Conference Presenation Train Trainers SIEC Vienna Professor Lili Saghafi


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Description of Critical Thinking?
Critical Thinking & Achievement
Main Purpose of College Experience
Critical Thinking Concepts
What is Thinking?
Biology of Thinking
Stages of Development of the Thinking Process
What does “not thinking critically” look like?
What does Critical Thinking Look Like?
Why is critical thinking important?
What are the Major Concepts in Critical Thinking?
A Critical Thinking Problem Solving Model
Problem Solving Content /Component
Focus on solutions & not on problems
Reality Testing of Possible Solutions to Problem
Strategies for teaching skills related to Critical Thinking
skills related to critical thinking

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  • Does this fit with the examples of people you thought of?
  • CT goes beyond classroom. Experts say some school experiences may harm development of good CT
  • According to the experts, critical thinkers can also be described in terms of how they approach specific issues, questions, or problems
  • What exactly does this mean? Categorization Decoding significance Clarifying meaning
  • What’s really being said here? Examining ideas Detecting arguments Analyzing arguments
  • Is this creditable and does it make sense?
  • What else is being said but not is not actually said? Querying evidence Conjecturing alternative Drawing conclusions
  • Lemme ‘splain this to you. Stating results Justifying procedures Presenting arguments
  • Hmmm. I could’ve said this or I could’ve been more clear or I forgot to say this or I should not have said this.
  • In addition to the six cognitive skills, the experts say that something
  • Almost sounds like Sherlock Holmes. The kind of person described here always wants to ask “why” or “how?” or “what happens if . . .?” Difference is Holmes always solved the mystery. No guarantees in real world.
  • So we are certain that good critical thinking skills mean better grades, but . . .
  • Good grades transitory . . . Half-life of technical and professional programs at college level is about 4 years. Limited time value. Not liberal in the sense of a smattering of this and that but . . . Obviously more to liberal education than CT— understanding of methods, principles, theories, and ways of achieving knowledge encounter with cultural, artistic, spiritual dimensions of life evolution of decision making to level of principled integrity realization of ways lives are shaped by global as well as local social, political, psychological, economic, environmental forces Refinement of human sensibilities through reflection on recurring questions of human existence: love, death, meaning, life Sensitivity, appreciation, critical appraisal of all that is good and bad in human condition CT plays a role in achieving all these things.
  • Imagine the consequences if CT not applied in . . .
  • Could have students talk about someone they admire. Embedded are assumptions about what person sees as valuable.
  • Especially when language is used to persuade (ability increased by CT) through increased insight. Helpful for ferreting arguments. “ Metaphors are the way we think about ourselves and the world.”
  • Hypothetical syllogisms—conditional arguments exercise Syllogism completion exercise Syllogism Validity testing exercise Suggestions?
  • Master list of fallacies Formal fallacies
  • Conference Presenation Train Trainers SIEC Vienna Professor Lili Saghafi

    1. 1. Train the Trainers Critical Thinking SIEC-ISBE: 79th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE 2007 Prof. Lili Saghafi The College / University of Bahamas Nassau, Bahamas 2007
    2. 2. AGENDA <ul><li>Description of Critical Thinking? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking & Achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main Purpose of College Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking Concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is Thinking? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biology of Thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages of Development of the Thinking Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does “not thinking critically” look like? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does Critical Thinking Look Like? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is critical thinking important? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the Major Concepts in Critical Thinking ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Critical Thinking Problem Solving Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Solving Content /Component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on solutions & not on problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reality Testing of Possible Solutions to Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategies for teaching skills related to Critical Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skills related to critical thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    3. 3. Description of Critical Thinking? “ If you realized how powerful your thoughts are, you would never think a negative thought.” Peace Pilgrim 1908 - 1981 from 1953 to 1981 walked more than 25,000 miles on a personal pilgrimage for peace.
    4. 4. What is Critical Thinking? <ul><li>Critical thinking is thinking that is clear , precise, accurate, relevant , consistent & fair </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking is how people approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The best way to get to the truth!! </li></ul>
    5. 5. What describes Critical Thinking <ul><li>Critical thinking is : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>self-directed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-disciplined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-monitored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-corrective thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>that assign effective communication & problem-solving abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking is a great human phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal critical thinkers are characterized by how they approach life & living in general ( James J. Messina & Constance M. Messina ) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Approaches to life of good Critical Thinkers ( James J. Messina & Constance M. Messina ) <ul><li>Questioning about wide range of issues </li></ul><ul><li>Concern to be well-informed </li></ul><ul><li>Alertness to opportunities to use Critical Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Self confidence in their abilities to reason </li></ul><ul><li>Open-mindedness about divergent world views </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility in considering alternatives & opinions </li></ul>
    7. 7. Approaches to life of good Critical Thinkers <ul><li>Understanding the opinions of other people </li></ul><ul><li>Fair-mindedness in appraising reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Honesty in realization of their limitations. </li></ul><ul><li>Prudence ( care ) in suspending, making, altering judgments </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to reconsider & revise views </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity in stating question or concern </li></ul>
    8. 8. Critical Thinking approaches cont… Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted. --- Albert Einstein <ul><li>Neatness in working with complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Diligence in seeking relevant information </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonableness in selecting & applying criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Care in focusing attention on the concern at hand </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence through difficulties ( &quot;Forget your fear. God is bigger than your problems “, I Chronicles 28 ) </li></ul><ul><li>precise to the degree permitted by subject & circumstances </li></ul>
    9. 9. Critical Thinking Requires: <ul><li>Six Cognitive ( involving conscious intellectual activity ) Skills; </li></ul><ul><li>( James J. Messina & Constance M. Messina ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affective Dispositions “a critical spirit” </li></ul>
    10. 10. Interpretation <ul><li>Comprehend & express meaning or significance of wide variety of experiences, situations, data, events, judgments, conventions, beliefs, rules, procedures, or criteria </li></ul>
    11. 11. Analysis <ul><li>2. Identify the intended & actual relevant relationships among statements, questions, concepts, descriptions, or other forms of representation intended to express belief, judgment, experiences, reasons, information, or opinion </li></ul>
    12. 12. Evaluation <ul><li>3. Assess the credibility of statements or other representations which are accounts or descriptions of a person’s perception, experience, situation, judgment, belief, or opinion & to assess the logical strength of the actual or intended relevant relationships among statements, descriptions, questions, or other forms of representation </li></ul>
    13. 13. Inference (relevancy) <ul><li>4.Identify & secure elements needed to draw reasonable conclusions ; to form a guess work and hypotheses; to consider relevant information & to reduce the consequences flowing from data, statements, principles, evidence, judgments, beliefs, opinions, concepts, descriptions, questions, or other forms of representation </li></ul>
    14. 14. Explanation <ul><li>5. State the results of one’s reasoning; </li></ul><ul><li>justify that reasoning; </li></ul><ul><li>upon which one’s results were based & to </li></ul><ul><li>present one’s reasoning in the form of </li></ul><ul><li>convincing arguments. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Self-regulation <ul><li>6. Self consciously to monitor one’s : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conscious intellectual activities, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the elements used in those activities & the results produced, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant judgments with a view toward questions, confirming, validation, or correcting either one’s reasoning or results. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Something else is needed <ul><li>More to Critical Thinking than just cognitive ( conscious intellectual activity ) skills </li></ul><ul><li>Human beings are more than just thinking machines </li></ul>
    17. 17. “ The Critical Spirit” ( affective dispositions , emotional care ) <ul><li>7.The Critical Spirit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An inquiring curiosity ( If a man will begin with certainties, he shall end in doubts. But if he will be content to begin with doubts he shall end in certainties. --- Francis Bacon ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A dedication of mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An enthusiastic dedication to reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A hunger or eagerness for reliable information ( Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon it. --- Samuel Johnson ) </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Why is Critical Thinking of Value? <ul><li>You can answer—why value to you? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s value of cognitive ( conscious intellectual activity ) skills? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s value of the critical spirit? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Would these mean more success at what you do? </li></ul><ul><li>Would it mean better grades for students? </li></ul>
    19. 19. Critical Thinking & Achievement <ul><li>In a study of 1,100 college students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant correlation between Critical Thinking scores & college GPA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking skills can be learned </li></ul><ul><li>Significant correlation between Critical Thinking & reading comprehension </li></ul>
    20. 20. Main Purpose of College Experience “ James Mesina & Constance Mesina ” <ul><li>1- Victory of liberal (liberated) education. It’s about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning to think for one’s self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads away from naive acceptance of authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads above self-defeating relativism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond uncertain contextualism ( throwing light ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2- To reach the highest in principled, reflective judgment </li></ul>
    21. 21. What else? <ul><li>Critical Thinking is fundamental , if not essential for, </li></ul><ul><li>“ A rational & democratic ” society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electorate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judiciary ( a system of courts of law ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business & civic leaders maybe more interested in Critical Thinking than even educators </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary condition for the success of democratic institutions & free market society </li></ul>
    22. 22. Critical Thinking Concepts Trying to get people to reason in a way that is not natural for them is like trying to teach a pig to sing. You don't accomplish anything and you annoy the pig. --- E. Jeffrey Conklin & William Weil
    23. 23. What is Thinking? <ul><li>Let’s look at the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Biology of Thinking &quot;I think, therefore I am“ Descartes
    25. 30. CT scan of a normal brain McGill Brain Imaging Centre                            CT scan of a normal brain
    26. 33. Stages of Development of the Thinking Process &quot;I am convinced that there is no sort of boundary between the living and the mental or between the biological and the psychological” Jean Piaget1896-1980 Father of Developmental Psychology
    27. 34. Stages of Cognitive Development - Jean Piaget1896-1980 Father of Developmental Psychology : <ul><li>1. Sensori_motor Stage: Birth to 2 years old - no thinking structures </li></ul><ul><li>2. Preoperational Stage: 2-7 years old - develop language skills cognitive structures – prelogical </li></ul>
    28. 35. Stages of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget1896-1980 <ul><li>3. Concrete Operational Stage: 7 years to Adolescence - Begins to question life. Solves problems but with no plan. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Formal Operations Stage:   Adolescence and onward - capable of sophisticated logical thought. Can think both abstract & hypothetically and solve problems using the logic of combinations </li></ul>
    29. 36. Later Theorists have added Fifth Stage <ul><li>Dialectical Reasoning - stage beyond logic where critical thinking lies. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to perceive the frequent paradoxes in life and question and analyze the assumptions that underlie logic.  </li></ul><ul><li>Being able to look at two sides of an argument or problem to get a broader, deeper, & more reasonable perspective on the issues being addressed </li></ul>
    30. 37. <ul><li>Dialectical reasoning consists of moving back and forth between contrary lines of reasoning, using each to cross-examine the other. ( PSYCHOLOGY    PORTAL, Saskatchewan) </li></ul><ul><li>This is what juries are supposed to do in arriving at a verdict: consider arguments and evidence for and against a case, point and counterpoint </li></ul>
    31. 38. What is Critical Thinking then? <ul><li>Becoming aware that assumptions exist </li></ul><ul><li>Making assumptions explicit </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing their accuracy of assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do these assumptions make sense? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do these assumptions fit reality as we understand and live it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under what conditions do these assumptions seem to hold true? Under what conditions do they seem false? </li></ul></ul>
    32. 39. Misconceptions about Critical Thinking <ul><li>Negative process- tears down ideas & puts nothing in their place </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to relativistic freeze-inability to make commitments </li></ul><ul><li>Involves traumatic change-one is expected to abandon old assumptions continually </li></ul><ul><li>It is dispassionate & cold </li></ul><ul><li>rather positive process to put things in more realistic perspective </li></ul><ul><li>rather commitments are informed ones </li></ul><ul><li>rather: Some beliefs stay the same-simply more informed </li></ul><ul><li>rather: highly emotive & liberating to be free of past assumptions & anxiety of self- inquiry </li></ul>
    33. 40. Why is critical thinking important? <ul><li>All actions, decisions & judgments spring from assumptions - if unchecked make poor decisions & wrong judgments </li></ul><ul><li>In personal relationships learn to keep lines of communications open & avoid uncritically reproducing patterns of modeled interactions learned from parental interaction </li></ul><ul><li>In workplace avoid stagnation & atrophy - willing to challenge current paradigms that is uncritically accepted from time & thinking which is no longer relevant to current reality </li></ul>
    34. 41. Personal barriers to critical thinking <ul><li>Enculturation ( the process by which an individual learns the traditional content of a culture and assimilates its practices and values ) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>Ego defenses </li></ul><ul><li>Self-serving biases </li></ul><ul><li>Expectation </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional influences </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul>
    35. 42. What does “not thinking critically” look like? <ul><li>Blindly reproducing damaging old learned reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Blindly accepting face value of all justifications of organizations & political leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Blindly believe TV commercials </li></ul><ul><li>Blindly trust political commercials </li></ul><ul><li>Blindly accept & say that “if the textbook says it, it must be so” </li></ul><ul><li>Blindly accept & say that “if the organization does it, it must be right” </li></ul>
    36. 43. What does Critical Thinking Look Like? <ul><li>Contextual sensitivity - being sensitive to stereotypes about people of particular group & accept others at face value unconditionally </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective thinking - trying to get into other person's head, or walk in other’s shoes to see the world way that person sees it </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance for uncertainty - ability to accept multiple interpretations of same situation </li></ul><ul><li>Alert to premature ultimatums – not to put in operation. e.g. a politician invokes &quot;democracy&quot; </li></ul>
    37. 44. What are the Major Concepts in Critical Thinking? <ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Argument </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Fallacy </li></ul><ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul>
    38. 45. Perception <ul><li>The way we receive & translate our experience </li></ul><ul><li>Also a significant filtering system </li></ul><ul><li>How we perceive defines how we think </li></ul>
    39. 46. Assumptions <ul><li>Central to Critical Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Implied, not conscious of them </li></ul><ul><li>Not always bad </li></ul><ul><li>Rest on notion some ideas are obvious </li></ul><ul><li>Make us comfortable with present beliefs & shut out alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>“Jack & Beanstalk” – what makes a hero? </li></ul>
    40. 47. Emotion <ul><li>“Leave emotion out of it!” is Impossible </li></ul><ul><li>Part of everything we do & think </li></ul><ul><li>Personal barriers are a given </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinkers don’t ignore or deny emotions - they accept & manage them </li></ul>
    41. 48. Language <ul><li>Thinking can’t be separated from language </li></ul><ul><li>Three primary purposes of language: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language denotes (associated )& connotes (disassociate) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphors </li></ul>
    42. 49. Persuasion <ul><li>Persuasion is manner by which we attempt to convince others to &quot;our way of thinking&quot; about a subject therefore: </li></ul><ul><li>logic </li></ul><ul><li>fallacious reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>problem solving all involve persuasion </li></ul>
    43. 50. Argument <ul><li>Claim, used to persuade that something is (or not) true or should (or not) be done </li></ul><ul><li>Contains three basic elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One or more reasons (premises) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One or more conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be valid or invalid based on structure </li></ul><ul><li>Only premises & conclusions true or false </li></ul>
    44. 51. Argument <ul><li>Goal of Critical Thinking is sound Arguments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valid (proper structure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With true premises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sound argument has both: so the conclusion must be true </li></ul><ul><li>Therein the beauty and usefulness of logic </li></ul>
    45. 52. <ul><li>Remember that the mind of a beginner is an open channel for genius. </li></ul><ul><li>Let that openness lead you and you will instinctively penetrate to the heart of the matter. </li></ul>
    46. 53. Rules for Arguments <ul><li>If the argument leads with the Antecedent, it must be affirmed for the argument to be valid </li></ul><ul><li>If the argument leads with the Consequent, it must be denied for the argument to be valid </li></ul><ul><li>If the argument leads with the Antecedent which is denied the argument is invalid </li></ul><ul><li>If the argument leads with the Consequent which is affirmed the argument is invalid </li></ul>
    47. 54. Goal in restating Arguments <ul><li>Try to avoid absolute statements e.g.: All, Always, Must, Should, Best, Highest… </li></ul><ul><li>Restate arguments with relative words and statements e.g.: Most, Usually, could, might, very good, very high … </li></ul>
    48. 55. Logic <ul><li>Two methods of reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts, certainty, syllogisms, validity, truth of premises  sound arguments & conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inductive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse facts, probability, generalizations, hypotheses, analogies  inductive strength </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Logic problems like any problem </li></ul>
    49. 56. Problem Solving <ul><li>Techniques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the problem. Read & heed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ID unknowns & knowns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships between these (visual aids) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate strategy from step above </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply and solve. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat if necessary </li></ul></ul>
    50. 57. Fallacy <ul><li>Reasoning that doesn’t meet criteria for sound argument is fallacious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True premises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete (all relevant information) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fallacy is incorrect pattern of reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Does not always mean conclusion is false </li></ul><ul><li>Ads & editorials </li></ul>
    51. 58. A Critical Thinking Problem Solving Model We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them. --- Albert Einstein
    52. 59. Problem Solving Content Issues <ul><li>Description of Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Factors: Constructive vs Limiting </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Scope of Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence of Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Rank Ordered Solutions </li></ul>
    53. 60. Process Issues in Problem Solving <ul><li>Self-awareness of the problem solver </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation of the problem solver </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making involved in selecting solution by solver </li></ul><ul><li>Execution of the solution decided upon </li></ul>
    54. 61. Primitive Components of the Problem <ul><li>Size of Problem - costs, risks, losses </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory Input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How’s it look? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How’s it sound? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How’s it taste? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How’s its smell? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How’s it feel? </li></ul></ul>
    55. 62. A Fact not a problem <ul><li>If a problem has no solution, it may not be a problem, but a fact - not to be solved, but to be coped with over time. --- Shimon Peres </li></ul>
    56. 63. Personal Components of the Problem <ul><li>Inside perspective of problem solver of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>If on Team, other members as problem solvers & their perspective </li></ul>
    57. 64. What is Needed to Improve Problem Solving Process <ul><li>Unconditional acceptance & non-judgmental attitude of fellow problem solvers </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for each participant’s input </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom to openly express emotional response to the problem & solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Defined limits & boundaries on problem solving process </li></ul>
    58. 65. <ul><li>There is always an easy solution to every human problem—neat, plausible, and wrong. --- H.L. Mencken </li></ul>
    59. 66. Encouraging Creativity in Problem Solving <ul><li>Create the desire to be creative-a person must want it </li></ul><ul><li>Expand Knowledge & Skills of language by reading more to be creative thinker </li></ul><ul><li>It takes effort to create-genius is 1% inspiration & 99% perspiration ( Edison ) </li></ul><ul><li>Excitement creativity - give it time </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate & validate creative ideas </li></ul>
    60. 67. Brainstorming <ul><li>Set a time frame to be completed </li></ul><ul><li>Be clear what problem you are trying to solve </li></ul><ul><li>All ideas should be heard </li></ul><ul><li>No idea is too wild to be expressed </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity is wanted; each idea coming to mind should be expressed </li></ul><ul><li>Combining ideas for improvement is highly desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism or negative discussion regarding ideas is absolutely forbidden </li></ul>
    61. 68. Star bursting ( break into pieces ) <ul><li>Focuses on a topic & radiates outward with questions </li></ul><ul><li>Here anything goes </li></ul><ul><li>Any questions are legitimate </li></ul><ul><li>More the questions the better </li></ul><ul><li>Begin by asking: “What are the Questions?” </li></ul>
    62. 69. Problem Solving through Intimate Engagement <ul><li>Engager’s have a history of success with similar problems </li></ul><ul><li>Dismisser’s had history of failure with similar problems-captive of the past </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than dismiss, engage the problem intimately by getting into it </li></ul><ul><li>Be willing to take the time to deal with the problem </li></ul>
    63. 70. Problem Solving through Intimate Engagement <ul><li>Engagement takes: </li></ul><ul><li>Effort to deal with it </li></ul><ul><li>Time to mull it over </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at & not putting aside or looking away </li></ul>
    64. 71. Rules of Engagement with Problems <ul><li>Become sensitive to your own confusion with a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Do not permit yourself to be confused-do not tolerate confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Use visual imagery to remember facts </li></ul><ul><li>Relate the information to people, animals or situations </li></ul><ul><li>Make your visualization vivid , dynamic, interactive, & unusual </li></ul>
    65. 72. Cases Case I Case II
    66. 73. Focus on solutions & not on problems <ul><li>Case 1 </li></ul><ul><li>When NASA began the launch of astronauts into space , they found out that the pens wouldn't work at zero gravity (ink won't flow down to the writing surface). To solve this problem, it took them one decade and $12 million. </li></ul><ul><li>They developed a pen that worked at zero gravity, upside down, underwater, in practically any surface including crystal and in a temperature range from below freezing to over 300 degrees C. </li></ul><ul><li>And what did the Russians do...?? They used a pencil. </li></ul>
    67. 74. <ul><li>Case 2 </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most memorable case studies on Japanese management was the case of the empty soapbox , which happened in one of Japan's biggest cosmetics companies . </li></ul><ul><li>The company received a complaint that a consumer had bought a soapbox that was empty. Immediately the authorities isolated the problem to the assembly! line, which transported all the packaged boxes of soap to the delivery department. </li></ul><ul><li>For some reason, one soapbox went through the assembly line empty. Management asked its engineers to solve the problem. </li></ul>
    68. 75. <ul><li>Post-haste, the engineers worked hard to devise an X-ray machine with high-resolution monitors manned by two people to watch all the soapboxes that passed through the line to make sure they were not empty. </li></ul><ul><li>No doubt, they worked hard and they worked fast but they spent a whooping amount to do so. </li></ul>
    69. 76. <ul><li>But when a rank-and-file employee in a small company was posed with the same problem , he did not get into complications of X-rays, etc., but instead came out with another solution. </li></ul><ul><li>He bought a strong industrial electric fan and pointed it at the assembly line. </li></ul><ul><li>He switched the fan on, and as each soapbox passed the fan, it simply blew the empty boxes out of the line. </li></ul>
    70. 77. Reality Testing of Possible Solutions to Problem <ul><li>Critical Path Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Trees </li></ul><ul><li>Force Field Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>PMI Plus – Minus – Interesting </li></ul><ul><li>SWOT Analysis – Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats </li></ul><ul><li>The one common experience of all humanity is the challenge of problems. --- R. Buckminster Fuller </li></ul>
    71. 78. Critical Path Analysis <ul><li>Calculate length of time to complete project </li></ul><ul><li>List all activities in plan by: start date, duration, if parallel or sequential </li></ul><ul><li>If dependent on what do they depend </li></ul><ul><li>Graph it out, Plot tasks on graph </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Critical path -longest sequence of dependent activities that lead to completion of plan </li></ul>
    72. 79. Decision Trees <ul><li>Start with the decision which needs to be made draw a box </li></ul><ul><li>Draw to right possible solutions on lines </li></ul><ul><li>At End of each line if result is uncertain draw circle if other decision draw box </li></ul><ul><li>From the other decisions draw lines for options which can be taken </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate decision which has greatest worth to you and give it a value </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate probability of each uncertainty </li></ul>
    73. 80. Force Field Analysis <ul><li>List all forces for change in one column </li></ul><ul><li>List all forces against change in other </li></ul><ul><li>Assign a score to each force 1(weak)-5(strong) </li></ul><ul><li>Draw diagram showing forces for & against and size of forces </li></ul><ul><li>Helps weigh importance of factors as to if pursue or not the plan </li></ul>
    74. 81. PMI- Plus/Minus/Interesting <ul><li>Plus Column: all positive points of taking the action </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Column: all negative effects </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting Column: extended implications of taking action, whether positive or negative </li></ul><ul><li>Assign positive or negative scores </li></ul>
    75. 82. SWOT Analysis <ul><li>Strengths: advantages, what you do well </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses: could be improved, done badly, should be avoided </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities: good chances, interesting trends </li></ul><ul><li>Threats: obstacles, competition, are required specifications changing </li></ul>
    76. 83. Strategies for teaching skills related to Critical Thinking: Be not angry that you cannot make others as you wish them to be, since you cannot make yourself as you wish to be. “ Thomas A. Kempis” a Renaissance Roman Catholic monk and author of Imitation of Christ 1380 - July 25, 1471
    77. 84. skills related to critical thinking <ul><li>Now we want to discuss skills related to critical thinking and three specific strategies for teaching these skills : </li></ul><ul><li>1) Building Categories, 2) Finding Problems, and 3) Enhancing the Environment . </li></ul>
    78. 85. Building Categories “Seiger-Ehrenberg, 1985 Developing Minds: A Resource Book for Teaching Thinking, Edited by Arthur L. Costa” <ul><li>In science “animals” and “plants” </li></ul><ul><li>In Social Studies the rules for &quot;discoveries&quot; versus &quot;inventions,&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>In jurisprudence can discover the differences between &quot;felonies&quot; and &quot;misdemeanors.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>In Computer Science the difference between “Developers” and “User” perspectives and needs </li></ul>
    79. 86. Finding Problems <ul><li>problems in the classroom (math and science) bears little resemblance to the way problems look in real life. </li></ul><ul><li>the most important practical thinking skills one can acquire is knowing how to identify a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Finding Problems strategy is a way of framing tasks so that students use skills similar to those needed for the ill-defined problems they will encounter in life. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-finding is an excellent group activity </li></ul>
    80. 87. ENHANCING THE ENVIRONMENT Teaching for Thinking Keefe, James W., Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed. 1992 <ul><li>Critical thinking in the classroom is facilitated by a physical and intellectual environment that encourages a spirit of discovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seating is arranged so that students share the &quot;stage&quot; with the teacher and all can see and interact with each other, this helps to minimize the passive, receptive mode many students adopt when all are facing the teacher </li></ul></ul>
    81. 88. <ul><ul><li>2. Visual aids in the classroom can encourage ongoing attention to critical thought processes , like posting signs that say, &quot;Why do I think that?&quot; &quot;Is it fact or opinion?&quot; &quot;How are these two things alike?&quot; &quot;What would happen if...?&quot; Suggestions below each question can remind students how they should go about answering them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. As the students move through the curriculum in a given subject, their attention can be directed periodically to the signs as appropriate. </li></ul></ul>
    82. 89. SKILLS RELATED TO CRITICAL THINKING <ul><li>Across subject areas and levels, educational research has identified several discrete skills related to an overall ability for critical thinking. These are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding analogies and other kinds of relationships between pieces of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining the relevance and validity of information that could be used for structuring and solving problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding and evaluating solutions or alternative ways of treating problems </li></ul></ul>
    83. 90. &quot;hallmarks&quot; of teaching for critical thinking <ul><li>Just as there are similarities among the definitions of critical thinking across subject areas and levels, there are several generally recognized &quot;hallmarks&quot; of teaching for critical thinking ( Beyer, 1985; Costa, 1985 ). These include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-Promoting interaction among students as they learn - Learning in a group setting often helps each member achieve more. </li></ul></ul>
    84. 91. &quot;hallmarks&quot; of teaching for critical thinking <ul><ul><li>2- Asking open-ended questions that do not assume the &quot;one right answer&quot; - Critical thinking is often exemplified best when the problems are inherently ill-defined and do not have a &quot;right&quot; answer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-ended questions also encourage students to think and respond creatively, without fear of giving the &quot;wrong&quot; answer. </li></ul></ul>
    85. 92. <ul><ul><li>3-Allowing sufficient time for students to reflect on the questions asked or problems posed – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical thinking seldom involves snap judgments; therefore, posing questions and allowing adequate time before soliciting responses helps students understand that they are expected to deliberate and to ponder, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and that the immediate response is not always the best response. </li></ul></ul>&quot;hallmarks&quot; of teaching for critical thinking
    86. 93. Conclusions: <ul><li>Any higher education educator needs deep understanding of critical thinking and effective methods for fostering it in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>We need to provide intellectual tools needed to create and sustain effective school and classroom learning environments. </li></ul><ul><li>The point of view taken here is that we do not merely want students to become skilled thinkers, but rather, to become fair-minded skilled thinkers who look at learning and life from an ethical perspective . </li></ul><ul><li>We need an inquiry approach in which we will be engaged in reflective thinking in several ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>first, we will reflect upon our own thinking about specific concepts and issues; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>second, we will reflect upon the thoughts and viewpoints of fellow classmates; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third, we will reflect upon the ideas of selected experts in the field. </li></ul></ul>
    87. 94. Thanks a million You were great audience SIEC-ISBE: 79th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE 2007 Professor Lili Saghafi
    88. 95. Questions?? SIEC-ISBE: 79th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE 2007 Professor Lili Saghafi
    89. 96. References: <ul><li>Thought & Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking Fourth Edition ,Diane F. Halpern , Berger Institute for Work, Family, & Children Claremont McKenna College , LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOCIATES, PUBLISHERS Mahwah, New Jersey London </li></ul><ul><li>THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT CRITICAL THINKING, Diane F. Halpern ,California State University ,San Bernardino </li></ul><ul><li>TEACHING CRITICAL THINKING ,Grace E. Grant , PRAEGER New York Westport, Connecticut ,London </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing university students' general and specific critical thinking. by Chau-Kiu Cheung , Elisabeth Rudowicz , Anna S.F. Kwan , Xiao Dong Yue </li></ul><ul><li>Beyer, B.K. (1985). Critical thinking: What is it? &quot;Social Education,&quot; 49, 270-276. </li></ul><ul><li>James J. Messina & Constance M. Messina coping org “ Tools for Coping “ </li></ul><ul><li>Costa, A.L. (Ed.)(1985). &quot;Developing minds: A resource book for teaching thinking.&quot; Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. </li></ul><ul><li>French, J.N., & Rhoder, C. (1992). &quot;Teaching thinking skills: Theory and practice.&quot; New York: Garland Publishing, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Keefe, J.W., & Walberg, H.J. (Eds.)(1992). &quot;Teaching for thinking.&quot; Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principles. </li></ul><ul><li>Pauker, R.A. (1987). &quot;Teaching thinking and reasoning skills: Problems and solutions.&quot; Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators. </li></ul><ul><li>Seiger-Ehrenberg, S. (1985). Concept development. In A.L. Costa (Ed.), &quot;Developing minds: A resource book for teaching thinking.&quot; Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. </li></ul>