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  • Insert cover image for Chapter 16 (p. 438).
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16 16 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 16: Underground Water and Karst Landforms Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
  • Underground Water and Karst Landforms
  • Earth’s Freshwater Resources
    • 97% of Earth’s water exists as salt water
    • Of the remaining water (3%):
      • 69.56% glaciers, permafrost, and snow
      • 30.10% subsurface water
      • <1% atmosphere, lakes, rivers
  • 16.1 The Nature of Underground Water
    • Subsurface water
      • All soil beneath Earth’s surface
      • Water contained within soil, sediments, and rock
      • Infiltration
      • Recharges
      • Underground water resources
  • 16.1 The Nature of Underground Water
    • Subsurface Water Zones and the Water Table
      • Organized by depth and water content
      • Zone of aeration
        • Uppermost zone
        • Called Soil water
      • Percolation below zone of aeration
  • 16.1 The Nature of Underground Water
    • Zone of saturation
      • Lowest of the 3 layers of underground water
      • Called groundwater
    • Water Table
      • Marks the upper limit of the zone of saturation
      • Varies depending on precipitation, outflow, and removal
  • 16.1 The Nature of Underground Water
    • Environmental Systems: Underground Water
  • 16.1 The Nature of Underground Water
    • Intermediate zone
      • Between zones of aeration and saturation
      • Saturated during wet periods
    • Effluent
      • Groundwater seeping into a stream
      • Keeps stream flowing during dry periods
  • 16.1 The Nature of Underground Water
    • Distribution & Availability of Groundwater
      • Dependent on:
        • Amount of precipitation
        • Evaporation
        • Ability of ground surface to allow water to infiltrate
        • Amount and type of vegetation cover
        • Permeability
        • Porosity
  • 16.1 The Nature of Underground Water
    • Aquifer
    • Aquiclude
    • Perched water table
    • Springs
      • Q: Is a perched water table a reliable source of groundwater?
  • 16.2 Groundwater Utilization
    • Groundwater
      • Vital resource to most of the world
      • Source of half of drinking water for U.S. population
      • Irrigation consumes bulk (2/3)
      • Ogallala Aquifer
  • 16.2 Groundwater Utilization
    • Wells
      • Artificial openings dug or drilled below the water table to extract water
      • Rate of removal may exceed natural replenishment
      • Sinking of land
      • Artificial recharge
  • 16.2 Groundwater Utilization
    • Artesian Systems
      • Key Terms: Artesian conditions, Artesian spring, Flowing artesian well
      • Examples:
        • Colorado, western Sahara, eastern Australia
  • 16.3 Groundwater Quality
    • Hard water vs. soft water
    • Mine drainage
    • Percolation of toxic substances into zone of saturation
      • Pesticides
      • Gasoline
      • Oil
      • Salt water from ocean seepage (e.g. southern Florida, Long Island, Israel
  • 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water
    • Subsurface water can:
      • Encourages mass movement
      • Remove rock through carbonation
      • Dissolve limestone through carbonation or simple solution in acidic water
  • 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water
    • Karst Landscapes and Landforms
      • Most common soluble rock is limestone (calcium carbonate)
      • Landforms developed by solutions are called karsts
        • Eastern Mediterranean
        • Yucatan Peninsula
        • Southern China
        • U.S
  • 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water
    • Q: Where is the nearest karst area to where you live?
  • 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water
    • Development of a classic karst landscape
      • Warm, humid climate
      • Previous development in arid regions
      • Active movement of subsurface water
    • Sinkholes (dolines)
  • 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water
    • 2 dominant sinkholes identified from their formation process
      • Solution sinkholes
      • Collapse sinkholes
  • 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water
    • Sudden collapse
    • Formation of caverns (caves)
  • 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water
    • Disappearing stream
    • Swallow hole
  • 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water
    • Uvalas (valley sinks)
    • Haystack hills (or conical hills or hums)
    • Tower karst (S. China)
  • 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water
    • Limestone Caverns and Cave Features
      • Examples: Carlsbad Caverns, NM; Mammoth Caves, KY
      • Speleothem
      • Stalactites
      • Stalagmites
  • 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water
    • Limestone Caverns and Cave Features
      • Columns
      • Caving
      • Q: What are some of the potential hazards of caving?
  • 16.5 Geothermal Water
    • Geothermal Water
      • Geyser (e.g. Old Faithful, Yellowstone)
      • Hot springs
      • Usually associated with areas of tectonic and volcanic activity
      • Energy source
  • Physical Geography End of Chapter 16: Underground Water and Karst Landforms