Artificial Intelligence in CarsArtificial Intelligence- the science and engineering of making intelligentmachines, especially intelligent computer programs (McCarthy 1)
Autonomous cars (driverless cars) fullfill the capabilities of traditional cars while sensing theenvironment and navigating by themselvesUses laser, radar, LADAR, GPS, and computer visionLADAR uses light from a laser to measure distance between objectsComputer vision is the processing of images from the real world to extract and interpretinformationAdvantages• Fewer crashes• Increased roadway capacity• No need to drive• Elimination of restraints on driving such as age and disabilities• Less police monitoring• Less need for vehicle insurance
History1939- World Fair depicted electric cars controlled by radio1980’s- Mercedes Benz robotic van reached 62 mph1980’s- DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) used LADAR and computer vision1994- Robot vehicles drove in standard traffic in Paris semi autonomously1995- Carnegie Mellon Navlab achieved 98.2% autonomous driving across America2010- VisLab had four driverless vans travel from Italy to ChinaCurrent: Army developing autonomous vehicles to navigate off road terrain and drive in groups
FutureAutomated Highway SystemsSpecial lanes on highways that have magnets or some other infrastructure allowing the vehicle to stay in the center of the laneCommunicates with other vehicles to avoid collision and speed up trafficUse of acceleration lanes and deceleration lanesCurrently, there are semi-automated bus systems in the Netherlands and FranceDARPA continues to sponsor research on autonomous systems for military useGoogle driverless carEquilibrium Concept
Equilibrium ConceptFuturistic car that uses artificial intelligence to generate illusion of life and personalityExterior surface is covered by rubber metal that is flexible and rigid Smooth, continuous surface that doesn’t have seamsElectric engines located in rear wheels for space efficiency and weight distributionBattery pack located in front of vehicle for weight distribution Air flows from front air intake along batteries and through frame to cool batteriesSeats made of external shell and soft inner skin which is made of Electro Active Polymers which adapt to drivers’ body Electricity makes surfaces stretch and change shapeSteering wheel has heartbeat sensors to activate vehicle from standby to full power as it detects driver’s heartbeat. As driver gets tired, vehicle can detect lower heart rate and react by blowing fresh air inside. In more serious situations, it will bring vehicle to standstill or park it along the road and send out alarm message.
Google’s Driverless CarCreated robot vehicle Stanley that won 2005 DARPA Grand ChallengeUses Google Street View and AI software that combines input from video cameras, LIDAR sensors, and radar sensors to locate the car’s position on a mapLIDAR generates 3-D map of environmentOther radars allow the car to “see” far enough to navigate through fast traffic and detect traffic lightsCar detected other cars, pedestrians, and traffic lightsAt intersections, car turns but yields to pedestrians that cross on time or last-minuteAt 4-way intersections, car yields to other vehicles based on road rules ex. Inching forward to show intention