use to extend down to ocean
  • 19.5 Alpine Glaciers
    • Erosional Landforms of Alpine Glaciation
      • Hanging Valleys
        • Waterfall
        • Yosemite Valley, CA
  • 19.5 Alpine Glaciers
    • Depositional Landforms of Alpine Glaciation
      • Glaciofluvial
      • Drift
      • Moraines
      • Lateral moraines
  • 19.5 Alpine Glaciers
    • Depositional Landforms of Alpine Glaciation
      • Medial moraine
      • End moraine
      • Terminal moraine
      • Recessional moraine
      • Ground moraine
      • Glacial outwash
  • 19.6 Continental Glaciers
    • Ice sheets & Ice caps
      • Convex lens cross section
      • Thick in center and thinning toward edges
      • Q: How is this manner of ice flow difference from and similar to that of a valley glacier?
  • 19.6 Continental Glaciers
    • Existing Continental Glaciers
      • Cover about 10% of Earth
      • Locations: Iceland, arctic islands, Greenland ice sheet, and Antarctic Ice Sheet
      • Outlet glaciers
  • 19.6 Continental Glaciers
    • Existing Continental Glaciers
      • Antarctic Ice Sheet
  • 19.6 Continental Glaciers
    • Existing Continental Glaciers
      • Antarctic Ice Sheet
      • Ice sheet
  • 19.6 Continental Glaciers
    • Pleistocene Glaciation
      • Began 2.4 mya and ended 10,000 years ago
      • Maximum extent: ice covered 1/3 of Earth
      • Interglacial
      • Sea level changes
  • 19.6 Continental Glaciers
    • Continental Glaciers and Erosional Landforms
      • Ice scoured plains
  • 19.6 Continental Glaciers
    • Continental Glaciers and Depositional Landforms
      • End Moraines
      • Till Plains
      • Outwash Plains
      • Drumlins
      • Eskers
      • Kames
      • Erratics
  • 19.6 Continental Glaciers
    • End Moraines
  • 19.6 Continental Glaciers
    • Till Plains
    • Outwash Plains
      • Kettles
      • Kettle lakes
    • Drumlin
  • 19.6 Continental Glaciers
    • Esker
    • Kames
      • Kame terraces
    • Erratics
  • 19.7 Glacial Lakes
    • Pleistocene ice sheets created numerous lake basins
      • Finger Lakes, NY
      • Great lakes, US
      • Lake Chelan, WA
      • Ice-marginal lakes
  • 19.7 Glacial Lakes
    • Lake Missoula
      • Scablands
      • Dry waterfalls
  • 19.7 Glacial Lakes
    • Great Lakes
      • World’s largest lake system
  • 19.8 Periglacial Landscapes
    • Periglacial environments
      • High latitudes of N. hemisphere
      • Lacking year round ice or snow undergoing intense frost action
      • Frost action
        • Freezing/thawing of soil
        • Frost heave and thaw settlement
      • Patterned ground
  • 19.8 Periglacial Landscapes
    • Permafrost
      • Solifluction
      • Ice wedge polygons
      • Construction Techniques
        • Build above ground
      • Climate Change and permafrost
        • Thermokarst development
        • Release of Carbon Dioxide and Methane
  • Physical Geography End of Chapter 19: Glacial Systems and Landforms