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  • 1. Advanced Legal Research Fall 2014 Professor Lisa Smith-Butler
  • 2. Citators  Citators serve two purposes:  they can be used to locate similar cases on a subject; and  they allow researchers to ascertain the validity of their research by updating it.
  • 3. Citators: Comprehensive & Limited  There are two well known and comprehensive citator services. They are:  Shepard’s ; and  KeyCite.  While there are two comprehensive citator services that allow updating across the spectrum (cases, statutes, regulations, secondary sources), there are limited citator services such as:  LoisLaw, a low cost CALI alternative to Lexis and Westlaw, has a limited citator known as GlobalCite;  CCH has a tax citator service for its Standard Federal Tax Reporter and selected other loose leaf services; and  a limited (federal appellate cases and U.S. Supreme Court) free citator service on Findlaw.
  • 4. Shepard’s  Shepard’s began as a print product in 1873 and was developed by Frank Shepard. It is now published by Lexis Publishing and is available exclusively on Lexis- Nexis. A decade ago, it existed in three formats:  print;  CD-ROM; or  electronic.  Today it is available in print and electronic format.
  • 5. Shepard’s  Over the years as Shepard’s inundated the legal profession, law students became so familiar with the Shepard’s updating process that it became known as shepardizing.
  • 6. Shepard’s  Shepard’s provides the researcher with the following information about a case:  parallel citations;  subsequent history citations;  treatment of the case by later cases; and  citations to secondary sources.
  • 7. Shepard’s  You can narrow your Shepards’ analysis by:  analysis;  court; or  keyword  when you select and apply Narrow By to limit your analysis.
  • 8. Shepard’s Table of Authorities  In addition to alerting the researcher to the status of the case being cited, Shepard’s will also alert the researcher to the status of the cases underlying the cited decision with its Table of Authorities.
  • 9. Shepard’s Alerts  Suppose you want to monitor your case?  With electronic, you can set up a Shepard’s alert with your citation and find out, via email or login, any time another court or secondary source cites to your case.  With print, you would literally have to shepardize whenever a new Shepard’s came out. With the most expensive and quickest Shepard’s service, that would be a monthly search.
  • 10. KeyCite  KeyCite was developed by West Publishing in 1996 to compete with Shepard’s.  KeyCite is available in electronic formats but is not available in print.
  • 11. KeyCite  KeyCite provides the researcher with:  the direct appellate history;  the negative indirect history;  cites to all cases available on Westlaw;  cites to all cases that cite a federal statute or regulation.
  • 12. Limit Results  As with Shepard’s, you can limit your Keycite analysis by:  headnote;  keyword;  jurisdiction; or  depth of treatment.
  • 13. Monitoring & Updating  If you want to monitor your cited case with KeyCite to see if later cases or law reviews mention it, can you?  Yes.  Use the KeyCite Alert feature.
  • 14. View Alert
  • 15. Findlaw’s Citator Function
  • 16. Casemaker
  • 17. LoisLaw
  • 18. Don’t Forget to Update!
  • 19. Conclusion  Questions?  Stop by the CSOL Sol Blatt Jr. Law Library Reference Desk in Room 121, email the Reference Desk @ referencedesk@charlestonlaw.edu, or call at 843.377.4020.