G:\Escola\2009 2010\11ºA\Powerpoints 11ºAno\The World Around Us11ºA
LIFE AT STAKE Endangered Species Natural Resources Water Shortage
Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to walk from here? “ That depends a good deal on where you want to get to”, said the cat.
Three Important Questions <ul><li>What should I do? </li></ul><ul><li>What you choose to do, the way you choose to live matters . (Individual dimension) </li></ul><ul><li>What should we do? </li></ul><ul><li>In order for us to flourish as individuals we must flourish together. (Colective dimension) </li></ul><ul><li>What sort of person should I be? </li></ul><ul><li>It is a question of personal development and education. </li></ul>
BIODIVERSITY IN CRISIS <ul><li>The most obvious manifestation of biodiversity loss is the extinction of species. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a natural phenomenon: species have been going extinct since life began. </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that many more species have gone extinct than exist at present. </li></ul><ul><li>What's worrying? </li></ul><ul><li>the rate at which species are currently dying out: not since the demise of the dinosaurs (some 65 million years ago) has earth witnessed an 'extinction event' of such catastrophic scale. </li></ul>
Current Species Loss <ul><li>● The total number of species on earth can only be estimated ► the exact rate of loss is difficult to gauge (between 50 and 150 extinctions per day). </li></ul><ul><li>● The estimate is that the earth is home to 10 million species in all ► between 0.2 and 0.6 percent of species are being lost every year. </li></ul>
<ul><li>It is estimated that over 5,500 species of animals – including birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish and invertebrates – are currently threatened with extinction, together with 6,700 species of higher plants. </li></ul>
<ul><li>► Those considered vulnerable, threatened, or critically endangered include: </li></ul><ul><li>♥ Close to 1,100 species of mammals (about 24 per cent of the total number). </li></ul><ul><li>♥ Over 1,100 birds (around 12 per cent of known species). </li></ul><ul><li>♥ Over 750 species of fish (49% per cent of total surveyed). </li></ul><ul><li>♥ Around 290 species of reptiles (62 per cent of total number surveyed). </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 157 species of amphibians (39 per cent of the total number surveyed). </li></ul>
Main causes of biodiversity loss <ul><li>● Habitat destruction </li></ul><ul><li>● Invasive species </li></ul><ul><li>● Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>● Over-harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>● Climate change </li></ul><ul><li>● Market and economic policy failures </li></ul><ul><li>● Social, political and institutional weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>● Lack of knowledge of biodiversity’s importance </li></ul>
Environmental & Human Health “ Conditions that ensure that all living things have the best opportunity to reach and maintain their full genetic potential. ” S. Gilbert (1999)
The First Bioethicist "A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise." - Aldo Leopold, 1949, A Sand County Almanac ---------- 1887 - 1948 ---------- Aldo Leopold
Bioethics "Biology combined with diverse humanistic knowledge forging a science that sets a system of medical and environmental priorities for acceptable survival.“ Global Bioethics (1988) -------- 1911 - 2001 -------- Van Rensselaer Potter
Some Values 1) Respect - for the needs and rights of this and future generations as well as others who cannot speak for themselves 2) Humility - towards the natural world and our ability to understand it through science 3) Democracy - giving people a voice in matters that affect their lives 4) Responsibility - government’s public trust responsibility to manage the commonwealth for this and future generations. - Individuals’ including industry, obligation to take responsibility for their actions in the world.
Ecological Bioethics The challenge To develop an individual and societal ethical framework for decision making that supports the long term maintenance of a globally sustainable ecology
Knowledgeable Bioethics “ the knowledge of how to use knowledge for the social good”