Help the community developInvolve outside experts, leadersQuantifying new techniques – why is the group important. What is it contributingPlace to think, reflect and consider new ideasBeat not too fast or too slow
Virtue: is a habit, acquired over time, in particular situations, of responding appropriately and exemplifying excellence. Flourishing (excellence) has do with fulfilling all that we most have in us to become Ethics:IntuitiveAppropriate to the situationCan’t explainOccurs without deliberationInvolves emotionsSpecific history brought to bearMoralityMoralityUniversal TruthsRationalUniversal principleSubject to justificationSubject to deliberationDetached from body and emotionsDevoid of self-interestCultureHegel (1770-1831)“Situational”Ethical life (“sittlichkeit”) is embedded in culture/ social institutions and demonstrates intention, desire,or belief of collective spirit (“Geist”). Universal truthKant (1724-1804)“Categorical imperative”Requires unconditional moral action
Utilitarianism: Bentham (1748-1832) and Mill (1806-1873)Acts are morally right when they produce the most good (greatest happiness) for the most people. Morality Universal TruthHabermas-(1924-) Frankfurt School of Critical Theoryand Discourse Ethics Rawls-Theory of Justice (Published in 1971)Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they: (a) provide the greatest benefit to the least advantaged, and (b) conditions of fair equality of opportunity.
Business Ethics: Concepts & CasesDr. Manuel G Velasquez Santa Clara UniversityCharles J. Dirksen Professor Business Ethics, Management Department
How does a leader do this in a human services environment?
Robert Greenleaf"The servant-leader is servant first… It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. That person is sharply different from one who is leader first, perhaps because of the need to assuage an unusual power drive or to acquire material possessions…The leader-first and the servant-first are two extreme types. Between them there are shadings and blends that are part of the infinite variety of human nature.""The difference manifests itself in the care taken by the servant-first to make sure that other people’s highest priority needs are being served. The best test, and difficult to administer, is: Do those served grow as persons? Do they, while being served, become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, more likely themselves to become servants? And, what is the effect on the least privileged in society? Will they benefit or at least not be further deprived?"
Staff’s unconditional worth. Respect to other’s ideas. Defer to others.Treat staff in ways that confirm the values set for the agency.
When staff are treated different the grounds for different treatment must be clear, reasonable and based on sound moral values.
Establish clear rules for rewarding staff.
John Dalla Costa is the founder of the Centre for Ethical Orientation (CEO), a Toronto-based consultancy working with business, the public sector Book the ethical imperative.
Leadership and Administrative DynamicsEckerd Fall 2011
Agenda Strategic What is strategic planning? Defining Planning vision, mission, goals, objectives, outputs, and units of service. How leaders guide staff in strategic planning exercises. PEST/SWOT Strategic planning tools reviewed in class Logic Model Program planning reviewed in class Planning Exercise Predicting future behavior and prevention. Memo Writing Read memos in class.
Five Core Leadership Capabilities• Visioning: Fostering individual and collective aspiration toward a shared vision• Analyzing: Sense-making and strategic planning in complex and conflictual settings• Relating: Building relationships and negotiating change across multiple stakeholders• Inventing: Inventing new ways of working together – social and technical systems• Enabling: Ensuring the tools and resources to implement and sustain the shared visions
Where does it go wrong?• Imposed vision• Acting on assumptions – not data- drive decision making• Discounting or disregarding key stakeholders• If it’s not broke, why change?• Forced internal competition for resources
Vision Statement What it is and what it is notWe seek a world of hope, tolerance and socialjustice, where poverty has been overcome andpeople live in dignity and security. CARE willbe a global force and partner of choice withina worldwide movement dedicated to endingpoverty. We will be known everywhere for ourunshakeable commitment to the dignity ofpeople.
Vision Statements continued• Weare committed to serving allyouth who come to us,acknowledging our specialcommitment to the young adults ofNew York City. Our services willaddress the immediate needs ofyoung people in crisis, and facilitatetheir transition to adulthood andself-sufficiency.
Vision Statements continued• Tobe a national model for community engagement generating financial and voluntary contributions to meet local needs and make lasting improvement to our quality of life.
Elements of a Vision Statement• Big Picture• What we want to BECOME• Clear vision provides the road to a clear mission statement• One statement• Statement is greater than what is possible
Mission Statement• Jazz at Lincoln Center is dedicated to inspiring and growing audiences for jazz. With the world-renowned Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra and a comprehensive array of guest artists, Jazz at Lincoln Center advances a unique vision for the continued development of the art of jazz by producing a year-round schedule of performance, education and broadcast events for audiences of all ages. These productions include concerts, national and international tours, residencies, a jazz hall of fame and concert series, weekly national radio programs, television broadcasts, recordings, publications, an annual high school jazz band competition and festival, a band director academy, jazz appreciation curriculum for students, music publishing, children’s concerts and classes, lectures, adult education courses, student and educator workshops and interactive websites.
Mission Statements continued• We who recognize Gods providence and fidelity to His people are dedicated to living out His covenant among ourselves and those children we serve, with absolute respect and unconditional love. That commitment calls us to serve suffering children of the street, and to protect and safeguard all children. Just as Christ in His humanity is the visible sign of Gods presence among His people, so our efforts together in the covenant community are a visible sign that effects the presence of God, working through the Holy Spirit among ourselves and our kids.
Mission Statements continued• CARE’s mission is to serve individuals and families in the poorest communities in the world. Drawing strength from our global diversity, resources and experience, we promote innovative solutions and are advocates for global responsibility. We promote lasting change by:• Strengthening capacity for self-help• Providing economic opportunity• Delivering relief in emergencies• Influencing policy decisions at all levels• Addressing discrimination in all its forms
Elements of a Mission Statement• This answers the question: What is our business?• Statement of purpose• Clearly establishes reason for being• Provides the road to establishing goals• Staff should agree with this statement of purpose• Resources should be allocated based on the mission statement• Should establish the organizationalclimate and culture
When a Mission Statement works…• Reconciles interests of a variety of departments, stakeholders and staff in general• Motivates people to action• Should make people passionate about “their” work• Basis for strategic decision making
Components of a Mission Statement Customers Markets Products or Services Technology Concern for Public Philosophy Image Survival, Growth, and Self-concept Concern for Employees Profitability
Community BusinessEmployees Partners CEOBoard of ClientsDirectors Provider Community
Communities of Practice• Groups of people who share a concern, a set of problems or a passion about a topic and who deepen their knowledge and expertise in this area by interacting on an ongoing basis.
Knowledge• Lives in the human act of knowing• Tacit as well as explicit• Social requiring multiple perspectives• Dynamic – rate of change in what we know and how we do it is accelerating
7 principles of Community Design• Design for evolution.• Open a dialogue between inside and outside perspectives.• Invite different levels of participation.• Develop both public and private community spaces.• Focus on value.• Combine familiarity and excitement.• Create a rhythm for the community
What are ethics? • Ethos – conduct, customs or character • The kinds of values and morals an individual or society finds appropriate or desirable. Northouse • Are ethics relative? • Virtue (defined): a trait of character, manifested in habitual action, which is good for a person to have. • Examples of Virtues: Benevolence, Fairness, Self-Discipline Self-Reliance , Honesty, Tolerance Conscientiousness, Loyalty, Justice
Northouse• “Inany decision-making situation, ethical issues are either implicitly or explicitly involved. The choices leaders make and how they respond in a given circumstance are informed and directed by ethics.”
Ethical Theories Based On Self- Interest vs. Interest For Others High •Ethical Egoism Ethical EgoismSelf-InterestConcern for Medium •Utilitarianism Utilitarianism Low •Altruism Altruism Low Medium High Concern For The Interest of Others
Examples• Ethical egoism – upward aspiring manager who wants her team to be the best in the company• Utilitarianism – We should create the greatest good (happiness) for the greatest number of people. (What did Rawls say about this?)• Altruism - Leader does what is best for otherseven when it conflicts with what is goodfor him/her.
Virtue based ethics• Leaders should develop virtues such as perseverance, public- spiritedness, integrity, truthfuln ess, fidelity, benevolence and humility.Velasquez
• “Whereyour treasure lies, there yourheart shall also be.” actions good worthy human being virtues
•Leadershave morepower and so moreresponsibility for theiractions with others.
What do leaders do?• Model ethical behavior.• Mobilize staff to face challenges.• Maslow – leader’s role in assuring staff motivation and moral development.• Move staff to a higher bar for moral responsibility.
Moral Environment• How is this decided?• What about gray areas?• What if staff individual morals are not consistent with the leader’s desired actions.
The BEST Test• Do those served grow as persons? Do they, while being served, become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, more likely themselves to become servants? And, what is the effect on the least privileged in society? Will they benefit orat least not be further deprived?
Servant Leader• Removes inequalities• Shifts authority to staff• Values marketplace of ideas• Listens• Is Empathetic• Establishes an unconditionalcovenant with staff
Principles of Ethical Leadership Respects Others Builds Serves Community Others Ethical Leadership Manifests Shows Honesty Justice
How do we treat staff?• Treat staff as an “end”, not as a“means to our end.”• Discussion
Senge• Leaders should be stewards of the vision.• Integrate vision with staff.• These leaders see themselves as a part of the agency and not THE agency.
Example• Describe an example from work where staff were obviously treated differently.
Rawls• If we are “cooperating” with each other, we must be concerned with issues of fairness to promote the common interest.•A person is required to do his part as defined by the rules of the institution when one has voluntarily accepted the benefits of the arrangement.
What does this mean?• When we cooperate for mutual gain, we agree to restrict our liberties for the greater good.• We should not gain from this relationship without doing our fair share.
Obligations• Voluntary• Defined by rules• Are owed to those cooperating within a structure or institution.
To Each Person Equal share Person’s Individual right need Decision Individual Merit effort Societal contribution
Honesty• Do not promise what you can’t deliver.• Do not misrepresent.• Do not “spin” situations for your gain.• Accept obligations.• Accept accountability.• Do not use “survival of thefittest” as an excuse for beingdishonest.
Builds Community• Leaders seek to reach out to wider social collectivities and seek to establish higher and broader moral purposes.• Goals of the agency are bound up in the common good and public interest.