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5e.Reported Speech   Theory And Changes
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5e.Reported Speech Theory And Changes

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  • this is a goop PPt .It should include all the rules.
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  • 1. REPORTED SPEECH Reported Speech is the exact meaning of what someone said but not the exact words. We do not use quotation marks in Reported Speech.
  • 2. REPORTED STATEMENTS
    • To report statements we use a reporting verb ( say , tell , advise , explain , promise , etc) followed by a that -clause. In spoken English that may be omitted.
    • Pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to the meaning.
    • Direct Speech : He said, “ I can’t fix it myself .”
    • Reported Sp .: He said he couldn’t fix it himself .
  • 3. Certain words change as follows: Before Ago The week before Last week The following week Next week The day before Yesterday The next day/ the following day Tomorrow That night Tonight That day Today Then Now Those These That This There Here Reported Sp. Direct Sp.
  • 4. When the reporting verb is in the Past the verb tenses change as follow : To-infinitive (to speak) Imperative (speak) Conditional (should/would) Future (shall/will) Past Perfect (he had spoken) Past Perfect (he had spoken) Past Perfect (he had spoken) Present Perfect (he has spoken) Past Perfect (he had spoken) Past Simple (he spoke) Past Contin. (he was speaking) Present Contin. (he is speaking) Past Simple (he spoke) Present Simple (he speaks) Reported Speech Direct Speech
  • 5. He told me to go/ not to go. “ Go/Don’t go!” Hadn’t spoken Hadn’t spoken Hadn’t spoken Didn’t speak Had spoken Spoke Had had Had Had been Were Had been Was Didn’t Don’t Didn’t Doesn’t There were There are There was There is Had Have Had Has Was Is Was Am Reported Speech Direct Speech
  • 6. Modal verbs Needn’t/ didn’t have to Needn’t Must/ Had to Must Daren’t Daren’t Ought to Ought to Should Should Would Would Could Could Might Might Might May Could Can Reported Speech Direct Speech
  • 7.
    • There are no changes in verb tenses when the reporting verb is in the Present , Future or Present Perfect or when the sentences expresses something which is always true.
    • D. S.: She’ ll say , “I can do it”.
    • “ The earth is round”, said the teacher.
    • R.S.: She’ ll say (that) she can do it.
    • The teacher said (that) the earth is
    • round.
  • 8.
    • The Past Continuous does not usually change.
    • D. S.: “I was travelling to Brighton while she was flying to the USA”, he said.
    • R. S.: He said he was travelling to Brighton while she was flying to the USA.
  • 9. REPORTED QUESTIONS
    • In Reported questions we use affirmative word order and the question mark is omitted . To report a wh-question , we use ask by the question word (who, what,etc). When there is no question word in direct questions, if or whether is used in Reported questions. Pronouns, possessive adjectives, tenses, time expressions, etc. change as in statements.
    • D. S.: He asked, “What time is it?”
    • He asked me, “Do you know her?”
    • R. S.: He asked what time it was .
    • He asked me if / whether I knew her.
  • 10. Reported Commands/ Requests/ Suggestions
    • To report commands, requests, suggestions, etc we use a reporting verb ( order , ask , tell , advise , offer , warn , beg , suggest , etc) followed by to-infinitive or not to- infinitive .
    • D.S.: He said to me, “Stop talking!”
    • He said to me, “Don’t touch it!”
    • R.S.: He told me to stop talking.
    • He told me not to touch it.
  • 11.  

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