Leadership and Administrative DynamicsEckerd Fall 2011
Agenda • Maslow Motivation •Herzberg •McClelland •Expectancy Theory (valance) •Teaching Smart People •Learning Organizations •Supervision Read memos in class.Memo Writing
Intrinsic vs. extrinsic• In Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985);• Distinguish between different types of motivation based on the different reasons or goals that give rise to an action.• Intrinsic motivation - which refers to doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable• Extrinsic motivation - which refers to doing something because it leads to a separable outcome
INTRINSIC MOTIVATION• Intrinsic motivation is deﬁned as the doing of an activity for its inherent satisfactions rather than for some separable consequence. When intrinsically motivated a person is moved to act for the fun or challenge entailed rather than because of external prods,pressures, or rewards.
Unwrapping “intrinsic”• The reward IS the activity.• Satisfaction of innate psychological needs. • Competence • Autonomy and Self-Determined • Relatedness Rewards, deadlines, threats and competition Performance
Extrinsic Movitation• Activities done to attain a separate outcome • Fear of the consequence • Desire for a reward
STAFF:• Rational but selfish, opportunistic, and risk- and effort-averse. They need strong incentives and close monitoring.• Rational and goal-directed. They map paths to the attainment of rewards. Extrinsic rewards motivate only when the perceived probability of attainment is high• Not Rational or goal-directed. Random behavior that is rewarded is reinforced. Behavior that is punished is extinguished•Benchmark the value of their extrinsicrewards on those of others.Perceived inequity may be motivating ordemotivating
Freud on Motivation• First theories anchored motivation in notions of instincts (Freud)• Deterministic: ultimate cause of behavior comes from biology and acquired impulses.• These control our desires, thoughts and feelings whether we like it or not.• By puberty, the personality is formed and will change very little later in life.• Motivational impulses of adult can be traced in childhood events.• Motivation happens to us, we don’t choose.•“Instinct” gradually replaced by terms like need,motive, & drive (Maslow; Herzberg, Alderfer, Deci)• Behaviorist approach (Skinner)
Motivation• Maslow and Herzberg began moving away from “Instinct” as a response and replaced it with terms that express choice, such as “needs” and motivation.
Skinner - Behaviorist• “All we need to know in order to describe and explain behavior is this: actions followed by good outcomes are likely to recur, and actions followed by bad outcomes are less likely to recur.” (Skinner, 1953).
Operant Conditioning• POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT = increasing a behavior by administering a reward• NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT = increasing a behavior by removing an aversive stimulus when a behavior occurs• PUNISHMENT = decreasing a behavior by administering an aversive stimulus following a behavior OR by removing a positive stimulus• EXTINCTION = decreasing a behavior by not rewarding it
Punishment does not change behaviors;negative side effects and emotions canresult.It is possible to create other undesirablebehaviors through punishment.
PAVLOV - Conditioned ReflexMake a reflex response to a stimulus otherthan the original
Maslow – Needs Theory •People must strive to self-actualization as they define it. •Not doing so can be a “little death” •What does a supervisor need to consider? •Staff may not be functioning at the same level. •Staff have different needs. •Staff have different desires. •Staff may find “self-actualization” outside of the workplace.
MASLOWMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological
Expectancy Theory• Individuals tend to act in certain ways based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and the attractiveness of the outcome.• Focus is on the linkages: • Effort and Performance • Performance and Rewards • Attractiveness (Rewards and Individual Goals)
• Behavior is determined by a combination of personal and environmental forces.• People make decisions about their own behavior in organizations.• Different people have different types of needs, desires, and goals.• People choose among alternatives of behaviors in selecting one that that leads to a desired outcome.
• Effort-to-Performance Expectancy • The individual’s perception of the probability that effort will lead to a high level of performance.• Performance-to-Outcome Expectancy • The individual’s perception of the probability that performance will lead to a specific outcome, or consequence or reward in an organizational setting.
Equity Theory • People compare their job Inputs-Outputs Ratio with relevant others • Adjust work motivation according to results.
I = Inputs - employee’scontributionto employer S = Subject the employee who is judging fairness of theR = Referent exchange -comparison person
Example of Equity Theory Reward forWork done on work done on Motivated time time Other’s do not get work done on time MotivationWork done on time without disrupted consequence RewardWork done on exceeds work Inefficient time product
Employees in these situations will:• Seek justice• Produce less work• Quit• Seek other jobs• Try to influence manager to resolve the inequity• Try to influence co-workers toproduce work on time
McClelland’sThree-Needs Theory• Need for Achievement • Drive to excel, strive to succeed • Want personal responsibility, feedback and an intermediate amount of risk• Need for Power • Desire to be influential • Best managers• Need for Affiliation • Desire to be liked and accepted
Motivation-Hygiene Theory Company Policy Supervisor Achievement Relations Recognition Working Conditions Salary Work Itself Peers Responsibility Personal Life Subordinate Advancement Relations Growth Status SecurityExtremely Satisfied Neutral Extremely Dissatisfied
Leaders• Listen to clients• Listen to each other• Multidisciplinary approach to solving problems• In order to “shift the frontier” we need to move past abstract to real solutions.• Excitement about learning• Arrogance in the positive sense:No problem too hard to solve.