L2B First Linux Course



L2B Linux First course



                   Please visit our Facebook Group
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course



      Our Rules
          Start at 10 AM.
          Mobile phone silent plea...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Outlines of this session
       Introduction to operating systems
      ...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Operating systems introduction
       Operating system:
            • It ...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Operating systems introduction
       There are a lot of operating system...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Linux Introduction
        What is GNU/Linux?
            • It is an oper...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Linux Introduction
        Unix Introduction
            • AT&T
         ...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Linux Introduction
        History of Linux
            • Richard Stallma...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Linux Introduction
        History of Linux
            • GNU
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Linux Introduction
        History of Linux
            • Linus Torvalds ...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Linux Introduction
        Why Linux?
            •   Available and reach...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Linux Introduction
        Why Linux?
            •   Shell
            •...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Linux Introduction
        Why Linux?
            • Well supported by int...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Linux Introduction
         Who uses Linux?
           • Famous servers w...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Linux Introduction
        Who uses Linux?
            •   89.2% of super...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Linux Introduction
        Who uses Linux?
            •   United States ...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Linux Introduction
    For more information about Linux and who
    uses i...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Linux Introduction
        Linux Distributions:
            •   RedHat
  ...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Ubuntu Introduction
       Why Ubuntu:
            •   Simple
           ...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Ubuntu Introduction
       How to get Ubuntu:
            • You can order...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Ubuntu Installation steps
       Before installation
            • What i...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Ubuntu Installation steps
       Main installation:
            •   Booti...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     GUI
       Graphical User Interface
            • Types
                 ...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     GUI
       Some small notes
            • Adding Arabic
            • Ins...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     GUI
       Remember authentication:
            • First run the following...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Virtual Box
       Installation
       Create new virtual machine
      ...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     XChat
       Installation
       How to connect to channel
             ...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     XChat important channels
       #linuxac
       #ubunu
       #centos
 ...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     XChat important channels
       #windows
       #java
       #c++
     ...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     File System hierarchy



         Files and directories are organized into...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     File System hierarchy
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     File System hierarchy
        /bin
            • Essential user command b...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     File System hierarchy
        /lib
            • Shared libraries
       ...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     File System hierarchy
        /usr
            • Non-essential user progr...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     File System hierarchy
        /opt
            • Optional applications (T...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     How to self study
       www.linuxac.org
       L2B Linux Guide
       ...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     How to self study
       www.arabhardware.com
            • Eng: Mostafa ...
L2B First Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     How to self study
         Ubuntu Linux For Novices
         Practical g...
For More info Please Visit Our Facebook Group
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Session1

  1. 1. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux First course Please visit our Facebook Group
  2. 2. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Our Rules  Start at 10 AM.  Mobile phone silent please.  You can get in or get out without permission.  Ask what you want.  Some questions will be answered in the end.  Only one talks and all listens.  You can get materials from us or from outside faculty  To help us give us your feedback.
  3. 3. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Outlines of this session  Introduction to operating systems  Introduction to Linux  Introduction to Ubuntu  Ubuntu installation steps  GUI  Virtual Box  XChat  File system hierarch
  4. 4. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Operating systems introduction  Operating system: • It is an interface between hardware and user which is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of a computer. • Windows is not the only operating system in the world.
  5. 5. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Operating systems introduction  There are a lot of operating systems such as: • Unix • Linux • Minix • Windows • Mac OS
  6. 6. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Linux Introduction  What is GNU/Linux? • It is an operating system which is free and open source software.
  7. 7. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Linux Introduction  Unix Introduction • AT&T – BSD – HP-UX – Solaris – AIX
  8. 8. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Linux Introduction  History of Linux • Richard Stallman 1983
  9. 9. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Linux Introduction  History of Linux • GNU
  10. 10. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Linux Introduction  History of Linux • Linus Torvalds 1990 – Kernel
  11. 11. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Linux Introduction  Why Linux? • Available and reachable • Stable • Minimum times of rebooting • Open Source • Free • Fast updates • Security • Well-documented
  12. 12. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Linux Introduction  Why Linux? • Shell • Virus rare • Real multi-user system • Multiple GUIs • Save hardware resources • It's kernel used in Embedded systems • Meets criteria
  13. 13. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Linux Introduction  Why Linux? • Well supported by international companies – HP – IBM – Intel – Oracle – Sun • National Security Agency (NSA)  Why copy software illegally if you can get it for free?
  14. 14. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Linux Introduction  Who uses Linux? • Famous servers work on Linux such as: – www.google.com – www.wikipedia.com – www.youtube.com – www.4shared.com – www.rapidshare.com – www.cnn.com – download.microsoft.com – www.bing.com
  15. 15. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Linux Introduction  Who uses Linux? • 89.2% of super computers works on Linux • Embedded system engineers • 3D graphics such as: • The Matrix • Titanic • Gladiator • Super Man Returns • Spider Man • Men In Black
  16. 16. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Linux Introduction  Who uses Linux? • United States Department Of Defense • French Parliament • France's Ministry of Agriculture • NNSA – National Nuclear Security Administration • FAA – Fedral Aviation Administration. • ICBC: – Industrial and Commercial Bank of China – All it's 20,000 branches
  17. 17. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Linux Introduction For more information about Linux and who uses it visit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_adoption http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux http://news.netcraft.com/
  18. 18. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Linux Introduction  Linux Distributions: • RedHat • Centos • Fedora • BackTrack • Debian • Ubuntu • Unbreakable Linux
  19. 19. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Ubuntu Introduction  Why Ubuntu: • Simple • Easy to get it • Free • Famous • Good documentation • Good Internet support
  20. 20. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Ubuntu Introduction  How to get Ubuntu: • You can order our distribution from Menof • You can download it free of charge from here: http://www.ubuntu.com/GetUbuntu/download • You can download Sabily from here: http://www.sabily.org/website/index.php/en/sabily/d ownloads • You can order a free CD or DVD from here: https://shipit.ubuntu.com
  21. 21. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Ubuntu Installation steps  Before installation • What is a live CD? • File System: – It is a method of storing and organizing computer files and the date they contain to make it easy to find and access them(FAT, NTFS, EXT4). • Linux File System: – ext2 – ext3 – ext4 • Hard disk formatting using – GParted
  22. 22. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Ubuntu Installation steps  Main installation: • Booting live cd • Welcome message • Your location • Preparing disk space (manual) • Selecting Linux partitions • Setting username and password • Ready to install ??? • One missing step
  23. 23. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  GUI  Graphical User Interface • Types – GNOME – KDE – XFCE  Some details about GNOME • GNU Network Object Model Environment • Three menus – Applications – Places – System
  24. 24. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  GUI  Some small notes • Adding Arabic • Installing applications using – Ubuntu Software Center – Synaptic Package Manager – Add and Remove
  25. 25. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  GUI  Remember authentication: • First run the following command sudo gedit /usr/share/polkit- 1/actions/org.freedesktop.devicekit.disks.policy • Find the action id: org.freedesktop.devicekit.disks.filesystem-mount- system-internal • Within that action id look for the line: <allow_active>auth_admin_keep</allow_active> • replace it with: <allow_active>yes</allow_active>
  26. 26. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Virtual Box  Installation  Create new virtual machine  Settings of virtual machines  General  System  Hard Disks  CD/DVD  Network
  27. 27. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  XChat  Installation  How to connect to channel /j #ChannelName  Register /msg nickserv register <password> <email>  Authenticate access /msg nickserv identify <password>  Problem • Server list disappear when your disk is full Sudo rm -f ~/.xchat2/servlist_.conf
  28. 28. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  XChat important channels  #linuxac  #ubunu  #centos  #fedora  #redhat  #microcontrollers  #oracle  #php
  29. 29. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  XChat important channels  #windows  #java  #c++  #c
  30. 30. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  File System hierarchy Files and directories are organized into a single-rooted inverted tree structure
  31. 31. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  File System hierarchy
  32. 32. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  File System hierarchy  /bin • Essential user command binaries  /sbin • System binaries  /boot • Files of the boot loader and kernel  /etc • Configuration files  /home • User's home directories
  33. 33. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  File System hierarchy  /lib • Shared libraries  /media • Mount point for removable media  /mnt • Mount point for temporarily mounted file systems  /root • Root's home directories
  34. 34. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  File System hierarchy  /usr • Non-essential user programs  /var • Variable files  /proc • Virtual documentation • Documentations for information about kernel and its work  /srv • Contains server data such as databases
  35. 35. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  File System hierarchy  /opt • Optional applications (Third-party programs)  /dev • Device files  /tmp • Temporary files
  36. 36. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  How to self study  www.linuxac.org  L2B Linux Guide  Virtual Box  www.google.com  IRC  Man Pages  RedHat Books
  37. 37. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  How to self study  www.arabhardware.com • Eng: Mostafa El-Tantawy – http://arabhardware.net/forum/showthread.php? t=102331&page=6 – http://4shared.com/dir/10800192/9e812230/Lunix.html
  38. 38. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  How to self study  Ubuntu Linux For Novices  Practical guide to use Ubuntu Linux Arabic  Linux Bash Guide  ‫كتاب لينوكس الشامل‬
  39. 39. For More info Please Visit Our Facebook Group
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