To report statements we use a reporting verb ( say , tell , advise , explain , promise , etc) followed by a that -clause. In spoken English that may be omitted.
Pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to the meaning.
Direct Speech : He said, “ I can’t fix it myself .”
Reported Sp .: He said he couldn’t fix it himself .
Certain words change as follows: Before Ago The week before Last week The following week Next week The day before Yesterday The next day/ the following day Tomorrow That night Tonight That day Today Then Now Those These That This There Here Reported Sp. Direct Sp.
When the reporting verb is in the Past the verb tenses change as follow : To-infinitive (to speak) Imperative (speak) Conditional (should/would) Future (shall/will) Past Perfect (he had spoken) Past Perfect (he had spoken) Past Perfect (he had spoken) Present Perfect (he has spoken) Past Perfect (he had spoken) Past Simple (he spoke) Past Contin. (he was speaking) Present Contin. (he is speaking) Past Simple (he spoke) Present Simple (he speaks) Reported Speech Direct Speech
He told me to go/ not to go. “ Go/Don’t go!” Hadn’t spoken Hadn’t spoken Hadn’t spoken Didn’t speak Had spoken Spoke Had had Had Had been Were Had been Was Didn’t Don’t Didn’t Doesn’t There were There are There was There is Had Have Had Has Was Is Was Am Reported Speech Direct Speech
Modal verbs Needn’t/ didn’t have to Needn’t Must/ Had to Must Daren’t Daren’t Ought to Ought to Should Should Would Would Could Could Might Might Might May Could Can Reported Speech Direct Speech
In Reported questions we use affirmative word order and the question mark is omitted . To report a wh-question , we use ask by the question word (who, what,etc). When there is no question word in direct questions, if or whether is used in Reported questions. Pronouns, possessive adjectives, tenses, time expressions, etc. change as in statements.