INTERACT 2011, September 9th, Lisboa DESIGN AS INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE: COUPLING HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN WITH REQUIREMENT ENGINEERING METHODS Chiara Leonardi, Luca Sabatucci, Angelo Susi, and Massimo Zancanaro Speaker: Luca Sabatucci, Software Engineering Unit, FBK
2ACube• Critical Context• Acceptability• Privacy and Value• Low Intrusiveness
3Human-Centered Design Strengths Limits• Ethnographic Study • Does not support• Engagement of users traceability• Concrete representation • Does not support of the domain abstraction• Stories prioritize • Coverage problem requirements
The Tropos MethodologyAn Overview• Agent-oriented design process,• Based on goal-oriented language and notation.• The focus is on capturing intentional and strategic dependencies among actors of a domain.• Five phases: from early/later requirements to architecture, implementation and deployment.Giunchiglia et al. 2003. The Tropos Software Development Methodology:Processes, Models and Diagrams. In Agent-Oriented Software EngineeringIII, Springer
5Tropos Strengths Lacks and Limits• Strategic view of the • Prioritization of domain requirements• Analysis of motivations • Needs translation to and dependencies involve users• Check of quality and • Model mainly invariant coverage elements of the domain• Support traceability • Can’t model physical context
Tropos and UCD:a Promising Synergy• Purpose: • synergy without reducing advantages• Enablers: • Ground on information about people • Similar “High Level” objectives (requirements) • Similar Language (goal/need, actor/persona) • Similar methodological approach (data exploration, filtering)
7Working Together Integration Assimilation• bridge the gap between • transform a speciﬁc different research approach to make it ﬁt traditions into another one • to work in a situation of• to work in a situation of methodological purity methodological pluralism • the risk is to loose the• overhead for practitioners strength of one of the approaches • more complex for method designer
The Common Meta-Model: a lesson learned UCD META-MODEL ? TROPOS META-MODEL ? persona wish empathy ? need scenario = difficulty in providing a precise semanticsSusi et al. 2005. The TroposMetamodel and its Use. = difficulty in identifying inter-concepts relationshipsINFORMATICA ? = uncertainty to bridge concepts
The Integrated Process• Iterative process• Design threads in parallel • shared design vision • common problem space • no priority• Inform without constraining• Frequent, small evaluations
11The aim is to find under whatconditions our experience can begeneralized • Strengths/limits analysisRECIPE • Making the divides explicit • Mutual learning
Slide 12Strengths/limits analysis• It relies on the identiﬁcation of strengths and limits• This allows to deﬁne integration points to create a beneficial dialogue• It allows to preserve their strengths.
Slide 13Making the divides explicitIdentifying barriers that may hinder the dialogue betweenthe two methods. • Epistemological divides • Linguistic and conceptual divides
Slide 14Mutual learningMutual learning represent the crucial aspect to mediatebetween the different epistemologies and languages • Definition of a shared dictionary of terms (natural language) • Collaborative negotiation of the definition of terms in the dictionary which leads to discover hidden relationships between terms • Iteration with refinement until the agreement
Operative Example CONTEXT NARRATIVE DESCRIPTION TROPOS EARLY CRITICALITIES REQUIREMENTS PERSONAS/ SCENARIOS• A criticality is a situation in the organization for which the system is being designed.• A criticality is represented as a view on the organization model that focuses on highlighting actors, goals and tasks when a critical situation occurs.• The description is enriched with information about the context in which the problem may occur and the impact on the standard stakeholder activities.