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Adaptable Information ArchitectureHow to say no to your next redesign   Lou Rosenfeld •  lou@rosenfeldmedia.com   Rosenfel...
Hello, my name is Lou www.louisrosenfeld.com | www.rosenfeldmedia.com
Agenda1.    Hello / What is information architecture?2.    Why redesign should die / The alternatives3.    Prioritizing an...
What isinformation architecture?
Definition The art and science of structuring, organizing and labeling information to help people find and manage it.
Three circles
Three tracks1. Top-down navigation:   Anticipates interests/questions at arrival2. Bottom-up (contextual) navigation:   En...
What is redesignand why should it die?
Why am I so down onredesign?
Why am I so down onredesign?
Redesign ishollow, meaningless,and a vanity.It is the true definitionof insanity.
A story in the Ann ArborNews
UM was going to redesign itsGateway
UM was going to redesign itsGateway
UM was going to redesign itsGateway
UM was going to redesign itsGateway
$250,0  00
$250,0work study students!  00
$250,0work study students!  00     WebObjects!
They even had a ribbon-cutting
This became...
...this
...this
...this
...this
Then they did itall over again
Then they did itall over againand again
Then they did itall over againand againand again
Then they did itall over againand againand againand again
Where we are today
Where we are today
Where we are today
Where we are today
Where problems are undefinedlies insanity and vanity
Where problems are undefinedlies insanity and vanity We attempt the impossible: “boil the ocean” in no time at great cost
Where problems are undefinedlies insanity and vanity We attempt the impossible: “boil the ocean” in no time at great cost W...
Where problems are undefinedlies insanity and vanity We attempt the impossible: “boil the ocean” in no time at great cost W...
See the problem differently
Your site is acomplex adaptive systemJohn Holland:“A Complex Adaptive Systemis a dynamic network ofmany agents acting in p...
Examples of CAS
Examples of CAS
Examples of CAS
Your site is a moving targetbuilt on moving targets
Your site is many sites, products,things out of your control more John Holland: “The control of a complex adaptive system ...
“The perfect is theenemy of the good.”Voltaire mighthave added:“Constant changemeans never havingto say you’re sorry.”
You can’t redesignBut you must refine1. Prioritize: Identify the important problems   regularly2. Tune: Address those probl...
Prioritize becausea little goes a long way
A handful of queries/tasks/ways to navigate/features/ A little goes a long waydocuments meet the needs of your most import...
A handful of queries/tasks/ways to navigate/features/ A little goes a long waydocuments meet the needs of your most import...
A handful of queries/tasks/ways to navigate/features/ A little goes a long waydocuments meet the needs of your most import...
A handful of queries/tasks/ways to navigate/features/ A little goes a long waydocuments meet the needs of your most import...
A handful of queries/tasks/ways to navigate/features/ A little goes a long waydocuments meet the needs of your most import...
(and the tail is quite long)
(and the tail is quite long)
(and the tail is quite long)
(and the tail is quite long)
(and the tail is quite long)
Zipf in text
A little really does goa long way A handful of...  •   queries  •   tasks  •   ways to navigate  •   features  •   documen...
Unverified rumor:90% of Microsoft.com’s content   has never been accessed
From prioritization......to a report card (repeat regularly)
Treat your site        like an onion                                      Each layer is cumulative            informationl...
Be an incrementalist:tune because things change
From projects to processes:a regular regimen of design  Example: the rolling content inventory
Impact of change on design(queries)
IRS before 4/15
Before                  April 15IRS before 4/15
IRS after 4/15
After                 April 15IRS after 4/15
Be an opportunist:look for the low-hanging fruit1. Top-down navigation:   Anticipates interests/questions at arrival2. Bot...
Life by a thousand cuts  50% of users are search dominantx 5% of all queries are typos, fixed by spell checking. 2.5% impr...
Summary Site redesign is wasteful, expensive, and ineffective  1. You don’t have a single, perfectible site  2. You do hav...
Prioritizing and TuningTop-Down Navigation
The data-driven main page:Who wants what and when?
Who wants what?US English speakers
Who wants what?German speakers
When do they want it?
Commerce sites get it
The IRS gets it
But really, who caresabout the main page?
But really, who caresabout the main page?
The risk of main page fixationFrom Tony Dunn’s Tales from Redesignland(http://redesignland.blogspot.com/)
Focusing on main page =taking Zipf too far...plus lots of competition (Google, ads/landing pages)
The tail that wags the dog:site map drivesimproved site hierarchy
Site map by tool, unit, and format
Site map by tool, unit, and format
Site map by tool, unit, and format
User-centered site mapUser-centered site map...
Asking the possiblefrom your site index
Specialized site indices
Specialized site indices
Specialized site indices                   Cisco’s site indices are                   specialized by content              ...
Best bet-based site indices              MSU’s site index is built on              popular information needs              ...
Going broad and deep withguides (AKA microsites)
Kansas main pages loves guides
Kansas main pages loves guides
But the guides need a littlework
Vanguard’s main page lovesguides
Vanguard’s main page lovesguides
The Tax Center is a guide
One more example: IRS
One more example: IRS
...e-filing is presented assequential steps
Summary: Top-down navigation Prioritize main page content and layout  1. Confuse as necessary by diverting attention  2. C...
Break
Agenda1.    Hello / What is information architecture?2.    Why redesign should die / The alternatives3.    Prioritizing an...
concert calendar  album pages   artist descriptions                                            TV listings    Exercise: Co...
Lunch
Agenda1.    Hello / What is information architecture?2.    Why redesign should die / The alternatives3.    Prioritizing an...
Prioritizing and TuningContextual Navigation
Establishing Desire LinesUse     Content modeling •   Site search analytics
Where do searches begin?Not just the mainpage, according to aUser InterfaceEngineering study(http://is.gd/j1NHeS)
Using site search analyticsto identify desire lines
Choose acommon contenttype (e.g., events)                      
Where should              
users go from here?            ...

                             
                                                         
                                 ...

        



                                                      
               
Develop logic that automatically links an event to...
What content typesshould we be connecting?
Important content types emerge from content modeling                    concert calendar  album pages     artist descripti...
Using SSA to prioritize contenttypes
Getting content types out ofsite search analytics Take an hour to...  • Analyze top 50 queries (20% of all search activity...
What should we use toconnect content types?
Which metadata attributes will yourcontent model depend upon?
More on prioritizing metadata attributes
Prioritizing semantic relationships
How do weprioritize content?
Some content value variables               I
Some content value variables               I UsabilityPopularityCredibility
Some content value variables                             Currency                             Freshness                   ...
Some content value variables                                  Currency                                  Freshness         ...
Subjectively “grade” your content’s value1.Chooseappropriate valuecriteria for eachcontent area2.Weight criteria(total = 1...
Subjectively “grade” your content’s value1.Choose                            Subjectiveappropriate value                  ...
Put the grades together for a moreobjective “report card”  Helps prioritize content migrations, refreshes, ...
Put the grades together for a moreobjective “report card”                               Objectifies subjective             ...
Summary:contextual navigation Use content modeling and site search analytics to    1. Identify and prioritize content type...
Agenda1.    Hello / What is information architecture?2.    Why redesign should die / The alternatives3.    Prioritizing an...
Exercise: site search analytics
Break
Agenda1.    Hello / What is information architecture?2.    Why redesign should die / The alternatives3.    Prioritizing an...
Prioritizing and Tuning Search
Make “the Box” accommodatemost searchers’ queries
How long are our queries?  Top 500 queries (37% of all traffic)
Mean = 10.6 charactersMedian = 10 characters
Mean = 10.6 charactersMedian = 10 charactersLong tail queries likely longer
Mean = 10.6 charactersMedian = 10 charactersLong tail queries likely longerTop queries often in low 20s                   ...
Mean = 10.6 charactersMedian = 10 charactersLong tail queries likely longerTop queries often in low 20sDesired: @30 charac...
Mean = 10.6 charactersMedian = 10 charactersLong tail queries likely longerTop queries often in low 20sDesired: @30 charac...
We’ve seen this before:auto-completing queries
Auto-completing from aknown, common items (e.g.,
Auto-completing from aknown, common items (e.g.,         Uses known terms:         e.g., movie titles and         actor/di...
Auto-completing from queries
Uses common queriesAuto-completing from queries
Auto-completing from bestbets
Auto-completing from bestbets          Uses best bets
Making change easy:supporting query refinement
The absolutemeaninglessness      ofadvanced search
The absolute                                     meaninglessness                                           of             ...
The absolute                                     meaninglessness                                           of             ...
Contextualizing “advanced” features
Look to session data forprogression and context
Look to session data forprogression and context  search session patterns  1. solar energy  2. how solar energy works
Look to session data forprogression and context  search session patterns  1. solar energy  2. how solar energy works searc...
Look to session data forprogression and context                              search session patterns  search session patte...
Look to session data forprogression and context                                  search session patterns  search session p...
Look to session data forprogression and context                                      search session patterns  search sessi...
Improving performance forspecialized queries
Recognizing proper nouns,dates, and unique ID#s
Surfacing specialized contenttypes in search results
Tuning Search Results:Handling specialized answers
Tuning Search Results:Handling specialized answers
Tuning Search Results:Handling specialized answers
Tuning Search Results:    Handling specialized answers“Product quick links” come directly from product content modelThese ...
When raw isn’t good enough:best bet search results
best bet #1
best bet #1best bet #2
best bet #1best bet #2even more best bets
best bet #1best bet #2even more best betsraw results
best bet #1best bet #2even more best betsraw results
best bet #1 best bet #2  even more   best betscompetition raw results
best bet #1 best bet #2  even more   best betscompetition  danger? raw results
best bet #1 best bet #2  even more   best betscompetition  danger?   data raw results
The 0 search results page:search’s equivalent of the 404
Tuning Search Results:    0 results pagesNot helpful
Tuning Search Results:    0 results pagesNot helpfulMuch better: “Did youmean?” and  Popular Searches
Summary: Search systems Tune query entry  1. Make “The Box” wide enough  2. Support query auto-completion to focus queries...
Changing your workand your organization
Doing your work differently1. Processes, not projects2. Rebalancing your research and design
From time-boxed projectsto ongoing processes  Example: the rolling content inventory
What else can roll? Each week, for example...  •   Analyze analytics for trends  •   Task analysis of common needs Each mo...
Build a practice that’sbalanced and data-driven
User Research Landscapefrom Christian Rohrer: http://is.gd/95HSQ2
User Research Landscape                                   Ongoing coverage                                    of each of t...
A balanced research regimen Each week...  •   Analyze analytics for trends (Behavioral + Quantitative)  •   Task analysis ...
Lou’s TABLE OFOVERGENERALIZED            Web Analytics              User Experience  DICHOTOMIES                          ...
Getting your organizationto support your work1. Making friends and allies2. Changing your leaders’ minds
Making friends and allies
Showing content ownershow their content performs
Showing content ownershow their content performs
Helping marketingdevelop better messagingJargon vs. Plain Language at Washtenaw Community College  • Online courses were m...
Helping IT say “no” with authorityReduce pressure to solve problems with technologies by making what we have workMinimize ...
Changing leaders’ minds
Talking pointsfor refining, against redesigning 1. Solve the problem(s) 2. Save money 3. Reduce/end radical organizational ...
Solving the problem(s)• Forcing the issue: ban the term “redesign”  from discussions• Data-driven definition / prioritizati...
Steward Brand’s Pace Layeringmodel              Typical design                       focus                     Stuff that ...
Example of an anchor:your elevator pitch  Read Gamestorming (Gray, Brown,  Macanufo); O’Reilly, 2010).  http://amzn.to/nnp...
Saving money•   Life by a thousand cuts: small changes have    huge impacts (see: Zipf)•   Reuse and retain technology inv...
Reduce/end radicalorganizational changes• End the pendulum swing from centralized  to decentralized approaches• Reorganize...
Being prepared to fail
Sometimes your leadersare in a hurry
Sometimes your leadersare not very smart
Sometimes your organizationis immature
Nurit Peres’ Company UX Maturity Model(http://is.gd/x1dOuP)
Renato Feijó’s UX Maturity Model(http://is.gd/dul2t2)
Always be ready to gounder the radar
Summary: changing your workand your organization Do your work differently  1.   Move from time-based projects to ongoing p...
Discussion
Agenda1.    Hello / What is information architecture?2.    Why redesign should die / The alternatives3.    Prioritizing an...
Say hello Lou Rosenfeld lou@louisrosenfeld.com Rosenfeld Media  www.louisrosenfeld.com | @louisrosenfeld www.rosenfeldmedi...
Adaptable Information Workshop slides
Adaptable Information Workshop slides
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Adaptable Information Workshop slides

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Slides for my full-day information architecture workshop. Will teach in Minneapolis, MN (November 12, 2012) and Toronto, ON (November 29, 2012) Details: http://rosenfeldmedia.com/workshops/

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  • Need to make strong point of context of large orgs\n
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  • Explain what I mean by redesign\n
  • MICHIGAN STORY SHOULD BE SHORTER\nALSO, TRY TO COME UP WITH A NON-ACADEMIC SITE AS SHORTER EXAMPLES (MICHIGAN AS DEEP DIVE)\n
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  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Voltaire.jpg\n
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  • Amazing drawing by Eva-Lotta Lamm: www.evalotta.net\n
  • Amazing drawing by Eva-Lotta Lamm: www.evalotta.net\n
  • Amazing drawing by Eva-Lotta Lamm: www.evalotta.net\n
  • Amazing drawing by Eva-Lotta Lamm: www.evalotta.net\n
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  • More great illustrations by Eva-Lotta Lamm\n
  • Onion courtesy Eva-Lotta Lamm\n
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  • http://recentissuetoday.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/pink_sprinkled_donut.jpg\n
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  • http://img.wallpaperstock.net:81/lion-lunch-wallpapers_10278_1024x768.jpg\n
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  • http://www.deadlysins.info/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/donut.jpg\n
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  • In this example, we analyzed AIGA’s top 500 unique queries for a specific month--these accounted for exactly 37% of all search activity. We used Microsoft’s “LEN” function to count the number of characters in each query, and then calculated the queries’ mean and median lengths (10.648 and 10, respectively). \n<big chart>\nSorting by query length, we see that the maximum length among these 500 queries was 62 characters, but that is something of an outlier; the next longest was 36, then 28 and flattening out (apparently, Zipf is everywhere):\n<small chart>\nBased on this data, we might be safe using a search entry box with a width in the 15-20 characters range. If horizontal real estate isn’t at a premium, a width of 30 characters would be even better.\n\n
  • Zipf is everywhere):\n<small chart>\nBased on this data, we might be safe using a search entry box with a width in the 15-20 characters range. If horizontal real estate isn’t at a premium, a width of 30 characters would be even better.\n\n
  • Zipf is everywhere):\n<small chart>\nBased on this data, we might be safe using a search entry box with a width in the 15-20 characters range. If horizontal real estate isn’t at a premium, a width of 30 characters would be even better.\n\n
  • Zipf is everywhere):\n<small chart>\nBased on this data, we might be safe using a search entry box with a width in the 15-20 characters range. If horizontal real estate isn’t at a premium, a width of 30 characters would be even better.\n\n
  • Zipf is everywhere):\n<small chart>\nBased on this data, we might be safe using a search entry box with a width in the 15-20 characters range. If horizontal real estate isn’t at a premium, a width of 30 characters would be even better.\n\n
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  • Might have this already in the SSA workshop slides\n\n
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  • Mention Sandia’s example\n
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  • Anchors will be liked by good leaders, and will outlast bad leaders\n
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  • Transcript of "Adaptable Information Workshop slides"

    1. 1. Adaptable Information ArchitectureHow to say no to your next redesign Lou Rosenfeld •  lou@rosenfeldmedia.com Rosenfeld Media UX Workshops •  Fall 2012
    2. 2. Hello, my name is Lou www.louisrosenfeld.com | www.rosenfeldmedia.com
    3. 3. Agenda1. Hello / What is information architecture?2. Why redesign should die / The alternatives3. Prioritizing and tuning top-down navigation4. Break5. Exercise: content modeling6. Lunch7. Prioritizing and tuning contextual navigation8. Exercise: site search analytics9. Break10. Prioritizing and tuning search11. Changing your work and your organization / Discussion
    4. 4. What isinformation architecture?
    5. 5. Definition The art and science of structuring, organizing and labeling information to help people find and manage it.
    6. 6. Three circles
    7. 7. Three tracks1. Top-down navigation: Anticipates interests/questions at arrival2. Bottom-up (contextual) navigation: Enables answers to emerge3. Search: Handles specific information needs
    8. 8. What is redesignand why should it die?
    9. 9. Why am I so down onredesign?
    10. 10. Why am I so down onredesign?
    11. 11. Redesign ishollow, meaningless,and a vanity.It is the true definitionof insanity.
    12. 12. A story in the Ann ArborNews
    13. 13. UM was going to redesign itsGateway
    14. 14. UM was going to redesign itsGateway
    15. 15. UM was going to redesign itsGateway
    16. 16. UM was going to redesign itsGateway
    17. 17. $250,0 00
    18. 18. $250,0work study students! 00
    19. 19. $250,0work study students! 00 WebObjects!
    20. 20. They even had a ribbon-cutting
    21. 21. This became...
    22. 22. ...this
    23. 23. ...this
    24. 24. ...this
    25. 25. ...this
    26. 26. Then they did itall over again
    27. 27. Then they did itall over againand again
    28. 28. Then they did itall over againand againand again
    29. 29. Then they did itall over againand againand againand again
    30. 30. Where we are today
    31. 31. Where we are today
    32. 32. Where we are today
    33. 33. Where we are today
    34. 34. Where problems are undefinedlies insanity and vanity
    35. 35. Where problems are undefinedlies insanity and vanity We attempt the impossible: “boil the ocean” in no time at great cost
    36. 36. Where problems are undefinedlies insanity and vanity We attempt the impossible: “boil the ocean” in no time at great cost We believe the unbelievable: unwarranted claims from agencies and software vendors
    37. 37. Where problems are undefinedlies insanity and vanity We attempt the impossible: “boil the ocean” in no time at great cost We believe the unbelievable: unwarranted claims from agencies and software vendors We become irresponsible: unwarranted declarations of victory at the expense of our teams and users
    38. 38. See the problem differently
    39. 39. Your site is acomplex adaptive systemJohn Holland:“A Complex Adaptive Systemis a dynamic network ofmany agents acting in parallel,constantly acting and reactingto what the other agents aredoing.”
    40. 40. Examples of CAS
    41. 41. Examples of CAS
    42. 42. Examples of CAS
    43. 43. Your site is a moving targetbuilt on moving targets
    44. 44. Your site is many sites, products,things out of your control more John Holland: “The control of a complex adaptive system tends to be highly dispersed and decentralized... “The overall behavior of the system is the result of a huge number of decisions made every moment by many individual agents.”
    45. 45. “The perfect is theenemy of the good.”Voltaire mighthave added:“Constant changemeans never havingto say you’re sorry.”
    46. 46. You can’t redesignBut you must refine1. Prioritize: Identify the important problems regularly2. Tune: Address those problems regularly3. Be opportunistic: Look for low-hanging fruit
    47. 47. Prioritize becausea little goes a long way
    48. 48. A handful of queries/tasks/ways to navigate/features/ A little goes a long waydocuments meet the needs of your most important audiences
    49. 49. A handful of queries/tasks/ways to navigate/features/ A little goes a long waydocuments meet the needs of your most important audiences
    50. 50. A handful of queries/tasks/ways to navigate/features/ A little goes a long waydocuments meet the needs of your most important audiences
    51. 51. A handful of queries/tasks/ways to navigate/features/ A little goes a long waydocuments meet the needs of your most important audiences
    52. 52. A handful of queries/tasks/ways to navigate/features/ A little goes a long waydocuments meet the needs of your most important audiences
    53. 53. (and the tail is quite long)
    54. 54. (and the tail is quite long)
    55. 55. (and the tail is quite long)
    56. 56. (and the tail is quite long)
    57. 57. (and the tail is quite long)
    58. 58. Zipf in text
    59. 59. A little really does goa long way A handful of... • queries • tasks • ways to navigate • features • documents ...meet the needs of your most important audiences
    60. 60. Unverified rumor:90% of Microsoft.com’s content has never been accessed
    61. 61. From prioritization......to a report card (repeat regularly)
    62. 62. Treat your site like an onion Each layer is cumulative informationlayer usability content strategy architecture indexed by search 0 engine leave it alone leave it alone squeaky wheel issues 1 tagged by users addressed refresh annually tagged by experts (non- test with a service 2 topical tags) (e.g., UserTesting.com) refresh monthly tagged by experts “traditional” lab-based titled according to 3 (topical tags) user testing guidelines deep links to support structured according 4 contextual navigation A/B testing to schema
    63. 63. Be an incrementalist:tune because things change
    64. 64. From projects to processes:a regular regimen of design Example: the rolling content inventory
    65. 65. Impact of change on design(queries)
    66. 66. IRS before 4/15
    67. 67. Before April 15IRS before 4/15
    68. 68. IRS after 4/15
    69. 69. After April 15IRS after 4/15
    70. 70. Be an opportunist:look for the low-hanging fruit1. Top-down navigation: Anticipates interests/questions at arrival2. Bottom-up (contextual) navigation: Enables answers to emerge3. Search: Handles specific information needs
    71. 71. Life by a thousand cuts 50% of users are search dominantx 5% of all queries are typos, fixed by spell checking. 2.5% improvement to the UX 50% of all users are search dominantx 30% (best bet results for top 100 queries) 15% improvement to the UXDitto for improving content, search results design,navigation design…
    72. 72. Summary Site redesign is wasteful, expensive, and ineffective 1. You don’t have a single, perfectible site 2. You do have a collection of living, changing pockets of content and functionality You can refine 3. Prioritize the problems that are most important to your users 4. Regularly address these problems 5. Identify opportunities to make small improvements that go a long way
    73. 73. Prioritizing and TuningTop-Down Navigation
    74. 74. The data-driven main page:Who wants what and when?
    75. 75. Who wants what?US English speakers
    76. 76. Who wants what?German speakers
    77. 77. When do they want it?
    78. 78. Commerce sites get it
    79. 79. The IRS gets it
    80. 80. But really, who caresabout the main page?
    81. 81. But really, who caresabout the main page?
    82. 82. The risk of main page fixationFrom Tony Dunn’s Tales from Redesignland(http://redesignland.blogspot.com/)
    83. 83. Focusing on main page =taking Zipf too far...plus lots of competition (Google, ads/landing pages)
    84. 84. The tail that wags the dog:site map drivesimproved site hierarchy
    85. 85. Site map by tool, unit, and format
    86. 86. Site map by tool, unit, and format
    87. 87. Site map by tool, unit, and format
    88. 88. User-centered site mapUser-centered site map...
    89. 89. Asking the possiblefrom your site index
    90. 90. Specialized site indices
    91. 91. Specialized site indices
    92. 92. Specialized site indices Cisco’s site indices are specialized by content type (products, services)
    93. 93. Best bet-based site indices MSU’s site index is built on popular information needs (based on best bet search results)
    94. 94. Going broad and deep withguides (AKA microsites)
    95. 95. Kansas main pages loves guides
    96. 96. Kansas main pages loves guides
    97. 97. But the guides need a littlework
    98. 98. Vanguard’s main page lovesguides
    99. 99. Vanguard’s main page lovesguides
    100. 100. The Tax Center is a guide
    101. 101. One more example: IRS
    102. 102. One more example: IRS
    103. 103. ...e-filing is presented assequential steps
    104. 104. Summary: Top-down navigation Prioritize main page content and layout 1. Confuse as necessary by diverting attention 2. Counter politics with data; e.g., use seasonality to drive design Tune and prioritize site-wide navigation 3. Use the site map as a skunkworks for site-wide hierarchy 4. Base site indices on specialized content or popular information needs (e.g., best bets) 5. Use guides (micro-sites) as narrow/deep complement to broad/shallow navigation schemes
    105. 105. Break
    106. 106. Agenda1. Hello / What is information architecture?2. Why redesign should die / The alternatives3. Prioritizing and tuning top-down navigation4. Break5. Exercise: content modeling6. Lunch7. Prioritizing and tuning contextual navigation8. Exercise: site search analytics9. Break10. Prioritizing and tuning search11. Changing your work and your organization / Discussion
    107. 107. concert calendar album pages artist descriptions TV listings Exercise: Content Modelingalbum reviews discography artist bios
    108. 108. Lunch
    109. 109. Agenda1. Hello / What is information architecture?2. Why redesign should die / The alternatives3. Prioritizing and tuning top-down navigation4. Break5. Exercise: content modeling6. Lunch7. Prioritizing and tuning contextual navigation8. Exercise: site search analytics9. Break10. Prioritizing and tuning search11. Changing your work and your organization / Discussion
    110. 110. Prioritizing and TuningContextual Navigation
    111. 111. Establishing Desire LinesUse Content modeling • Site search analytics
    112. 112. Where do searches begin?Not just the mainpage, according to aUser InterfaceEngineering study(http://is.gd/j1NHeS)
    113. 113. Using site search analyticsto identify desire lines
    114. 114. Choose acommon contenttype (e.g., events) 
Where should 
users go from here? 

    115. 115. 
 
 
 
 
 
Analyze frequent queries generated from each content sample
    116. 116. 
 


    117. 117. 
 
 
Develop logic that automatically links an event to:1. articles that share the event’s topic2. events that share the topic but have differentgeographic locales
    118. 118. What content typesshould we be connecting?
    119. 119. Important content types emerge from content modeling concert calendar album pages artist descriptions TV listingsalbum reviews discography artist bios
    120. 120. Using SSA to prioritize contenttypes
    121. 121. Getting content types out ofsite search analytics Take an hour to... • Analyze top 50 queries (20% of all search activity) • Ask and iterate: “what kind of content would users be looking for when they searched these terms?” • Add cumulative percentages Result: prioritized list of potential content types #1) application: 11.77% #2) reference: 10.5% #3) instructions: 8.6% #4) main/navigation pages: 5.91% #5) contact info: 5.79%
    122. 122. What should we use toconnect content types?
    123. 123. Which metadata attributes will yourcontent model depend upon?
    124. 124. More on prioritizing metadata attributes
    125. 125. Prioritizing semantic relationships
    126. 126. How do weprioritize content?
    127. 127. Some content value variables I
    128. 128. Some content value variables I UsabilityPopularityCredibility
    129. 129. Some content value variables Currency Freshness Authority Follows guidelines (e.g., titling, I metadata) UsabilityPopularityCredibility
    130. 130. Some content value variables Currency Freshness Authority Follows guidelines (e.g., titling, I metadata) UsabilityPopularityCredibility Strategic value Addresses compliance issues (e.g., Sarbanes/Oxley) Content owners are good partners
    131. 131. Subjectively “grade” your content’s value1.Chooseappropriate valuecriteria for eachcontent area2.Weight criteria(total = 100%)3.Subjectively gradefor each criterion4.weight x grade= score5.Add scores foroverall score
    132. 132. Subjectively “grade” your content’s value1.Choose Subjectiveappropriate value assessmentcriteria for eachcontent area2.Weight criteria(total = 100%)3.Subjectively gradefor each criterion4.weight x grade= score5.Add scores foroverall score
    133. 133. Put the grades together for a moreobjective “report card” Helps prioritize content migrations, refreshes, ...
    134. 134. Put the grades together for a moreobjective “report card” Objectifies subjective assessments Helps prioritize content migrations, refreshes, ...
    135. 135. Summary:contextual navigation Use content modeling and site search analytics to 1. Identify and prioritize content types 2. Identify desire lines 3. Improve contextual navigation between content types 4. Identify and prioritize metadata attributes Prioritize content areas/subsites by establishing balanced value criteria
    136. 136. Agenda1. Hello / What is information architecture?2. Why redesign should die / The alternatives3. Prioritizing and tuning top-down navigation4. Break5. Exercise: content modeling6. Lunch7. Prioritizing and tuning contextual navigation8. Exercise: site search analytics9. Break10. Prioritizing and tuning search11. Changing your work and your organization / Discussion
    137. 137. Exercise: site search analytics
    138. 138. Break
    139. 139. Agenda1. Hello / What is information architecture?2. Why redesign should die / The alternatives3. Prioritizing and tuning top-down navigation4. Break5. Exercise: content modeling6. Lunch7. Prioritizing and tuning contextual navigation8. Exercise: site search analytics9. Break10. Prioritizing and tuning search11. Changing your work and your organization / Discussion
    140. 140. Prioritizing and Tuning Search
    141. 141. Make “the Box” accommodatemost searchers’ queries
    142. 142. How long are our queries? Top 500 queries (37% of all traffic)
    143. 143. Mean = 10.6 charactersMedian = 10 characters
    144. 144. Mean = 10.6 charactersMedian = 10 charactersLong tail queries likely longer
    145. 145. Mean = 10.6 charactersMedian = 10 charactersLong tail queries likely longerTop queries often in low 20s 

    146. 146. Mean = 10.6 charactersMedian = 10 charactersLong tail queries likely longerTop queries often in low 20sDesired: @30 characters;Can you get that many? 

    147. 147. Mean = 10.6 charactersMedian = 10 charactersLong tail queries likely longerTop queries often in low 20sDesired: @30 characters;Can you get that many? 
Safe: @15-20 characters
    148. 148. We’ve seen this before:auto-completing queries
    149. 149. Auto-completing from aknown, common items (e.g.,
    150. 150. Auto-completing from aknown, common items (e.g., Uses known terms: e.g., movie titles and actor/director names
    151. 151. Auto-completing from queries
    152. 152. Uses common queriesAuto-completing from queries
    153. 153. Auto-completing from bestbets
    154. 154. Auto-completing from bestbets Uses best bets
    155. 155. Making change easy:supporting query refinement
    156. 156. The absolutemeaninglessness ofadvanced search
    157. 157. The absolute meaninglessness of advanced search 
At University of Alaska-Fairbanks,advanced = expanded search
    158. 158. The absolute meaninglessness of advanced search 
At University of Alaska-Fairbanks,advanced = expanded search At the IRS, advanced = narrowed search 

    159. 159. Contextualizing “advanced” features
    160. 160. Look to session data forprogression and context
    161. 161. Look to session data forprogression and context search session patterns 1. solar energy 2. how solar energy works
    162. 162. Look to session data forprogression and context search session patterns 1. solar energy 2. how solar energy works search session patterns 1. solar energy 2. energy
    163. 163. Look to session data forprogression and context search session patterns search session patterns 1. solar energy 1. solar energy 2. solar energy charts 2. how solar energy works search session patterns 1. solar energy 2. energy
    164. 164. Look to session data forprogression and context search session patterns search session patterns 1. solar energy 1. solar energy 2. solar energy charts 2. how solar energy works search session patterns search session patterns 1. solar energy 1. solar energy 2. explain solar energy 2. energy
    165. 165. Look to session data forprogression and context search session patterns search session patterns 1. solar energy 1. solar energy 2. solar energy charts 2. how solar energy works search session patterns search session patterns 1. solar energy 1. solar energy 2. explain solar energy 2. energy search session patterns 1. solar energy 2. solar energy news
    166. 166. Improving performance forspecialized queries
    167. 167. Recognizing proper nouns,dates, and unique ID#s
    168. 168. Surfacing specialized contenttypes in search results
    169. 169. Tuning Search Results:Handling specialized answers
    170. 170. Tuning Search Results:Handling specialized answers
    171. 171. Tuning Search Results:Handling specialized answers
    172. 172. Tuning Search Results: Handling specialized answers“Product quick links” come directly from product content modelThese results are a strong counterbalance to raw results
    173. 173. When raw isn’t good enough:best bet search results
    174. 174. best bet #1
    175. 175. best bet #1best bet #2
    176. 176. best bet #1best bet #2even more best bets
    177. 177. best bet #1best bet #2even more best betsraw results
    178. 178. best bet #1best bet #2even more best betsraw results
    179. 179. best bet #1 best bet #2 even more best betscompetition raw results
    180. 180. best bet #1 best bet #2 even more best betscompetition danger? raw results
    181. 181. best bet #1 best bet #2 even more best betscompetition danger? data raw results
    182. 182. The 0 search results page:search’s equivalent of the 404
    183. 183. Tuning Search Results: 0 results pagesNot helpful
    184. 184. Tuning Search Results: 0 results pagesNot helpfulMuch better: “Did youmean?” and Popular Searches
    185. 185. Summary: Search systems Tune query entry 1. Make “The Box” wide enough 2. Support query auto-completion to focus queries 3. Surface the right features to support query refinement 4. Recognize and take advantage of specialized queries Tune search results design 5. Surface specialized content types as results for specialized queries 6. Complement raw results with best bets 7. Enable recovery from finding 0 search results
    186. 186. Changing your workand your organization
    187. 187. Doing your work differently1. Processes, not projects2. Rebalancing your research and design
    188. 188. From time-boxed projectsto ongoing processes Example: the rolling content inventory
    189. 189. What else can roll? Each week, for example... • Analyze analytics for trends • Task analysis of common needs Each month... • User survey • Exploratory analysis of analytics data Each quarter... • Field study • Card sorting
    190. 190. Build a practice that’sbalanced and data-driven
    191. 191. User Research Landscapefrom Christian Rohrer: http://is.gd/95HSQ2
    192. 192. User Research Landscape Ongoing coverage of each of these 4 quadrantsfrom Christian Rohrer: http://is.gd/95HSQ2
    193. 193. A balanced research regimen Each week... • Analyze analytics for trends (Behavioral + Quantitative) • Task analysis of common needs (Behavioral + Qualitative) Each month... • User survey (Attitudinal + Quantitative) • Exploratory analysis of analytics data (Behavioral + Qualitative) Each quarter... • Field study (Behavioral/Attitudinal + Qualitative) • Card sorting (Attitudinal + Qualitative/Quantitative)
    194. 194. Lou’s TABLE OFOVERGENERALIZED Web Analytics User Experience DICHOTOMIES Users intentions and What they Users behaviors (whats motives (why those things analyze happening) happen) Qualitative methods for What methods Quantitative methods to explaining why things they employ determine whats happening happen Helps users achieve goals What theyre Helps the organization meet (expressed as tasks ortrying to achieve goals (expressed as KPI) topics of interest) Uncover patterns and How they use Measure performance (goal- surprises (emergent data driven analysis) analysis) Statistical data ("real" data Descriptive data (in smallWhat kind of data in large volumes, full of volumes, generated in lab they use errors) environment, full of errors)
    195. 195. Getting your organizationto support your work1. Making friends and allies2. Changing your leaders’ minds
    196. 196. Making friends and allies
    197. 197. Showing content ownershow their content performs
    198. 198. Showing content ownershow their content performs
    199. 199. Helping marketingdevelop better messagingJargon vs. Plain Language at Washtenaw Community College • Online courses were marketed using terms “College on Demand” (“COD”) and “FlexEd”; signup rates were poor • Compare jargon with “online” (used in 213 other queries) • Content was retitled rather than re-marketed
    200. 200. Helping IT say “no” with authorityReduce pressure to solve problems with technologies by making what we have workMinimize radical changes to platforms • Enterprise search • Content management systems • Analytics applications • ...
    201. 201. Changing leaders’ minds
    202. 202. Talking pointsfor refining, against redesigning 1. Solve the problem(s) 2. Save money 3. Reduce/end radical organizational changes
    203. 203. Solving the problem(s)• Forcing the issue: ban the term “redesign” from discussions• Data-driven definition / prioritization / tuning / opportunism• Creating anchors to keep project from spinning out of control: elevator pitch / mission / vision / goals / KPI
    204. 204. Steward Brand’s Pace Layeringmodel Typical design focus Stuff that gets ignored: mission, vision, charter, goals, KPI, objectives
    205. 205. Example of an anchor:your elevator pitch Read Gamestorming (Gray, Brown, Macanufo); O’Reilly, 2010). http://amzn.to/nnpERG
    206. 206. Saving money• Life by a thousand cuts: small changes have huge impacts (see: Zipf)• Reuse and retain technology investments• Retain institutional knowledge• Get more from your (empowered) team and make it pay for itself• Spend less on external support and fire your agency
    207. 207. Reduce/end radicalorganizational changes• End the pendulum swing from centralized to decentralized approaches• Reorganize information, not people• Build self-sustaining, steady in-house capabilities to prioritize and tune
    208. 208. Being prepared to fail
    209. 209. Sometimes your leadersare in a hurry
    210. 210. Sometimes your leadersare not very smart
    211. 211. Sometimes your organizationis immature
    212. 212. Nurit Peres’ Company UX Maturity Model(http://is.gd/x1dOuP)
    213. 213. Renato Feijó’s UX Maturity Model(http://is.gd/dul2t2)
    214. 214. Always be ready to gounder the radar
    215. 215. Summary: changing your workand your organization Do your work differently 1. Move from time-based projects to ongoing processes 2. Build a balanced, data-driven practice Get your organization to support your work 3. Make friends and allies 4. Change leaders’ minds by • Solving problems • Saving money • Reducing radical change Be prepared to fail
    216. 216. Discussion
    217. 217. Agenda1. Hello / What is information architecture?2. Why redesign should die / The alternatives3. Prioritizing and tuning top-down navigation4. Break5. Exercise: content modeling6. Lunch7. Prioritizing and tuning contextual navigation8. Exercise: site search analytics9. Break10. Prioritizing and tuning search11. Changing your work and your organization / Discussion
    218. 218. Say hello Lou Rosenfeld lou@louisrosenfeld.com Rosenfeld Media  www.louisrosenfeld.com | @louisrosenfeld www.rosenfeldmedia.com | @rosenfeldmedia
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