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  • Insert cover image for Chapter 10 (p. 252).
  • Insert Figure 10.13 and 10.20
  • Insert Figure 10.1
  • Insert Table 10.1
  • Insert Figure 10.2
  • Insert Figure 10.3, 10.4, and 10.5
  • Insert Figure 10.6
  • Insert Figure 10.7 and 10.8
  • Insert Figure 10.7, 10.8, and 10.9
  • Insert Figure 10.10
  • Insert Figure 10.11
  • Insert Figure 10.12
  • Insert Figure 10.13
  • Insert Figure 10.14
  • Insert Table 10.2
  • Insert Table 10.15
  • Insert Figure 10.16
  • Insert Figure 10.17
  • Insert Figure 10.18
  • Insert Figure 10.19
  • Insert Figure 10.20 and 10.21
  • Insert Figure 10.14
  • Insert Figure 10.14
  • Insert Figure 10.22
  • Insert Figure 10.23
  • Insert Figure 10.24
  • Insert Table 10.3
  • Insert Figure 10.25
  • Insert Figure 10.26 and 10.27
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  • 10

    1. 1. Chapter 10: Middle-Latitude, Polar, and Highland Climate Regions Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
    2. 2. Middle-Latitude, Polar, and Highland Climate Regions Forests surround a small glacier in Alaska
    3. 3. 10.1 Middle-Latitude Climates <ul><li>Microthermal and Mesothermal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A lot of change and most of the World’s population! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing seasons associated with: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migrating air masses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cyclonic activity along polar front. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. 10.1 Middle-Latitude Climates <ul><li>Humid Mesothermal Climate Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate temperate (mesos) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonality (long summers and short winters) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. 10.1 Middle-Latitude Climates <ul><li>Mesothermal Climates </li></ul>
    6. 6. 10.1 Middle-Latitude Climates <ul><li>Mediterranean (Csa, Csb) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location: west coasts 30 o -40 o latitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternation of subtropical High in summer (dry) and westerlies in winter (wet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Csb has lower summer temp. (strong maritime) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Csa has hot summers (continentality) </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. 10.1 Middle-Latitude Climates <ul><li>Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Adaptations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chaparral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: Why is it unusual to find redwoods growing in this climate? </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. 10.1 Middle-Latitude Climates <ul><li>Humid Subtropical Climate (Cfa) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location: east coasts 15 o and 20 o to 40 o latitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm, moist air circulates from the south around subtropical High in summer (wet and hot) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Westerlies in winter (wet and cool) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. 10.1 Middle-Latitude Climates <ul><li>Humid Subtropical Climate (Cfa) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject to Tropical Storms, convectional activity, and/or monsoon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wetter than Mediterranean even though similar latitude. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. 10.1 Middle-Latitude Climates <ul><li>Humid Subtropical Climate (Cfa) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productive Climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long growing season </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. 10.1 Middle-Latitude Climates <ul><li>Marine West Coast (Cfb and Cfc) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location: 40 o and 65 o latitude. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous influence of westerlies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ample precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mild-summer (Cfb) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cool-summer (cfc) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. 10.1 Middle-Latitude Climates <ul><li>Ocean Influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderating influences on temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean current may increase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller diurnal and annual temperature range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: How do you explain these differences? </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. 10.1 Middle-Latitude Climates <ul><li>Clouds and Precipitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very cloudy, foggy (advection fog), rainy, and stormy (cyclonic storms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountains increase precip. on windward side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy snow </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. 10.1 Middle-Latitude Climates <ul><li>Resource Potential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages for agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small annual temp range, long growing season, and abundant precip. favor plant growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Root crops, deciduous fruits, berries, grapes, grass, and timber </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. 10.2 Humid Microthermal Climate Regions <ul><li>Humid Microthermal (35 o -75 o N) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four distinct seasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continentality </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. 10.2 Humid Microthermal Climate Regions <ul><li>Humid Microthermal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humid continental, hot summer (Dfa, Dwa) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humid continental, mild summer (Dfb, Dwb) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subarctic with a cool summer (Dfc, Dfd, Dwc, Dwd) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarities: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All of these experience surplus of precip over potential ET </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Year round precip. (except area in Asia) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High frequency of mT in summer and cP in winter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cyclonic storms and polar jet </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. 10.2 Humid Microthermal Climate Regions <ul><li>Humid Microthermal </li></ul>
    18. 18. 10.2 Humid Microthermal Climate Regions <ul><li>What areas of the U.S. average the greatest number of days of snow cover? </li></ul>
    19. 19. 10.2 Humid Microthermal Climate Regions <ul><li>Humid Continental, Hot Summer (Dfa, Dwa) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large geographic distribution in North America, much smaller in Europe and Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatest agriculture potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer growing season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower fuel bills </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Internal Variations of Dfa, Dwa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing season (140-200 days) depends on lat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continentality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large lakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temp and precip decrease poleward </li></ul></ul>10.2 Humid Microthermal Climate Regions
    21. 21. <ul><li>Internal Variations of Dfa, Dwa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation decrease away from sea water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: Why does precipitation decrease inland and poleward? </li></ul></ul>10.2 Humid Microthermal Climate Regions
    22. 22. <ul><li>Seasonal Changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter (cold and snowy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spring (warmer with frequent showers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summer (Hot and humid with occasional violent thunderstorms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fall (clear and rainy, mild days, and frosty nights) </li></ul></ul>10.2 Humid Microthermal Climate Regions
    23. 23. 10.2 Humid Microthermal Climate Regions <ul><li>Humid Continental, Mild Summer (Dfb, Dwb) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lies adjacent to and poleward of Dfa and Dwa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More continental with severe winters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly variable weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many cyclonic storms along polar front </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>Mild-Summer & Hot-Summer Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Q: What characteristics of these climographs distinguish them from Galesburg, IL. & Northeast China </li></ul>10.2 Humid Microthermal Climate Regions
    25. 25. 10.2 Humid Microthermal Climate Regions <ul><li>Mild-Summer & Hot-Summer Comparison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More severe winters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter growing season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less precipitation, but more snowfall </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. 10.2 Humid Microthermal Climate Regions <ul><li>Human Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dairy farming, quick ripening varieties, grazing, animals, or orchards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poorer soil due to glacial impact during Pleistocene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many recreational activities </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. 10.2 Humid Microthermal Climate Regions <ul><li>Subarctic (Dfc, Dfd, Dwc, Dwd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least one month with an average temperature above 10 o C (50 o F) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farthest poleward of microthermal climates </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. 10.2 Humid Microthermal Climate Regions <ul><li>Subarctic (Dfc, Dfd, Dwc, Dwd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found only in N. hem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean Currents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>East Coast: subarctic is further south </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>West: subarctic is further north </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subarctic covers vast areas of Eurasia and North America </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. 10.2 Humid Microthermal Climate Regions <ul><li>Subarctic (Dfc, Dfd, Dwc, Dwd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short cool summers and long harsh winters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: Why would people settle in such severe-winter climate regions? </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. 10.2 Humid Microthermal Climate Regions <ul><li>Limiting Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants and animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taiga (boreal forest) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very short growing season (50-75 days) </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. 10.2 Humid Microthermal Climate Regions <ul><li>Limiting Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permafrost: permanently frozen ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permafrost varies greatly in thickness and is often discontinuous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freeze/thaw cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patterned ground (frost polygons) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little to no agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mining </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. 10.3 Polar Climate Regions <ul><li>Polar Climates (furthest from equator) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No month averages above 10 o C (50 o F) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No summer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large annual net loss of radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Climate types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ET (Tundra) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EF (ice sheet) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. 10.3 Polar Climate Regions <ul><li>Polar Climates (ET and EF) </li></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>Tundra Climate (ET) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely short, cool “summer” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muskeg </li></ul></ul>10.3 Polar Climate Regions
    35. 35. <ul><li>Tundra Climate (ET) </li></ul><ul><li>Q: What is the preferred means of travel in the summer? </li></ul>10.3 Polar Climate Regions
    36. 36. <ul><li>Ice-Sheet Climate (EF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers large areas on Northern and Southern hemispheres (Greenland and Antarctica) </li></ul></ul>10.3 Polar Climate Regions
    37. 37. <ul><li>Ice-Sheet Climate (EF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coldest place on earth is Antarctica (minimum insolation, high albedo, and high elevation) </li></ul></ul>10.3 Polar Climate Regions
    38. 38. <ul><li>Human Activity in Polar Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inuit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil (Alaska’s North Slope) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific interest </li></ul></ul>10.3 Polar Climate Regions
    39. 39. <ul><li>Highland Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature decreases with increasing altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal or interior location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High or low latitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slope aspect </li></ul></ul></ul>10.3 Polar Climate Regions
    40. 40. <ul><li>Q: Taking into consideration the location of the stations, during what season does the maximum precipitation on the windward slope occur? </li></ul>10.3 Polar Climate Regions
    41. 41. <ul><li>Peculiarities of Mountain Climates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tree line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Snow line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: What do you see in the photo that indicates prevailing wind direction? </li></ul></ul>10.3 Polar Climate Regions
    42. 42. <ul><li>Peculiarities of Mountain Climates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Mountain regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: When Europeans first settled in the highlands of tropical S. America, in which vertical climate zone did they prefer to live in? </li></ul></ul>10.3 Polar Climate Regions
    43. 43. <ul><li>Highland Climates and Human Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High pastures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With warming, tropical highlands may become new areas of settlement </li></ul></ul>10.3 Polar Climate Regions
    44. 44. Physical Geography End of Chapter 10: Middle-Latitude, Polar, and Highland Climate Regions

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