Chapter 17: Fluvial Processes and Landforms Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michae...
Fluvial Processes and Landforms
Fluvial Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Fluvial geomorphology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of flowing water as a land-shapi...
17.1 Surface Runoff <ul><li>Surface runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltration capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Interception </li></u...
17.1 Surface Runoff <ul><li>Surface runoff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheet wash (unchannelized) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
17.2 The Stream System <ul><li>Small perennial streams join to make larger perennial streams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tributa...
17.2 The Stream System <ul><li>Drainage Basins (or watersheds) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanse of land from which it receive...
17.2 The Stream System <ul><li>Drainage Basins (or watersheds) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Str...
17.2 The Stream System <ul><li>Drainage Basins (or watersheds) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exte...
17.2 The Stream System <ul><li>Drainage Density and Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage density (D d ) </li></ul></ul>...
17.2 The Stream System <ul><li>Drainage Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dendritic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trellis </li><...
17.2 The Stream System <ul><li>Drainage Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transverse stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antece...
17.3 Stream Discharge <ul><li>Amount of stream discharge (Q) depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent weather </li></ul></...
17.3 Stream Discharge Ten Largest Rivers of the World
17.3 Stream Discharge <ul><li>Q = wdv </li></ul><ul><ul><li>w = width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d = channel depth </li></...
17.4 Stream Energy <ul><li>Kinetic energy </li></ul><ul><li>Stream gradient </li></ul><ul><li>Channel roughness </li></ul>...
17.4 Stream Energy <ul><li>Stream load </li></ul><ul><li>Stream competence and Stream capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both ...
17.5 Fluvial Processes <ul><li>Stream Erosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluvial erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degradation...
17.5 Fluvial Processes <ul><li>Stream Erosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abrasion (more powerful than hydraulic) </li></ul></ul...
17.5 Fluvial Processes <ul><li>Stream Transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mineral...
17.5 Fluvial Processes <ul><li>Stream Transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Main Types of Stream Load: </li></ul></ul><ul...
17.5 Fluvial Processes <ul><li>Stream Transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative proportion of these vary with drainage...
17.5 Fluvial Processes <ul><li>Stream Deposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A decrease in stream velocity will reduce its load ...
17.5 Fluvial Processes <ul><li>Stream Deposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural levees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floodplai...
17.6 Channel Patterns <ul><li>Straight channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exist for short distances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bra...
17.6 Channel Patterns <ul><li>Meandering channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common in humid climates (e.g. Missouri River...
17.7 Land Sculpture by Streams <ul><li>Idealized river </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradient diminished downstream </li></ul></ul...
17.7 Land Sculpture by Streams <ul><li>Features of the Upper Course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually flows on contact with be...
17.7 Land Sculpture by Streams <ul><li>Features of the Upper Course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differential erosion </li></ul><...
17.7 Land Sculpture by Streams <ul><li>Features of the Middle Course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate gradient </li></ul></u...
17.7 Land Sculpture by Streams <ul><li>Features of the Lower Course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal gradient </li></ul></ul>...
17.7 Land Sculpture by Streams <ul><li>Features of the Lower Course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meander cut-offs </li></ul></ul>...
17.8 Deltas <ul><li>Deltas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A stream flowing into a large body of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cu...
17.8 Deltas <ul><li>Deltas </li></ul>
17.9 Base-Level Changes and Tectonism <ul><li>Base Level change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due primarily from climate change (g...
17.9 Base-Level Changes and Tectonism <ul><li>Stream Terraces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older, higher valley floors preserved ...
17.10 Stream Hazards <ul><li>Flooding is a significant risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stream channel can withstand 1 or 2 year...
17.10 Stream Hazards <ul><li>Stream Hydrograph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record of changes in Q over time </li></ul></ul><ul><...
17.10 Stream Hazards <ul><li>Stream Hydrograph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising limb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peak flow </li...
17.10 Stream Hazards <ul><li>Stream Hydrograph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanization and suburbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><...
17.11 The Importance of Surface Waters <ul><li>Streams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set...
<ul><li>Reservoirs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial lakes impounded by dams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flood control </li>...
<ul><li>Lakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inland water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most hold surface water temporarily along stre...
<ul><li>Lakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most are products of glaciation </li></ul></...
17.12 Quantitative Fluvial Geomorphology <ul><li>Objective analysis of fluvial systems </li></ul><ul><li>Used by scientist...
Physical Geography End of Chapter 17: Fluvial Processes and Landforms
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  • Insert cover image for Chapter 17 (p. 460)
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  • 17

    1. 1. Chapter 17: Fluvial Processes and Landforms Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
    2. 2. Fluvial Processes and Landforms
    3. 3. Fluvial Processes and Landforms <ul><li>Fluvial geomorphology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of flowing water as a land-shaping process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General term for natural, channelized flow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interfluve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term effects </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. 17.1 Surface Runoff <ul><li>Surface runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltration capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Interception </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of runoff depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity and duration of storm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infiltration & evap. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep soil, soil type, slope </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. 17.1 Surface Runoff <ul><li>Surface runoff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheet wash (unchannelized) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gullies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ephemeral flow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perennial flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermittent flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Base flow </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. 17.2 The Stream System <ul><li>Small perennial streams join to make larger perennial streams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tributaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trunk stream </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. 17.2 The Stream System <ul><li>Drainage Basins (or watersheds) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanse of land from which it received runoff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subbasins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage divide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continental divide </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. 17.2 The Stream System <ul><li>Drainage Basins (or watersheds) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stream order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First-order stream </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Second-order stream </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Third-order stream </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mississippi River (10 th order stream) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. 17.2 The Stream System <ul><li>Drainage Basins (or watersheds) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exterior drainage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior drainage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Base level </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. 17.2 The Stream System <ul><li>Drainage Density and Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage density (D d ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Length of channels per unit area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highly erodible and impermeable rocks tend to have higher D d </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slope and vegetation affects D d </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. 17.2 The Stream System <ul><li>Drainage Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dendritic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trellis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centripetal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectangular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deranged </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. 17.2 The Stream System <ul><li>Drainage Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transverse stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antecedent stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Columbia River, Cumberland Gap </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also called superimposed </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. 17.3 Stream Discharge <ul><li>Amount of stream discharge (Q) depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage basin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relief </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rock type </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land-use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Q = Volume of water in a given cross section per unit of time </li></ul>
    14. 14. 17.3 Stream Discharge Ten Largest Rivers of the World
    15. 15. 17.3 Stream Discharge <ul><li>Q = wdv </li></ul><ul><ul><li>w = width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d = channel depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>v = average stream velocity </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. 17.4 Stream Energy <ul><li>Kinetic energy </li></ul><ul><li>Stream gradient </li></ul><ul><li>Channel roughness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>95% of energy is consumed in overcoming friction </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. 17.4 Stream Energy <ul><li>Stream load </li></ul><ul><li>Stream competence and Stream capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both increase in response to small increases in velocity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If velocity doubles, sediment load may go up 6-8 times </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graded stream </li></ul>
    18. 18. 17.5 Fluvial Processes <ul><li>Stream Erosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluvial erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degradation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggradation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also called solution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulic action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turbulence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plunge Pools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: Why do deep plunge pools form at the base of most waterfalls? </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. 17.5 Fluvial Processes <ul><li>Stream Erosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abrasion (more powerful than hydraulic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potholes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originate below waterfalls, swirling rapids, structural weakness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headward erosion </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. 17.5 Fluvial Processes <ul><li>Stream Transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals that are dissolved in water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finest solid particles carried </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saltation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Particles that are heavier and “bounce” along stream bed </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. 17.5 Fluvial Processes <ul><li>Stream Transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Main Types of Stream Load: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolved load (Ions of rock material in solution) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suspended load (small clastic in suspension) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bed load (large particles that saltate or move in traction along streambed) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative proportion of these vary with drainage </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. 17.5 Fluvial Processes <ul><li>Stream Transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative proportion of these vary with drainage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humid regions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher rates of weathering </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suspended loads </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muddy river </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Yellow River, China </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arid regions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited weathering </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bed load </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. 17.5 Fluvial Processes <ul><li>Stream Deposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A decrease in stream velocity will reduce its load through deposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bar (accumulation of sediment, channel bend) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alluvium (fluvial deposits) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristic of sorting and/or rounding </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. 17.5 Fluvial Processes <ul><li>Stream Deposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural levees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floodplains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical accretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral accretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: What would the river floodwaters leave behind is flooded homes after the water recedes? </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. 17.6 Channel Patterns <ul><li>Straight channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exist for short distances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Braided river </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coarse sediment input is high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downstream of glaciers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yukon River, Canada </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brahmaputra River, Tibet </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 26. 17.6 Channel Patterns <ul><li>Meandering channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common in humid climates (e.g. Missouri River) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May swing back and forth across valley </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. 17.7 Land Sculpture by Streams <ul><li>Idealized river </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradient diminished downstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not always occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Mississippi River </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal Profile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual stream gradient from source to mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper, middle and lower </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. 17.7 Land Sculpture by Streams <ul><li>Features of the Upper Course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually flows on contact with bedrock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steep gradient high above its base level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion creates steep sided valley, gorge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is called a V-shaped valley </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. 17.7 Land Sculpture by Streams <ul><li>Features of the Upper Course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differential erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many spill from lake to lake (e.g., Niagara Falls) or gorges </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. 17.7 Land Sculpture by Streams <ul><li>Features of the Middle Course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate gradient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderately smooth channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut bank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point bar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floodplain good for farming but a flood hazard </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. 17.7 Land Sculpture by Streams <ul><li>Features of the Lower Course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal gradient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low stream energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral shifting of channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large depositional plain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural levees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alluvial plain </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. 17.7 Land Sculpture by Streams <ul><li>Features of the Lower Course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meander cut-offs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxbow lakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial levees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raised level of channel (e.g. Yuba river, CA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flooding is a high risk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yazoo streams </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. 17.8 Deltas <ul><li>Deltas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A stream flowing into a large body of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current expands in width, reducing flow velocity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sediment may begin to settle out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctive landform, a Delta forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow going process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ganges River </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mississippi River </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 34. 17.8 Deltas <ul><li>Deltas </li></ul>
    35. 35. 17.9 Base-Level Changes and Tectonism <ul><li>Base Level change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due primarily from climate change (glaciers advancing, sea levels decrease) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drop: downcutting and rejuvenated stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise: deposition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Uplift </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrenched </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. 17.9 Base-Level Changes and Tectonism <ul><li>Stream Terraces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older, higher valley floors preserved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by varying: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Base-level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stream equilibrium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tectonism Q: How many terraces can you identify in this photo? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 37. 17.10 Stream Hazards <ul><li>Flooding is a significant risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stream channel can withstand 1 or 2 year flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5, 10, 100 year flood overflows the channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Olivehurst, CA (Feather River) </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. 17.10 Stream Hazards <ul><li>Stream Hydrograph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record of changes in Q over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to indicate how high/fast water level is </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. 17.10 Stream Hazards <ul><li>Stream Hydrograph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising limb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peak flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receding limb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recurrence interval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: Why would such a time lag occur between the rainfall and rise in the river? </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. 17.10 Stream Hazards <ul><li>Stream Hydrograph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanization and suburbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases impermeable cover </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount and rate of runoff increases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: What features of the urbanized landscape shown here enhance runoff? </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. 17.11 The Importance of Surface Waters <ul><li>Streams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Settlement and growth via Mississippi River </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exploration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power for mills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inexpensive transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydroelectricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alluvial soils produce excellent farmland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source of food and water </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. <ul><li>Reservoirs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial lakes impounded by dams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flood control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store large amounts of water to make available during dry seasons or drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tennessee River </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lake Mead </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Willamette River, OR </li></ul></ul></ul>17.11 The Importance of Surface Waters
    43. 43. <ul><li>Lakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inland water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most hold surface water temporarily along stream systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lake Superior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lake Victoria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed basins (salty) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caspian Sea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dead Sea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great Salt Lake </li></ul></ul></ul>17.11 The Importance of Surface Waters
    44. 44. <ul><li>Lakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most are products of glaciation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers, groundwater, volcanism (e.g. Crater lake) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentation and other processes lead to the destruction of most lakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affect weather (moderate temperature/lake effect) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water supply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fishing </li></ul></ul></ul>17.11 The Importance of Surface Waters
    45. 45. 17.12 Quantitative Fluvial Geomorphology <ul><li>Objective analysis of fluvial systems </li></ul><ul><li>Used by scientists including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climatologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geomorphologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil scientist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide better understanding and improved prediction of water supply, floods, soil erosion, and pollution. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Physical Geography End of Chapter 17: Fluvial Processes and Landforms
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