Chapter 11: Biogeography Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy ...
Biogeography Changes in altitude cause changes in vegetation
Biogeography <ul><li>Ecosystems: communities of organisms that function together in an interdependent relationship with th...
11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Biotic association </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s ...
11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Major Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abiotic: physical environment that pla...
11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Trophic Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Trophic Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food Web </li></ul></ul>
11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Nutrient Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: What kinds of processes are taking pl...
11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Energy Flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: How c...
11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Primary Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: What color on this map represen...
11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Primary Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: Why are the most productive mar...
11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Secondary Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion of plant materials to...
11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Secondary Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages of a vegetarian diet ...
11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Ecological Niche </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat: a location where an organism ...
11.2 Succession and Climax Communities <ul><li>Natural Vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Community </li></ul><ul><li>Succ...
11.2 Succession and Climax Communities <ul><li>Succession  </li></ul><ul><li>Q: Why would plant succession be quite differ...
11.2 Succession and Climax Communities <ul><li>The Climax Community: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Final step in process of succes...
11.3 Environmental Controls <ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological Optimum </li></ul><ul><li>Ecotone </li></ul><ul...
11.3 Environmental Controls <ul><li>Climatic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight for photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul>...
11.3 Environmental Controls <ul><li>Climatic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
11.3 Environmental Controls <ul><li>Soil and Topography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil Type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North v...
11.3 Environmental Controls <ul><li>Biotic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbiotic relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
11.4 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Four Types:   </li></ul><ul><li>1) Forest </li></ul><ul><li>2) Grass...
11.4 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Four Major types of Ecosystems can be subdivided into Biomes </li></ul>
11.4 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems
11.4 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Q: What major biome dominates the wetter margins of all latitudes bu...
11.4 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Forest Biomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual moisture balance is posit...
11.4 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Tropical Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Rainforest </li></ul...
11.4 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Middle-Latitude Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean Woodland...
11.4 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Middle-Lat. Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad-Leaf deciduous Fores...
11.4 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Middle-Lat. Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad-Leaf Evergreen Fores...
11.5 Grassland Biomes <ul><li>Tropical Savanna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scattering of trees  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall ...
11.5 Grassland Biomes <ul><li>Middle-Lat Grasslands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall-Grass Prairie (wetter; E of 100 th  meridia...
11.6 Desert <ul><li>Lack of precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaporation exceeds precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Plants: </...
11.7 Arctic and Alpine Tundra <ul><li>Very short growing season </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated by subfreezing temp. and thin ...
11.8 Marine Ecosystems <ul><li>Plankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phytoplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Ne...
11.8 Marine Ecosystems <ul><li>Q: What are two spatial observations that you can make about the geographic locations that ...
11.9 Resilience of Life-Forms
Physical Geography End of Chapter 11: Biogeography
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  • Insert cover image for Chapter 11 (p. 284).
  • Insert Figure 11.1
  • Insert Figure 11.1 and 11.2
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  • 11

    1. 1. Chapter 11: Biogeography Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
    2. 2. Biogeography Changes in altitude cause changes in vegetation
    3. 3. Biogeography <ul><li>Ecosystems: communities of organisms that function together in an interdependent relationship with the environment that they are in. </li></ul>
    4. 4. 11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Biotic association </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s system in its entirety or to any group of organisms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large, or small, marine or terrestrial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short lived or long lasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial (e.g. farmer’s field) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open system </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. 11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Major Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abiotic: physical environment that plants and animals live in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carnivores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposers (detritivores) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. 11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Trophic Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trophic level </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. 11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Trophic Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food Web </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. 11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Nutrient Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: What kinds of processes are taking place beneath the soil surface? </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. 11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Energy Flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: How can you explain the exceptionally large loss of biomass between the first and second trophic levels of the tropical forest ecosystem? </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. 11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil moisture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atmospheric composition </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. 11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Primary Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: What color on this map represents desert vegetation? </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. 11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Primary Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: Why are the most productive marine ecosystems found in the shallow waters bordering the world’s continents? </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. 11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Secondary Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion of plant materials to animal substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate of energy transfer from one trophic level to the next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: Which group – carnivores or herbivores – is more efficient in the food chain? </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. 11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Secondary Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages of a vegetarian diet as we experience rapid population growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: Why is it fortunate that humans are omnivores? </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. 11.1 Organizations within Ecosystems <ul><li>Ecological Niche </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat: a location where an organism lives and performs its specific role in the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialists </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. 11.2 Succession and Climax Communities <ul><li>Natural Vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Community </li></ul><ul><li>Succession: Natural vegetation develops in a sequence of stages. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. 11.2 Succession and Climax Communities <ul><li>Succession </li></ul><ul><li>Q: Why would plant succession be quite different in another region of the United States? </li></ul>
    18. 18. 11.2 Succession and Climax Communities <ul><li>The Climax Community: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Final step in process of succession is called climax community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosaic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corridors </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. 11.3 Environmental Controls <ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological Optimum </li></ul><ul><li>Ecotone </li></ul><ul><li>Biomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major type of terrestrial ecosystem associated with specific range of temperature and annual and seasonal precipitation characteristics </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. 11.3 Environmental Controls <ul><li>Climatic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight for photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light intensity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of Water </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. 11.3 Environmental Controls <ul><li>Climatic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals (migrate) vs. Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bergmann’s & Allen’s Rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Snow cover </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. 11.3 Environmental Controls <ul><li>Soil and Topography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil Type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North vs. South facing slope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windward vs. Leeward </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural Catastrophes </li></ul><ul><li>Q: Why are there so many broken tree stumps in the foreground? </li></ul>
    23. 23. 11.3 Environmental Controls <ul><li>Biotic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbiotic relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive nature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Impact on Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land degradation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desertification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction of wetland </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. 11.4 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Four Types: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Forest </li></ul><ul><li>2) Grassland </li></ul><ul><li>3) Desert </li></ul><ul><li>4) Tundra </li></ul>
    25. 25. 11.4 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Four Major types of Ecosystems can be subdivided into Biomes </li></ul>
    26. 26. 11.4 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems
    27. 27. 11.4 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Q: What major biome dominates the wetter margins of all latitudes but the Arctic? </li></ul>
    28. 28. 11.4 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Forest Biomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual moisture balance is positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropics (ITCZ and/or monsoon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle latitudes with high frequency of cyclonic storms </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. 11.4 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Tropical Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Rainforest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competition between species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lianas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almost a closed system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Galleria forest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monsoon Rainforest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dry vs. wet season </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thornbush & Scrub </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. 11.4 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Middle-Latitude Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean Woodland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30-40 o N and S latitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean climate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North vs. south facing slope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drought resistant plants </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 31. 11.4 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Middle-Lat. Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad-Leaf deciduous Forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal changes (mT and cP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tress almost as tall as tropical rainforest, although more light reaches ground </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 32. 11.4 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Middle-Lat. Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad-Leaf Evergreen Forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed Forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coniferous Forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boreal (taiga) at 50 o N and poleward </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher elevations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maritime coniferous from Southern Alaska to Central California </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sequoia trees </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. 11.5 Grassland Biomes <ul><li>Tropical Savanna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scattering of trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall grasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought resistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red colored soils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water tables fluctuates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large migratory herds </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. 11.5 Grassland Biomes <ul><li>Middle-Lat Grasslands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall-Grass Prairie (wetter; E of 100 th meridian) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-Grass Prairie (W of 100 th meridian) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: Both develop under a semiarid climate, but which of these two types of prairie grassland received a higher annual precipitation? </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. 11.6 Desert <ul><li>Lack of precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaporation exceeds precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Plants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probe deeply for water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lie dormant for long periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought resistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are few and far between in very dry locations (e.g. Atacama desert) </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. 11.7 Arctic and Alpine Tundra <ul><li>Very short growing season </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated by subfreezing temp. and thin snow cover </li></ul><ul><li>Top 36-60 cm of ground thaws during short summer period </li></ul><ul><li>Tundra: mixture of grasses, herbs, sedges, mosses, lichens, and small shrubs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bush tundra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grass tundra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desert tundra </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. 11.8 Marine Ecosystems <ul><li>Plankton </li></ul><ul><li>Phytoplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Nekton </li></ul><ul><li>Life in ocean depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S un’s energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most organisms near surface </li></ul>
    38. 38. 11.8 Marine Ecosystems <ul><li>Q: What are two spatial observations that you can make about the geographic locations that have high plankton concentration? </li></ul>
    39. 39. 11.9 Resilience of Life-Forms
    40. 40. Physical Geography End of Chapter 11: Biogeography

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