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  • Insert cover image for Chapter 12 (p. 320).
  • Insert Figure 12.1
  • Insert Figure 12.2
  • Insert Figure 12.3
  • Insert Figure 12.4
  • Insert Figure 12.4
  • Insert Figure 12.5
  • Insert Figure 12.6
  • Insert Figure 12.7
  • Insert Figure 12.8
  • Insert Figure 12.9
  • Insert Figure 12.10
  • Insert Figure 12.11
  • Insert Figure 12.12
  • Insert Figure 12.13
  • Insert Figure 12.13
  • Insert Figure 12.14
  • Insert Figure 12.15
  • Insert Figure 12.16
  • Insert Figure 12.17
  • Insert Figure 12.18
  • Insert Figure 12.19 and 12.20
  • Insert Figure 12.21
  • Insert Figure 12.22 and 12.23
  • Insert Figure 12.24
  • Insert Table 12.1
  • Insert Figure 12.25
  • Insert Figure 12.26
  • Insert Figure 12.27 (p. 342)
  • Insert Figure 12.27 (p. 343)
  • Insert Figure 12.28 and 12.29
  • Insert Figure 12.30 and 12.31
  • Insert Figure 12.32 and 12.33
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 12: Soils and Soil Development Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
    • 2. Soils
      • Soil: dynamic natural body capable of supporting a vegetative cover
      • It contains chemical solutions, gases, organic refuse, flora, and fauna
    • 3. Soils
      • Soil integrates:
        • Atmosphere
        • Hydrosphere
        • Lithologic
        • Biotic
      • Soil is home to organisms, forming environments in which they live
    • 4. 12.1 Major Soil Components
      • Four major components of Soil:
        • Inorganic materials
        • Soil water
        • Soil air
        • Organic matter
      • Interaction and proportion of each are important factors
    • 5. 12.1 Major Soil Components
      • Inorganic Materials
        • Insoluble materials
        • Rock fragments and minerals that will not readily dissolve in water
        • Chemical composition of soil result from:
          • Weathering
          • Old deposits
          • Dissolved minerals
        • Soil Fertilization
    • 6. 12.1 Major Soil Components
      • Soil Water
        • Original source is precipitation
        • Open system
        • Capillary water
        • Hygroscopic water
        • Gravitational water
        • Eluviation
        • Illuviation
        • Hardpan
        • Stratification
    • 7. 12.1 Major Soil Components
      • Q: What are some examples of energy and matter that flow into and out of the soil system?
    • 8. 12.1 Major Soil Components
      • Q: How does deposition by capillary water differ from deposition (illuviation) by gravitational water?
    • 9. 12.1 Major Soil Components
      • Soil Air
        • As much as 50% of soil may consist of spaces between soil particles and clumps
        • Supplies microorganisms with oxygen and carbon dioxide
      • Organic Matter
        • Humus: decayed remains of plant and animal material
        • Humus supplies nutrients and minerals to soil
    • 10. 12.2 Characteristics of Soil
      • Readily Testable properties:
        • Color
        • Texture
        • Structure
        • Acidity
        • Alkalinity
        • Capacity to hold and transmit water
    • 11. 12.2 Characteristics of Soil
      • Color
        • Red or yellow (iron)
        • Black (decomposed)
      • Texture
        • Soil texture: particle size
        • Clay (< 0.002 mm)
        • Silty (0.002 to 0.05 mm)
        • Sandy (0.05 to 2.0 mm)
        • Rocks (> 2.0 mm)
    • 12. 12.2 Characteristics of Soil
      • Texture and proportion of particle size
        • Soil grade (% sand, silt, and clay)
        • Loams
        • Soils with a higher proportion of large particles tend to be well aerated and allow for infiltration
    • 13. 12.2 Characteristics of Soil
      • Structure
        • Soil peds
        • Porosity
        • Permeability
        • Classified by form:
          • Columns
          • Prisms
          • Angular blocks
          • Nutlike spheroids
          • Laminated plates
          • Crumbs
          • Granules
    • 14. 12.2 Characteristics of Soil
      • Acidity and Alkalinity
        • pH scale (0-14)
        • Lower pH (higher acidity)
        • Higher pH (alkaline conditions)
        • Soil acidity or alkalinity helps determine available nutrients
    • 15. 12.2 Characteristics of Soil
      • Acidity and Alkalinity
        • Optimum pH varies by plant species
        • Leaching
        • Soils in the east tend to be acidic
        • Soils in the west tend to be alkaline
    • 16. 12.3 Development of Soil Horizons
      • Parent material
      • Soil profiles show:
        • Color
        • Structure
        • Composition
        • Other characteristics with depth
    • 17. 12.3 Development of Soil Horizons
      • Soil Horizons:
        • Distinct layers distinguished by their physical and chemical properties
        • Designated by set of letters that refer to:
          • Composition
          • Dominant process
          • Position in the soil profile
    • 18. 12.3 Development of Soil Horizons
      • Soil Horizons:
        • O horizon
        • A horizon
        • E horizon
        • B horizon
        • C horizon
        • R horizon
    • 19. 12.4 Factors Affecting Soil Formation
      • Weathering
      • Chemical reactions
      • Physical Processes
      • Soil development is a function of:
        • Climate (Cl)
        • Organic matter (O)
        • Relief (R)
        • Parent material (P)
        • Time (T)
    • 20. 12.4 Factors Affecting Soil Formation
      • Parent Material
        • Residual parent material (e.g. physical or chemical breakdown)
        • Transported parent material (e.g. carried by water, wind, etc.)
        • Sandstone
        • Chemicals & nutrients reflect composition
    • 21. 12.4 Factors Affecting Soil Formation
      • Organic Material
        • Plant die and decompose
        • Leaves fall to the ground
        • Most fertile soil are typically grasslands
        • Microorganisms (e.g. bacteria)
        • Earthworms, ants…
    • 22. 12.4 Factors Affecting Soil Formation
      • Climate
        • Global vs. Local scale
        • Equatorial:
          • Higher temps increase soil microorganisms, preclude thick accumulations of humus
        • Middle Latitudes:
          • Cooler temps slow decay and produce rich humus
        • Polar Latitudes
          • Cold temperatures and limited plant growth result in thin humus
    • 23. 12.4 Factors Affecting Soil Formation
      • Climate, Temperature, and organic material
        • Q: What range of mean annual temperature is most favorable for the accumulation of humans?
    • 24. 12.4 Factors Affecting Soil Formation
      • Climate
        • Moisture Conditions
          • Ample precipitation supports plant growth which increases organic content
          • Too much precipitation will cause leaching
        • Evaporation rate
    • 25. 12.4 Factors Affecting Soil Formation
      • Land Surface Configuration
        • Slope
        • Aspect (direction of its faces)
      • Time
        • Young & mature soils
        • Alluvium
    • 26. 12.5 Soil-Forming Regimes
      • Self-forming regimes: vary mainly due to climate and vegetation
      • Climate differences produce 3 primary soil-forming regimes:
        • Laterization
        • Podzolization
        • Calcification
    • 27. 12.5 Soil-Forming Regimes
      • Laterization
        • Humid and subtropical climates
        • Result of high temp and abundant precip.
        • Laterite: soil type (brick-like)
        • No O horizon, absence of organic acids
        • Topsoil reddish
    • 28. 12.5 Soil-Forming Regimes
      • Podzolization
        • High middle latitudes
        • Moist with short, cool summers and severe winters
        • Podzol
        • East Coast of U.S.
    • 29. 12.5 Soil-Forming Regimes
      • Calcification
        • Evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation
        • Often thick calcium carbonate (alkali dusts)
        • Deserts of American west
    • 30. 12.5 Soil-Forming Regimes
      • Regimes of Local Importance
        • Salinization: concentration of salts
        • Occurs most often:
          • in dry areas
          • Intensive irrigation
        • Gleization: poorly drained soils in cold, wet climates
    • 31. 12.6 Soil Classification
      • Soil Taxonomy
        • Soil classification system that is based on their characteristics
        • Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
        • Mapped by their spatial distribution
      • Soil Surveys
        • Books that outline and describe soils in a region
        • Useful for factors such as fertility, irrigation, & drainage
    • 32. 12.6 Soil Classification
      • NRCS Soil Classification System
        • Based on development and composition
        • Soil order: largest division
        • Subdivisions
        • Horizons below the surface:
          • Subsurface horizon
          • Epipedons
    • 33. 12.6 Soil Classification
      • Common Soil Horizons (NRCS Soil System)
    • 34. 12.6 Soil Classification
      • NRCS Soil Orders: based on a variety of characteristics and processes
    • 35. 12.6 Soil Classification
      • Map of dominant soil orders in U.S.
    • 36. 12.6 Soil Classification
      • World Map of dominant soil orders (NRCS system)
    • 37. 12.6 Soil Classification
      • World Map of dominant soil orders (NRCS system)
    • 38. 12.6 Soil Classification
        • Entisols
        • Inceptisols
        • Histosols
        • Andisols
        • Gelisols
        • Aridisols
    • 39. 12.6 Soil Classification
        • Vertisols
        • Mollisols
        • Alfisols
        • Spodosols
        • Ultisols
        • Oxisols
    • 40. 12.7 Soil as a Critical Natural Resource
      • Soil Fertility
      • Q: What could have been done to prevent the kind of soil loss shown in this example?
      • Q: What other soil conservation practices are often used to preserve the soil resource?
    • 41. Physical Geography End of Chapter 12: Soils and Soil Development

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