Genocide in the   20 th   Century


              Presentation by
              Cynthia Capers, Associate
              Di...
The Holocaust

   Translating the term
   1933 – 1939
   1939 – 1942
   1942 – 1945
   Post 1945
The importance of a word . . .

   Armenia (WWI)
   Raphael Lemkin
   ‘After all, who now speaks
    of the Armenians?’...
UN Convention on the Prevention and
              Punishment of Genocide
   In the present Convention, genocide means any...
8 Stages of Genocide
1.   Classification          5.   Polarization
     a.   Us vs. Them             a.   Take out the mi...
“A Problem from Hell”

              Senator William
               Proxmire – 3,211
               floor speeches
      ...
Sudan

   Civil War (N/S)
       Religion as an issue
       US: “across the aisle” work
       Comprehensive Peace
  ...
Darfur, Sudan
   Farmers and nomadic
    herders
   Ethnic identities that
    could be exploited
   Religion is not an...
Darfur, cont’d
   IDP camps versus refugee camps
   American and World response
       Permanent anti-genocide constitu...
UN Convention on the Prevention and
           Punishment of Genocide
   In the present Convention, genocide means any of...
8 Stages of Genocide
1.   Classification          5.   Polarization
     a.   Us vs. Them             a.   Take out the mi...
What can you do?
   Write members of Congress and the
    administration
       Blue Print from the Genocide Prevention ...
A note about resources
   HMH web site –
    resources
      PDF one-pagers on
       each genocide
      Guidelines fo...
Genocide Show
Genocide Show
Genocide Show
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Genocide Show

  1. 1. Genocide in the 20 th Century Presentation by Cynthia Capers, Associate Director of Education (713) 942-8000, ext. 105 ccapers@hmh.org
  2. 2. The Holocaust  Translating the term  1933 – 1939  1939 – 1942  1942 – 1945  Post 1945
  3. 3. The importance of a word . . .  Armenia (WWI)  Raphael Lemkin  ‘After all, who now speaks of the Armenians?’  “We are in the midst of a crime without a name.”  Geno + Cide
  4. 4. UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide  In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group as such: a. Killing members of the group; b. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; c. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; d. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; e. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
  5. 5. 8 Stages of Genocide 1. Classification 5. Polarization a. Us vs. Them a. Take out the middle 2. Symbolization 6. Preparation a. Make distinctive a. Lists, transports 3. Dehumanization 7. Extermination a. “Justification” a. Murder of 4. Organization “nonhumans” a. Collectivization 8. Denial a. Numbers, reasons (war)
  6. 6. “A Problem from Hell”  Senator William Proxmire – 3,211 floor speeches  1988  2004 – then Secretary of State Colin Powell
  7. 7. Sudan  Civil War (N/S)  Religion as an issue  US: “across the aisle” work  Comprehensive Peace Agreement (2010 Elections)  The Lost Boys  Darfur (W)
  8. 8. Darfur, Sudan  Farmers and nomadic herders  Ethnic identities that could be exploited  Religion is not an issue
  9. 9. Darfur, cont’d  IDP camps versus refugee camps  American and World response  Permanent anti-genocide constituency?  Films / photo essays / editorials  The ICC  US appoints a special envoy (Scott Gration, 2009)
  10. 10. UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide  In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group as such: a. Killing members of the group; b. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; c. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; d. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; e. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
  11. 11. 8 Stages of Genocide 1. Classification 5. Polarization a. Us vs. Them a. Take out the middle 2. Symbolization 6. Preparation a. Make distinctive a. Lists, transports 3. Dehumanization 7. Extermination a. “Justification” a. Murder of 4. Organization “nonhumans” a. Collectivization 8. Denial a. Numbers, reasons (war)
  12. 12. What can you do?  Write members of Congress and the administration  Blue Print from the Genocide Prevention Task Force  President Obama, Secretary of State Clinton, Special Envoy Scott Gration, U.S. Senators  2010 Elections  Legislation about conflict minerals in Congo  Keep the issues in the forefront – write letters to newspapers, hold information sessions
  13. 13. A note about resources  HMH web site – resources  PDF one-pagers on each genocide  Guidelines for teaching about genocide  HMH Genocide Curriculum Trunk  Class sets of books  Videos  How to order
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