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    World war i presentation World war i presentation Presentation Transcript

    • UNITED STATES IN WORLD WAR I Making the World Safe for Democracy
    • PRE-WAR WOODROW WILSON  Woman Suffrage  Federal Reserve System  Panic in 1907 caused failure of several major financial companies. J.P. Morgan used his personal wealth and connections to restore economy.  Federal Trade Commission  FTC established to investigate unfair trade practices such as monopolies and price fixing. New businesses were being shut out of markets by these unfair practices.
    • WILSON AND MEXICO  Mexican revolution in 1911. Pro-business     dictator Porfirio Diaz overthrown by Francisco Madero after Diaz disallowed the votes that would have legally elected Madero. Madero assassinated in 1913 by military leader Victoriano Huerta. With behind the scenes support from American mining and oil interests. Wilson administration would not “recognize” Huerta government and Wilson sent Marine Corps to Vera Cruz. Mexicans outraged. Mexican Civil War continued into 1916 and in that year Pancho Villa raided Columbus, New Mexico killing 17 Americans. Wilson sent 10,000 U.S. troops to Mexico.
    • AMERICAN NEUTRALITY 1914-1917  Americans divided on war  Many Americans linked U.S. and     England as protectors of world’s liberties and freedoms. Irish-Americans HATED England, especially after the violent suppression of the 1916 Easter Rebellion. German-Americans split, but most did not want war against their homeland. Women & male Progressive reformers thought war would derail efforts for social change at home. (it did) Jewish refugees from Tsarist Russia did not want to ally with Russia!
    • LUSITANIA AND SUBMARINE WARFARE  Germany sinking any and all     vessels headed for combatant nations. Warning signs posted across Europe. This was not a secret or stealth attack. British Cruise Ship Lusitania sunk by torpedoes May 1915. 124 Americans died. America outraged. Wilson begins military preparedness and warned Germany against killing neutral citizens. German government imposes restrictions on submarine activity in May 1916.
    • ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM MARCH 1917  Germany, hoping to keep U.S. OUT of war proposed support for a Mexican invasion of the United States.  Russian Revolution in same month eliminated one of the other roadblocks to U.S. involvement.  Without Tsarist Russia, war could be seen as a war “To make the world safe for Democracy.”  Wilson addressed Congress on April 2, 1917. Congress declared war on Germany.
    • WORLD WAR I: 1914-1918
    • WORLD WAR I, 1914-1918  Schlieffen Plan attacks slowed by Belgian resistance.  German plan called for speedy attack through Belgium. Germans were brutal in their effort to reach France, and Paris.  “The Rape of Belgium” became one of the major Anti-German propaganda themes.
    • WORLD WAR I, 1914-1918  German commanders altered Schlieffen Plan in the face of Belgian resistance and French counter attack.  Germans retreated to a line near the Marne river in Northeastern France  French military requisitioned nearly 600 Parisian taxi cabs to transport troops to the front.  They actually paid the drivers!
    • WORLD WAR I, 1914-1918  Germans dig trenches to end retreat.  French cannot penetrate German machine gun fire.  French dig trenches to stop any German counter attacks.  STALEMATE 1914-1918
    • WORLD WAR I, 1914-1918  1st Battle of the Marne, September 6-10, 1914.  In a 5 day battle, French/English listed over 260,000 casualties  German casualties, although no official numbers were ever released, are said to have numbered more than 250,000
    • WORLD WAR I, 1914-1918  By 1916 each side had suffered more than a million deaths.  Ideas of war fare were based on previous wars and the glory of the offensive. Defensive warfare lacked style.  This led to the ironic reality of repeated and fruitless attacks against entrenched defenders.
    • WORLD WAR I, 1914-1918  Battle of Verdun. February- December1916. German offensive captured several key fortifications but failed to break through French lines.  French counter attacks over the next several months were undermanned because overall French Commander Joseph Joffre wanted to save troops for a French OFFENSIVE.  337,000 French Casualties 370,000 German Casualties  “Front Line” moved roughly a mile.
    • WORLD WAR I, 1914-1918  Battle of the Somme, July-     November 1916. British led assault supported by French. Massive artillery barrage intended to destroy German trenches did not succeed. On the first day of the assault Britain suffered over 58,000 casualties…almost 20,000 dead. 420,000 British Casualties 200,000 French Casualties 500,000 German Casualties British claimed a victory after capturing 7 miles of former German Territory.
    • WORLD WAR I, 1941-1918
    • WORLD WAR I, 1914-1918
    • PEACE AND THE 14 POINTS  U.S. Involvement made      outcome inevitable. Woodrow Wilson saw himself as the peacemaker. 14 Points offered Germany an honorable exit. Germany approached U.S. for peace terms on October 5, 1918 Armistice signed November 11, 1918 England/France unhappy with Wilson and 14 pts.
    • PARIS 1919, BIRTH OF A NEW EUROPE  Germany “defeated”  Under the peace settlement, Germany was required to pay reparations eventually set at $33 billion; accept responsibility for the war; cede territory to Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denma rk, France, and Poland; give up its overseas colonies; and accept an allied military force on the west bank of the Rhine River for 15 years.  Empires broken by World War I:  Russia, 1917  Austria-Hungary, 1918  German Reich, 1918  Ottoman Empire, 1922
    • REDRAWING THE WORLD MAP
    • TURKEY AND ARMENIA  Ottoman Empire ruled by Islamic      Turks “Young Turks” took control in 1908 and began an expansionist policy to link Turkic peoples This effort brought Ottoman Turks into conflict with Russia 1914 Ottoman Empire joined Germany and Austria Hungary 1915-1923 approximately 1.5 million Christian Armenians died from systematic Turkish abuses. Very limited outside assistance and almost no internal Armenian resistance.
    • WORLD WAR I AND THE MIDDLE EAST
    • POST 1919 WORLD PROBLEMS  New International boundaries created ethnic conflicts in Europe, Middle East and Asia  Soviet Union as a Socialist/Communist state ultimately led to Cold War and massive military spending across the globe  Re-establishment of Colonial government in French Indochina increased anti-Western ideas. Ho Chi Minh turned to Communism  Problems, real and imagined, for Germany allowed Adolf Hitler to exploit fears among Germans and rise to power.