3D Printers, bio-printers and physibles


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This is an overview of 2012 existing and emerging technologies and opportunities with 3D printing and bio-printing.

This is a very broad field, and highly technical, thus this presentation has no pretension in covering every bits of informations, but rather present a big picture to answer the question: why does it matter?

This presentation is a slightly modified version of a face-to-face presentation I have done. In the original presentation, only the violin demo had sound, but I added sound for 2 more videos here where I thought that was necessary since I cannot speak to you.

The presentation originally lasted 15 to 20 minutes without the bonus material, which was used on request to answer questions after the presentation.

You can download the full presentation with comments and videos embedded as an ODP file at:
Size: about 25 MB

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  • Octopod by Sean Charlesworth: http://opus5.complex88.com/
  • This presentation is a very broad overview because of time constraints. You can ask me questions or read references to further dig into the subject.
  • Hephaestus Norrse mythology: Wayland the Smith Hindu: Vishwakarma - Lord of Architecture To make is extremely powerful, to bring something into existence, to create, it’s holy and it appears in the first words of the most popular book ever written: “in the beginning God created the heavens and the earth”.
  • Can print in multiple colors with a few 3D printers (you use different colors cartridges just like in 2D inkjet printers). Even fashion clothes were 3D printed: http://gizfactory.com/article/3d-printing-a-force-multiplier-for-designers/
  • All these objects (except the 2D printer maybe) were 3D printed in one part with no assembly afterwards! 3D printed 2D printer by the students at University of Virginia: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IyN5MKLfpL0
  • Why it matters: Optic fibers could be easily 3D printed along the object, plus it is cheap, thus it will be possible in the near future to create sensors/interactive/intelligent objects with a single print! Electronic circuits can already be 3D printed, for example with RepRap. http://blog.reprap.org/2009/04/first-reprapped-circuit.html http://reprap.org/wiki/Automated_Circuitry_Making http://www.core77.com/blog/digital_fabrication/must-see_video_disney_research_presents_optically-enabled_3d-printed_interactive_objects_23591.asp
  • cheap 3D micro printer: http://www.youtube.com/watch?annotation_id=annotation_430459&feature=iv&src_vid=OhYvDS7q_V8&v=D2IQkKE7h9I&t=7m08s http://www.tuwien.ac.at/en/news/news_detail/article/7444/ Structures are not even visible from naked eyes! Smaller than a grain of sand! Official website: http://3dmicroprinter.com/
  • Areion was created using “mammoth stereolithography” Areion EV: World's First 3D Printed Car Hits 140 KM/H! 16 student engineers from Belgium-based Group T http://inhabitat.com/areion-ev-worlds-first-3d-printed-car-hits-140-kmh/ Almost entirely 3D printed. Follow at formulagroupt.be First 3D urban car Urbee (only 1 part the external chassis): http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/thinking-tech/the-worlds-first-3-d-printed-car-video/8583 http://www.urbee.net/home/ - Solar-powered 3-D printer turns sand into glass objects Massive printer builds 3D structures with sand - Printing massive structures like buildings: 3D printer could build moon bases from sand http://phys.org/news190873132.html - Drones and Ostrich robot (faster than existing legged robot and the fastest human runner Usain Bolt): http://www.3ders.org/articles/20111203-8-nature-inspired-robotscreated-using-3d-printer.html - 3D printed planes are explored by Airbus: http://www.forbes.com/sites/parmyolson/2012/07/11/airbus-explores-a-future-where-planes-are-built-with-giant-3d-printers/ http://www.airbus.com/innovation/future-by-airbus/concept-planes/the-airbus-concept-cabin/future-technologies/
  • Wiki Weapon project defensedistributed.com http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/bulletin/printable-guns-wiki-weapon-project-suffers-second-setback/1504?tag=content;siu-container Already printed AR-15: While only one part of the gun was actually ”printed,” the lower receiver is the critical piece that enables the weapon to fire. It holds the bolt, trigger and the magazine, where ammunition is stored. http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/thinking-tech/uh-oh-3d-printer-produces-a-real-gun/12527
  • Producing beef this way results in a 96% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions compared to rearing animals, and uses 45% of the energy, 1% of the land and 4% of the water associated with conventional beef production. 3D food printer (opensource): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XQni3wb0tyM&feature=related The Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP) estimates that 800,000 tonnes of food, worth £2 billion, is thrown away in Britain each year in the mistaken belief that it has gone off. Smart labelling could prevent that. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2012/may/18/3d-printers-food-sustainable "I'm very open to the idea that some of our ingredients might come from Petri dishes or printers in the future, but I'd shy away from believing these sorts of technologies will solve our global food crisis on their own. That's why I'd like to see technology used to reconnect people with what they eat." Cultured meat (with Petri dishes) vs conventional meat production Burritobot: sneak peak at the future of fast food: http://www.fastcodesign.com/1670070/burritobot-a-3-d-printer-that-spits-out-burritos#1
  • First successful transplant of a 3D jaw: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-16907104
  • A 3D printed exoskeleton was the only solution for a child because of: - cost - weight - size - ability to quickly manufacture at low cost a new exoskeleton when the child grows up All credits for this video go to Stratasys: http://www.stratasys.com/MagicArms
  • - Mass customization - No more discontinued products parts - Smaller CO2 footprint - Very personnalized products (eg: perfect lamp design for your desktop, perfect prosthetic, very specific implants, etc..) eg: digitalforming.com - May even be cheaper and faster: 3D metal printing is a lot cheaper than any other current method and also faster. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i6Px6RSL9Ac&feature=related
  • Many forks, there even are trends analysis RepRap (short for replicating rapid prototyper) Latest RepRapPro Mendel supports multi-material/colour 3D printing. Can print objects of any length or width because here the head does not move, it’s the support table that moves around (so that you are only limited by the size of the table you use). Only limit is height (and yet you can design your RepRap with longer joints to overcome that limit too). - RepRap is the most used 3D printers currently: http://www.reprap.org/wiki/File:3D-printing-user-chart.png Source: Moilanen, J. & Vadén, T.: Manufacturing in motion: first survey on the 3D printing community, Statistical Studies of Peer Production. RepRap was founded in March 2005 by Dr Adrian Bowyer, a Senior Lecturer in mechanical engineering at the University of Bath in the United Kingdom. Similar project Fab@Home: http://www.fabathome.org 3D Scanners: David scanner (free) or ReconstructMe.net software using Kinect or Asus Xtion About universal constructor, see Von Neumann Universal Constructor theory The stated goal of the RepRap project is to produce a pure self-replicating device not for its own sake, but rather to put in the hands of individuals anywhere on the planet, for a minimal outlay of capital, a desktop manufacturing system that would enable the individual to manufacture many of the artifacts used in everyday life. From a theoretical viewpoint, the project is attempting to prove the hypothesis that "Rapid prototyping and direct writing technologies are sufficiently versatile to allow them to be used to make a von Neumann Universal Constructor". - Mimics biological evolution (replication and enhancement for each generation) - Evolution for each generation - Self-replicating (almost) - Increase exponentially the number of units - Works by shaping the material layer-by-layer (generally by extrusion) - Raw materials: thermopolymers (standard), ceramic, conductive solder. - Users are encouraged to experiment new printing methods and materials (contrary to most commercial machines)
  • And also called Tissue Engineering
  • Dr Anthony Atala from Institute of Regenerative Medicine Most of current cutting-edge research ideas on Regenerative Medicine can be found in the old book The culture of organs by Alexis Carrel & Charles A Lindbergh, 1938.
  • 2 chambers rat heart, 40 minutes, 46 hours later the muscle's cells contract. This is an early prototype of a 3D bioprinter, using a modified 2D inkjet printer. There are now far more advanced machines, and some are even sold to industrials and medical labs (eg: bioplotter).
  • Every 30 seconds, a patient dies from diseases that could be treated with tissue replacement. Some patients are living with a 3D bio printed organ since 10 years
  • Now that we know what is possible now, will it change our future for the good or the bad? In fact for both...
  • - Objects piracy
  • Now that we know what is possible now, will it change our future for the good or the bad? In fact for both...
  • Also the MAKE magazine: http://blog.makezine.com/magazine/make-ultimate-guide-to-3d-printing/
  • - Best starting points to learn how to make and use 3D printers: http://reprap.org/wiki/The_incomplete_reprap_beginner's_guide http://www.3ders.org/3d-printing-basics.html
  • Also the MAKE magazine: http://blog.makezine.com/magazine/make-ultimate-guide-to-3d-printing/
  • In the last James Bond movie Skyfall, the Aston Martin DB5 seen in most scenes is a 3D printed fully functioning replica, the illusion is perfect, at least I didn’t see anything.
  • LIST constructible materials that RepRap or other 3D printers can print (separate, because pro 3d printers can print pretty much anything!) http://reprap.org/wiki/Frame_material Industrial printers: thermoplastics, any metal alloy (including aliminium and titanium), plaster, concrete, ceramic, sand, edible (eg: chocolate, meat), etc..
  • 3D printers price comparison charts: http://www.3ders.org/3d-printer/3d-printer-price.html http://www.3ders.org/pricecompare/3dprinters/ Materials price comparison charts: cost between 10$ - 40$ / kg for thermoplastic filaments. Can even order on Amazon shops. http://reprap.org/wiki/Printing_Material_Suppliers http://www.3ders.org/pricecompare/ [image of filament: http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=sr_nr_p_n_availability_1?rh=k%3Aabs+filament%2Cn%3A16310091%2Cp_4%3A3D+Printer+Supplies&bbn=16310091&keywords=abs+filament&ie=UTF8&qid=1351194507 ] Total Cost: $250-$620 (depending on what functionnalities you are willing to cut) To print an object the size of an average computer mouse would cost about $2 An smartphone like the IPhone would cost more than a 3D Printer.
  • REGENERATIVE MEDICINE Main challenges: - Biomaterial accepted by the patient's body - Cells of different types - Blood Supply Channels (artificial vascularity, veins and arteries) The culture of organs by Alexis Carrel; Charles A Lindbergh, 1938 First successful real world use of a biomaterial in 1996 Current research goal: extend lifespan of biomaterials from 10 (1 decade) to 40 years (4 decades) or more. Old method steps outline: - extract cells from tiny sample of the patient's organ (to avoid rejection) - use a biomaterial as a scaffold, shaped like the organ - layer cells on the biomaterial scaffold, layer-by-layer - final organ "baking" in an oven-like device - train the organ functions (and check the artificial vascularity) - transplant back the organ into the patient People with engineered organs since more than 10 years. 2nd-gen method: - Use a standard desktop printer, but with "ink-cells" and a depth platform. [vid: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SfRgg9botI&NR=1&feature=endscreen&t=11m00s] 2 chambers heart, 40 minutes, 46 hours later the muscle's cells contract. 3rd-gen method (current): - 3D bioprinter Next-gen method: - Scanner + on-body printer Next-gen+ method: - CT scanner + 3d bioprinter [vid for methods: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9RMx31GnNXY&feature=related] Every 30 seconds, a patient dies from diseases that could be treated with tissue replacement. Complexity scale of organs: - blood vessels and arteries only, and other kind of organs - hollow organs - solid organs like ears or digits, because they require a big amount of cells - highly vascularized organs such as the heart, the liver or the kidney are by far the hardest to make (ear or digits are very easy).
  • 3D Printers, bio-printers and physibles

    1. 1. 3D Printers, bio-printers and physibles
    2. 2. 3D Printers, bio-printers and physibles An inventory in 2012 of existing and emerging technologies and opportunities By Stephen Larroque Computer Science student at the University Pierre-and-Marie-Curie of Paris
    3. 3. Outline• Myth of Daedalus• 3D Printers• Bio-Printers• Opening to the future• Conclusion
    4. 4. Myth of Daedalus AutomatonsWings made of feathers and wax
    5. 5. 3D Printersaka additive manufacturing
    6. 6. A little history• 1980s : – Early examples – SLS, Stereolithography and FDM patented• 1995 : « 3D printing » term coined at MIT• 2005 : RepRap project is born• 2009 : – MakerBot first kits – Thingiverse• 2012 : ThePirateBay Physibles
    7. 7. Some historical constraints...• 1980s : 3D printers are big and expensive (100K$ to 1M$)• Very complicated setup• Only rapid prototyping, no final product• Used for : – industrial prototypes – Architects scale models• And that’s all !
    8. 8. Modern printers How it works• Object shaped layer-by-layer
    9. 9. What you can make
    10. 10. What you can make 2 3D printed « Stradivarius »-like violin (see next slide for video)
    11. 11. What you can make 3• Dynamic gears (all-in-one-part printing) no assembly!
    12. 12. What you can make 4• Interactive objects, sensors and circuit boards
    13. 13. What you can make 5 • Micro structures smaller than a grain of sand A 285 µm racecar St. Stephens Cathedral, ViennaLondon Tower Bridge
    14. 14. What you can make 6• Big structures (sand, car, guns, engine, aircraft, drones, metamaterials, etc..)
    15. 15. What you can make 7Areion EV: 140 KM/H
    16. 16. What you can make 8
    17. 17. What you can make 9• Food printers, in near-future meat printers
    18. 18. What you can make 10• Perfectly tailored prostheses
    19. 19. What you can make 11 • Perfectly tailored prosthesesLightweight & cheap “Magic Arms” exoskeleton made for children (next slide for video)
    20. 20. Advantages of 3D printing• Wide resolution range (micro objects to buildings)• Complex structures otherwise impossible to make• Lightweight (no joint overhead)• Cheaper than any other manufacturing solution• Stronger (all in one part = no joint failure)• Ecological: Smaller CO2 footprint• No waste of material• Advent of rapid manufacturing (vs rapid prototyping)
    21. 21. Limits ?• Still expensive• Complex to use• It’s only hype• Or is it really ?
    22. 22. The RepRap project• DIY opensource 3D printer• Self-replicating (almost)• Object duplication w/ 3D scanner (cheap)• Many forks (like Linux distributions)• Most common 3D printer• Quick propagation• « Print parties »,FabLabs, Public Libraries• Universal constructor?
    23. 23. 3D Bio-printers aka regenerative medicine
    24. 24. Quick history• The culture of organs by Alexis Carrel & Charles A Lindbergh, 1938• 1996 : First successful real world use of a biomaterial• 2002 : Pr M. Nakamura noticed standard ink droplets ≈ size of human cells, and made the first 3D bio-printed biomaterial (with alive cells) using an Epson inkjet.• 2003 : Thomas Boland’s lab made first 2D bioprinter• 2008 : – Pr M. Nakamura invented first working bioprinter to print biotubes (blood vessel) – Organovo’s NovoGen MMX first commercial bioprinter• 2011 : New 3D bio printer technologies demonstrated by Dr Anthony Atala
    25. 25. How it works• Works similarly to 3D-printers• Use Bio-Materials scaffolds + living cells RESULT
    26. 26. How it works 2 Printing a rat’s heart
    27. 27. Printing organs• Can engineer anything: bones, ears, fingers, blood vessels, heart, lungs, bladder, skin, etc. Skin in-situ scanner+regenerator
    28. 28. Printing organs 2 3D bioprinted lab grown lung
    29. 29. Opening to the future Or how 3D printing may change our lives
    30. 30. Future good scenarios• Repair/replace a damaged organ• Instant product (no delivery)• Food safer and ecological production• Shareable objects, peer-to-peer objects sharing, collective production (eg : relatives help to make a car just like building a house)• Open-source objects• Transplants abundance, no chance of rejection• May abolish manual (child?) labor• Might improve lives in resource-challenged worlds regions
    31. 31. Future bad scenarios• Identity theft (eg: 3D copy of fingerprint, or even whole hand!)• Goods counterfeiting• Weapons production (massive production or custom undetected weapons)• Terrorism and remote access (hacking your 3D printer and print a bomb or a remote drone)• Cloning soldiers?• Grey goo end-of-world scenario
    32. 32. Conclusion
    33. 33. Conclusion• 3D printing ≠ 2D printing + 1D• 3D printing is rapidly maturing• Still a lot to discover• Can save lives (literally)• May disrupt property and manufacturing processes• Ethical and law questions need to be solved• Potentially very dangerous
    34. 34. Further reading/viewing• Books – The culture of organs by Alexis Carrel & Charles A Lindbergh, 1938 – Check the comments across the presentation for more• Magazines – Make: Ultimate guide to 3D printing (Nov 2012)
    35. 35. Further reading/viewing• Videos – Anthony Atala: Printing a human kidney and Growing new organs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9RMx31GnNXY&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SfRgg9botI – Klaus Stadlmann - The worlds smallest 3D Printer http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D2IQkKE7h9I – Lisa Harouni: A primer on 3D printing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OhYvDS7q_V8&feature=related – Interview of Dr Adrian Bowyer, inventor of RepRap http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ltYeNuOvLn0• Websites – 3ders.org – reprap.org – thingiverse.com – thepiratebay.se/browse/605 – euromold.com
    36. 36. References– Dr Attalan Ted Talks– Stratasys’s “Magic Arms” and turbo-prop aircraft engine– NASA’s rover– Sean Charlesworth’s Octopod– 3D printed 2D printer by students at the University of Virginia– Disney Research’s optic fibered interactive 3D printed objects– RepRap project for images– Micro printer from the TU Vienna and presented by Klaus Stadlmann– Columbia Pictures for the Skyfall movie image– Aston Martin for the DB5 model– Areion is part of the Formula Group T project run by Belgian masterstudents– Urbee team– Objet for the 3D printing videos demonstrations– DARPA’s Ostrich robot (FastRunner)– EOS for the Stradivarius like violin
    37. 37. Fun fact Aston Martin DB5 3D printed replica
    38. 38. Bonus material
    39. 39. Modern 3D printers technos• 3 established technologies : – SLS (selective laser sintering) – FDM (fused depostion modeling) – SLA (stereolithograhpy)• Newcomers : – Sand Clustering (buildings) – Contour Crafting (printing concrete buildings) – Two-photon Lithography (micro structures) – Corner Lithography (nano structures)
    40. 40. 3D printing materials• 3D printers materials : – thermoplastics, any metal alloy (including aliminium and titanium), plaster, concrete, ceramic, sand, edible (eg: chocolate, meat), etc.. – Meta materials (“invisibility cloaks”!)• Bio printers materials : – agar, gelatine, chitosan, clollagen, and alginate and fibrin. – Recently done : human stem cells.
    41. 41. 3D printing cost• 3D printers : – DIY: from 250$ – Assembled kits : from 450$ – Industrial pro 3D printers: from 1,000$ to 15,000$• 3D bio-printers : – DIY: not yet communicated, but probably low (based on standard inkjets or on RepRap) – Industrial : Bioplotter is priced 18,000$• Materials : – Thermoplastic filaments: 10$ - 40$ / kg – Other materials : usually less than what another manufacturing process would incur – Object the size of a computer mouse ≈ $2
    42. 42. 3D bioprinting methodsCurrent research goal: extend lifespan of biomaterials from 10 (1 decade) to 40years (4 decades) or more.A few people already live with engineered organs since more than 10 years.• 1st-gen method: Use a standard desktop printer, but with "ink-cells" and a depth platform.(2 chambers heart, 40 minutes, 46 hours later the muscles cells contract)• 2nd-gen method (current): 3D bioprinter• 3rd-gen method (future): Scanner + on-body printer• Next-gen method (future): CT scanner + 3d bioprinterComplexity scale of organs:• blood vessels and arteries only, and other kind of organs• hollow organs• solid organs like ears or digits, because they require a big amount of cells• highly vascularized organs such as the heart, the liver or the kidney are by far the hardest to make (ear or digits are very easy).
    43. 43. Thank you!