Introduction: Does preschool attendance enhance school readiness and future academic achievement?
Introduction cont’d: Most studies show that attending a high-quality early learning program strengthens kindergarten readiness and long term academic performance. Quality was implicated as the defining factor of a successful preschool program but those studied were inconsistent.
Introduction cont’d: What does a high-quality preschool program look like? Can we insure the level of quality in early childhood education and therefore lessen the varying degrees of effectiveness? Can high-quality programs be widely and equally accessible to diverse populations? Can other forms of early intervention be as effective in positively enhancing school readiness as preschool attendance?
Research Methods: Compare/Contrast Diverse populations of children Those that have attended preschool and those that have not
Research Methods Cont’d: Analysis of Variance Kindergarten Skills (ANOVA) Assessments Standard Deviation Grade-level Proficiency Two-way MANOVA Tests Chi-Square Test Graduation rates
Research Methods Cont’d: California Standards Tests Georgia Kindergarten Assessment Program Developmental Reading Assessment, Second Edition
Research Methods cont’d: Regression-discontinuity design Time-series design Pre-post design Longitudinal study design Quasi-experimental pre-post treatment design Descriptive method based on relational survey model
In most cases, attending preschool significantly enhancedschool readiness and academic achievement in the long-term.
Resultscont’d: Variables such as race-ethnicity, English-language fluency, parent education and economic status can effect proficiency in key subjects Disadvantaged children are more likely to start school behind and stay behind Disadvantaged children are the least likely to attend high- quality, center-based preschool programs Preschool appears promising for narrowing achievement gaps
Results cont’d: Supportive parental role has positive effects on children’s learning Engaging in activities at home such as reading, painting, drawing, singing, and learning numbers have a big impact on children’s kindergarten readiness Literacy-rich environments correlates most closely with children’s early literacy ability than any other factor
Results cont’d:Reading Achievement Reading achievement scores were consistently higher for children in early childhood Reading Achievement education programs. 150 140 130 120 Received Preschool No Preschool 110 100 90 Grade 3 Grade 5 Grade 8
Results cont’d: Children from quality 55% early learning settings 48% have been shown to 36% realize sizeable and 31% preschool program enduring achievements 25% in the long-term. no 14% preschool program Attended 4 Retained in Placed in yr college grade special education
Discussion: Increase access, especially for underserved groups Raise quality across the board, especially for dimensions with the biggest shortfalls Advance toward a more efficient and coordinated system Provide infrastructure supports
Discussion cont’d: Continue with best practice early childhood education policies in the classroom Connect with parents and empower them to support their child’s learning Continually enhance a literacy-rich classroom environment Continue to advocate for quality early learning programs
Discussion cont’d: It seems there is a significant difference in the academic performance of children who attend a well-designed preschool program with a curriculum that includes all developmentally appropriate domains facilitated by a professional teacher in a safe, literacy-rich environment.
Discussion cont’d: The hypothesis is supported by the literature reviewed Future research may be more conclusive by limiting variables
References: Barnett,W.S (2008). Preschool education and it’s lasting effects: Research and policy implications. Boulder and Tempe: Education and Public Interest Center & Education Policy and research Unit. Retrieved October 21, 2011 from http://epicpolicy.org/publication/preschool-education Bowens-McCarthy, Patricia and Morote, Elsa Sophia (2009). The link between investment in early childhood preschools and high school graduation rates for African-American males in the United States of America. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 10, 232-39. Brown, Jen (2002). The Link Between Early Learning and Care and School Readiness. Economic Opportunity Institute. Retrieved October 11, 2011 from http://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=6006041 Canno, Jill S. and Karoly, Lynn A. The Promise of Preschool for Narrowing Readiness and Achievement Gaps Among California Children. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2007. Dunlap, Katherine M. (1997). Family Empowerment: One outcome of cooperative preschool education. Child Welfare, Vol. 76(4), 501-18.
References cont’d: Fails Nelson, Regina (2005).The Impact of Ready Environments on Achievement in Kindergarten. Journal of Research in Childhood Education , 19(3), 215-21. Gormley, William T., Jr.; Gayer, Ted; Phillips, Deborah; Dawson, Brittany (2005). The effects of universal pre-K on cognitive development. Developmental Psychology, 41(6), 872-84. Gulay, Hulya; Ackman, Berrin and Kargi, Eda (2001). Social skills of first grade primary students and preschool education. Education, 131,663-79. Karoly, Lynn A. Strategies for Advancing Preschool Adequacy and Efficiency in California. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2009. Taylor, Katherine Kees, Gibbs, Albert S., and Slate, John R. (2000). Preschool Attendance and Kindergarten Readiness. Early Childhood Education Journal, 27(3), 191-95.
References cont’d:Volenti, Joy E. and Tracey, Diane H. (2009). Full-day, Half-day and No Preschool; Effects on Urban Children’s First-Grade Reading Achievement. Education and Urban Society, 41(6), 695-711.Ward, Helen (2008). Preschool learning holds the key to children’s success later in life. The Times Educational Supplement, no. 4817, 22-23.Yoshikawa, Hirokazu, Ph.D. (2009). The Science Of Early Childhood development and the Foundations of Prosperity. Paper presented at the Maine Business Leaders Summit on Early Childhood, Portland and Bath, ME, September 24, 2009.