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zero Energy 24 Hours, Social

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Design of sustainable, ecological, social and transformable interior and exterior spaces such as bars, restaurants, performing, areas among others; promoting interaction with people while reinforcing …

Design of sustainable, ecological, social and transformable interior and exterior spaces such as bars, restaurants, performing, areas among others; promoting interaction with people while reinforcing culture and reducing the use of energy to zero.

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  • 1. 0 E 24 H Energy Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Master of Architecture At Savannah College of Art and Design May, 2012, Lily Marie Riefkohl _________________________________________________________________/__/___Professor Amy Wynne DateCommittee Chair _________________________________________________________________/__/___Professor Daniel Brown DateCommittee Member _________________________________________________________________/__/___Nancy Sharifi DateCommittee Member
  • 2. 0 E 24 H SocialA Thesis Submitted to the Department of Architecture In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture Savannah College of Art and Design By Lily M. Riefkohl Savannah, Georgia May, 2012
  • 3. D edicationThis work is dedicated in the loving memory to my grandmother Maria M. Puig
  • 4. A cknowledgements:
  • 5. It is a great pleasure to thank the many people who made this thesis possible.I would like to thank my committee chair, Amy Wayne for creating a positive and inspir-ing learning environment. Throughout my graduate experience, she constantly encour-aged further exploration both architecturally and graphically.I wish to express my immense gratitude to my faculty advisor, Daniel Brown for his timeand for helping me focus the scope of my project. His support over all the process hastruly been invaluable.I am grateful for the aid of Prof. Jain Kwon for constantly expanding my perspective ofthe interior spaces.I am deeply greatful with my topic consultant Nancy Sharifi for her constant advise andsupport in the environmental aspect of my project.I am indebted to my many friends and colleagues for providing a stimulating environ-ment and for always pushing me into inspiration. Specially Daniela Rey for all her inter-est, admiration and support during the process.I wish to thank my aunt, my mom and my sister Claudie, among other members of myfamily, for their guidance, support, faith, encouragement and enthusiasm.Finally I need to thank to my spiritual guidance and spiritual forces who didn’t let me falland push me to keep working on this thesis when I was about to give up.
  • 6. Table of Contents
  • 7. Abstract 1Arguable Position 31. Background, Goals and Justification 5 1.1 Introduction 7 1.2 Background Information and Theoretical Context 11 1.3 Cultural Technical and Environmental Objects 15 1.4 Cultural Historic Background 17 1.5 Architectural Historic Background 23 1.5.1 Vernacular Architecture 25 1.5.2 Colonial Architecture 27 1.5.3 Current Architecture 31 1.6 Environmental and Sustainability Issues 37 1.7 Economical Issues 39 1.7.1 Cost of Petroleum VS cost of electricity 432. Context 45 2.1 Demographics 47 2.2 Industry 49 2.3 Educational and Professional Context 51 2.4 Description of the Region 53 2.5 Climate 57
  • 8. 3. Site Analysis 59 3.1 History and Description of the Region 61 3.2 Site Surroundings 65 3.3 Uses 71 3.4 Height 72 3.5 Closing Time 73 3.6 Site Existing Conditions 74 3.7 Climatic Conditions 75 3.8 Transportation and Transit 764. Program Analysis 73 4.1 Program Planning Goals 81 4.2 Sustainability 83 4.2.1 Sustainable Technologies for Energy Generation 89 4.2.1.1 Solar Power 90 4.2.1.2 Wave Power 95 4.2.1.3 Wind Power 98 4.2.2 Sustainable Materials 101 4.2.3 Other Sustainable Aspects 111 4.3 Adjacencies 113 4.4 Uses and Spatial Qualities of Interior and Exterior Spaces 115
  • 9. 4.5 Transitional Spaces 125 4.6 Building Clock 127 4.7 Case Studies 1295. Quantitative Program 133 5.1 Occupants per area 140 5.2 Zoning Requirements 1416. Schematic Design 143 6.1 Concept 145 6.2 Form Evolution 147 6.3 Process Perspectives 149 6.4 Program 153 6.5 Schematic Plans 155 6.6 Perspective View 1617 Design Development 162 7.1 Building Plans 163 7.2 Building Section 169 7.3 Wall Section 170 7.4 Applied Technologies 173 7.5 Building Exterior 175 7.6 Building Energy Consumption 178
  • 10. 7.7 Restaurant Plans 179 7.8 Restaurant Views 181 7.9 Conclusion 183Bibliography 187Table of figures 191Appendix 199
  • 11. 1 A bstract
  • 12. 0 E 24 H Social Rises in energy rates, global economic crisis, global warming, apprehension for theplanet and our future generations are vast concerns for general population. Puerto Ricosuffers from all of the previous issues mentioned, but also lacks the sustainability and thespread of this knowledge in the population; which could minimize some of the impactsof the crisis the world and specifically the island is going through. A lot of spaces desig-nated for the interaction of people have been closed or removed, affecting the culturalaspect of socialization. Working with these issues while implementing architecture, de-sign and sustainability into a cultural and social building that becomes a teaching tool bythe interaction of environment and user is what is intended to be achieved in this project.A solution to a sustainable concern in the island of Puerto Rico is introduced througharchitecture in a multi-functional building that responds to site and public interests,it also serves as a device for learning about technological possibilities by implement-ing not only solar, tidal and wind power but also interactive sustainable features thatare functional and serve to enhance education though social interaction. Achieving azero energy building is difficult but not impossible. The amount of sources requiredto produce the energy the building would consume are really high, especially becausethe building will be working throughout 24 hours. The energy needed to achievefunctionality of the building is high enough as to be impossible to apply technologiesonly in the infrastructure of the building. Additional energy generating technologieswere implemented in the site and surroundings in order to meet energy requirements. 2
  • 13. 3
  • 14. A rguable PositionThrough a 24 hours social space, architecture can become an educationaltool, teaching people sustainability while keeping them busy and enter-tained. 4
  • 15. 5
  • 16. Chapter 1 Background, Goals and Justifications 6
  • 17. I ntroduction Sustainability is a word often repeated but not habitually practiced when it comes to Puerto Rican way of living.1 Many people use the word because they have heard it many times before, not knowing exactly what it implies. Sustainability can be reflected in many aspects such as social, economic, environmental, and architectural; all of these relating with each other and affecting way of living.2 Architecture is not only a way of expressing art and creating spaces while being functional, but can also be a tool for communication and teaching. Since Puerto Rican architecture lack sustainability; 1 Jorge San Inocencio, Monografias, Es Puerto Rico un pais Sustentable?, Monografias.com/ trabajos64/PuertoRico-pais-sustentable.shtml, accessed April 18, 2012 2 Peter Docherty, Abraham B Shani, Creating Sustainable Work Systems: Developing Social Sustainability, Second Edition, (Oxon, OX, 2009) Pg 77
  • 18. the term understood only by a few 3 end up looking as a utopia. It’s been said that architects design according to the client’s needs and budget.4Letting people interact with architecture and environment, is making them part of thedesign.5 Is not the same having a design for the people, for the revival of culture, designwith a social conscience; that just designing for a client and a specific use. The user willbe the client, and as a social effect, the building will become the key for letting peopleinteract with nature, environment and sustainability while making them part of a ho-listic design.6 People like to feel good about things they do, and this project will be anopportunity to not only integrate community, but make them an active part of contribu-tion to the environment and economic situation the country is passing thru. Making thepeople interact with architecture and be part of the sustainable aspect of the buildingis making them the protagonist of the scene, which could make the building even moresuccessful. Since Puerto Rican clients don’t know about the actual benefit of having an en-vironmentally designed and sustainable building, and they just saw it as a huge initialexpense, architects haven’t had the opportunity to express it as much as desirable in the3 Odette Rodriguez Garcia, Puerto Rico: una isla de sustentabilidad, Universia Puerto Rico No-ticias, 09/7/2008, http://noticias.universia.pr/ciencia-nn-tt/noticia/2008/09/17/132387/puerto-rico-isla-sustentabilidad.html4 Alan Jefferis, David A. Madsen, Architectural Drafting and Design fifth edition, (Clifton Park,NY, 2005) 55 Sensing architecture, New Ideas for architecture of tomorrow by Maria Lorena Lehman WhyArchitecture Can Make a Positive Difference in an Occupant’s Life, http://sensingarchitecture.com/8099/why-architecture-can-make-a-positive-difference-in-an-occupant%e2%80%99s-life/6 http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-holistic-design.htm, what is holistic design, article writtenby S.E. Smith, edited by O. Wallace, Last modified 05, April 2012, copyright protected 2003-2012conjecture corporation 8
  • 19. country. 7 If nature, user, and sustainable techniques are applied interacting with them- selves 24 hours a day, during 7 days per week, people will eventually understand the con- cept and give it the value and importance that it requires to improve quality of life. Puerto Rican population tends to be very social,8 this public building can only achieve the purpose if the program gather the community in social activities while enter- taining them in different ways. Using the entertainment as an excuse, the learning expe- rience will be enhanced and promote by curiosity, questioning and wondering looking for answers an amaze in the user. Most of the population is very visual9 what will make possible to address the information throughout different types of users (different ages and different social classes). This will gather people as a solution and stimulation of the social aspect of the Puerto Rican culture, as well as the economical aspect, letting the possibility of becoming a touristic attraction. This project will include rentable spaces such as restaurants and activities rooms, as well as places for free cost. The purpose is to generate a capital from those rent, while having other areas for the enjoyment of general public. The building could be semi- open, open or enclosed or transformable, depending of the use or necessity. The importance of all the design and transformation is the way the place could become educational tool in an unconventional way. The way the building is experienced becomes the learning tool avoiding the need of literature or teachers to be 7 Jorge San Inocencio, Monografias, Es Puerto Rico un pais Sustentable?, Monografias.com/trabajos64/ PuertoRico-pais-sustentable.shtml, accessed April 18, 2012 8 Raffaello Beetti, Survival of Weak Countries in the Face of Globalization: Perto Rico and the Caribbean, (San Juan, PR, 2003) 94 9 Charles Smith, Sensory Learning Styles Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic Learning Styles in Grappling, white- belt.org, accessed 04/21/20129
  • 20. understood. Building’s environment and experience linked to design will make the build-ing self-explanatory. Sustainable technologies, materials and principles in conjunction toenvironmental design will be applied throughout the building in order to achieve a holisticdesign. Technologies such as tidal power, sun power and wind power would be appliedto the design and exposed with their explanations. Other aspects of sustainability will beincorporated as well in order to achieve a more sustainable and environmental friendlybuilding as possible.“The amount of information we are processing at one time determines our stimulationlevel at the moment, if a place give us a lot to think about because there’s a lot of variety inthe objects within it, that space is more stimulating to us. A place is particularly stimulat-ing if we cannot predict what we will experience next.”10 Architecture is where people experiment spaces and had the opportunity to iden-tify with them.11 This project intend to do the same for the country and its population,while improving a situation that is becoming a crisis.10 Sally Agustin PhD, Place Advantage: Applied Psychology for Interior Architecture, (New Jersey, 2009) page13711 Sally Agustin PhD, Place Advantage: Applied Psychology for Interior Architecture, (New Jersey, 2009) page118 10
  • 21. B ackground Information and Theoretical Context Puerto Rico is mainly known by the tourism, nightlife, hospitality, food and cul- ture. It is known for being a relaxing destination, a place to go and have fun. Tourism has been an important source of income for the island and especially has been an es- sential factor in our cities’ development.1 Today touristic areas are still active, but un- fortunately because of the increase of the life style cost, some of these areas have been affected, causing the closure of many local businesses. 2 Since ever, the culture has been known for having people that interacts with each other in every aspect of their life.3 People in Puerto Rico don’ tend to be very in- 1Julio Morales, Puerto Rican Poverty and Migration, We just had to try elsewhere, (West Port, CT, 1986) 33 2 Marian Diaz, “Hay Negocio despues de la quiebra”, El Nuevo Dia, 9/26/2010, Negocios 3 Raffaello Beetti, Survival of Weakn Countries in the Face of Globalization: Perto Rico and the Caribbean, (San Juan, PR, 2003) 94 11
  • 22. dependent, but collective, which make public spaces really important.4 Due to globaleconomical crisis, this cultural aspect has been seriously affected. Changing a societies’way of living could affect their way of feeling with themselves, with the economical situ-ation and with life. Effects such as depression, among other problems, affect their well-ness overall and end up affecting the culture in general.5 The lack of employment hasinjected desperation in the population, becoming more aggressive and violent.6 This iscompletely linked to their mental capacity, and the criminality that is constantly increas-ing in the island, as a result of the economic situation.7 Puerto Rico climate is known to be very hot consistently throughout almost ev-ery season. Lately, this has been getting worst due to global warming. Puerto Ricanshave not taken advantage of natural ventilation to address the issue of high tempera-tures inside living and work spaces; developments and constructions in general havenot been designed environmentally oriented.8 The lack of vegetation and the constantcreation of massive concrete buildings, where civilians gather the most, make it impos-sible to cool places naturally. During the last few years the economy has passed through such bad situation4 Progrma de Desarrollo Profesional, UPR/PUPR/ATI, Mejora de la calidad de espacio public peatonal a lolargo de la Avenida Roosevelt, 4, 30 informe final 5 Erica Sanchez, Camila Espina, “Crisis Economica y Criminalidad:un explosive binomio”, Dialogo Digital,6/21/2011, www.dialogodigital.com/index.php/Crisis-economica-y-criminalidad-un-explosivo-binomio.html, accessed 4/19/2012 6 Erica Sanchez, Camila Espina, “Crisis Economica y Criminalidad: un explosivo binomio”, Dialogo Digital,6/21/2011, www.dialogodigital.com/index.php/Crisis-economica-y-criminalidad-un-explosivo-binomio.html, accessed 4/19/2012 7 Puerto Rico Expresa, “La falta de empleos es la verdadera crisis”, 10/18/2011, http://www.puertoricoex-presa.com/2011/10/la-falta-de-empleos-es-la-verdadera-crisis/, accessed 4/19/2012 8 We care green team UPRM, “Reducir energia”, http://www.uprm.edu/wecare.redenergy.html, accessed4/19/2012. 12
  • 23. that the costs for utilities have been duplicated, or even triplicated, depending of the area.9 Currently Puerto Rican government is working on a project to reduce energy cost with the use of natural gas, but the expenses to make this possible have been so high that the hope to reduce energy cost relies on eliminating the dependence of petroleum. The incomes of people haven’t increased, but more people are losing their jobs as a result of the economical crisis that has affected many countries.10 This makes it dif- ficult to afford the lifestyle that people use to have before this crisis begun. Architects are not helping to improve the environment and the financial situation, what makes shorter the list of environmental friendly buildings in Puerto Rico. 11 Knowing about the importance of the culture and the socialization among Puerto Rican people, and been aware of the adverse effect of the economical crisis, we can say that a harmful effect have occurred with traditions among this population, which has been vanished or significantly reduced. 9 Senator Fas Alzamora, Senado de Purto Rico, Resolution R.del S. 2247. 10 Peter Gevorkian, Alternative Energy systems in Building design, (2009), 11 Erica Sanchez, Camila Espina, “Crisis Economica y Criminalidad:un explosive binomio”, Dialogo Digital, 6/21/2011, www.dialogodigital.com/index.php/Crisis-economica-y-criminalidad-un-explosivo-binomio. html, accessed 4/19/201213
  • 24. 14
  • 25. C ultural, Technical and Environmental Objects Could architecture be the solution for health, criminality and economy? This could create conflict of values but looking from the sustainable perspective this could become a reality in a near future. Sustainability can improve and even change non ar- chitectural issues, such as economical problems, over a long term period.1 At this time, is imperative to think in a sustainable way to understand that this could put an end to the economical crisis, and at the same time this could recover cultural traditions. There are many options for the solution to problems regarding electrical ex- penses that people have not even considered in the country, such as tidal power, wind power, solar energy and people’s energy. The implementation of these, as well as the 1 David Edwards, “Energy trading & investing trading, risk management and structuring deals in the en- ergy markets”, (2009) 15
  • 26. utilization of the concept of the conservation of energy can definitely be of substantialimportance for the improvement of the economy and the development of new sustain-able-energy options. Using the right technology, electrical as well as water costs can bereduced significantly, making it possible to keep a business running without major ex-penses. More people will have to learn about this technology, experts in the area will behired; more employments and more opportunities will be created. The requirements ofpeople to install and give maintenance to these will help reduce the rate of unemployedpopulation in the country as well. This change in electrical expenses could improveeconomy. All this together could also be translated into a decrease in unemploymentrates, and the possibility of increasing salaries. The creation of a sustainable space in which people and nature will provide theenergy for the building operates is the ideal option to reduce expenses. Reduction inutility cost could end up reducing prices of items sold and result in savings for custom-er’s pocket; allowing people to maintain the socialization aspect of culture.The project will be located in the coast of Puerto Rico, where breezes, water, sun andmoon could be transformed to provide a great contribution to the energy the build-ing needs. Another element to take into consideration for the contribution of sustain-able energy sources will be the customers themselves and the energy obtained by theirmovements. Since energy is not destructed but transformed, every step taken can betranslated into energy if advantage is taken of existent technology. This energy could betransformed, adding this as a source of power the project will use to run with. 16
  • 27. C ultural Historic Background What is a country without culture? What is a culture without people? People define the culture as culture can define a country, always referring to background and history to explain present. According to Merrian-Webster dictionary culture is defined as the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations. Pop- ular culture is defined as the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group; and the characteristic features of everyday existence shared by people in a place or time . 1 Puerto Rican culture is the resultant mix of Taínos, Spanish and Africans, later 1Merrian Webster dictionary,2012, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/culture%5B1%5D?show =0&t=132633668617
  • 28. on diverted by the influence of Americans.2 These cultures bring to Puerto Rico back-grounds of dissimilar life styles, behaviors and characteristics that people from differentcountries used to have in the past, and which have evolved as one unique through his-tory once they have mixed together. The first inhabitants of Puerto Rico were native Taíno, a descendant VenezuelaArawak Indians tribe. The Taíno Indians lived in theocratic kingdoms and had a hierar-chically arranged chiefs or caciques.3 The Taínos were divided in three social classes,and depending on their social level were the task they used to perform: the naborias(work class), the nitaínos or sub-chiefs and noblemen (priests and medicine men) andthe caciques (chiefs). Every yucayeque or village used to have one cacique.4 The nabo-rias were free workers subject to service obligations who carried out the more onerousand repetitive tasks.5 Under the Spanish the labors performed by the naborias for thecaciques were transferred to the holders of the Encomienda. (The Encomienda was thelegal system employed by the Spanish crown during the colonization of the Americas toregulate Native American labor.) The pre-Conquest organization of the naborias labormade it easier to introduce the eventual distribution of the workers.6 Taínos, use to settle closer to sea or rivers, since they were sea going and live inthe great extent on seafood. They use to entertain themselves with football (batú), mu-sic, dance and rituals. They use to be very collective and had many activities in which2 Sebastian Robiou, Aportacion indigena a la cultura Puertorriquena, 1992, Premio Concurso de ArticulosV Centenario3 Robert L Muckley, Adela Martinez Santiago, Stories From Puerto Rico, 1344 Http://www.topuertorico.org/reference/taino.shtml 5 Robert L. Muckley, Adela Martinez Santiago, Stories of Puerto Rico 135 6 Fernando Pico, History of Puerto Rico a Panorama of its People, (Princeton, NJ) 15 18
  • 29. socializing played an important role. The areitos was known as the maximum indig- enous artistic expression, in which Taínos used to assemble to perform sacred dances, smoke tobacco and herbs while invoking their gods by the use of music and dance.7 At each stage in history the various inhabitants of the country have used re- sources of Puerto Rican islands to satisfy their needs for food, housing and collective needs. Nevertheless, their use of these resources has sometimes failed to preserve the necessary balance for their renewal. The early Taínos barely modify the insular ecology. Their settlements near the mangrove swamps made little impact on the surrounding land, flora and fauna. Later on Taínos of the agro-ceramic cultures began cultivation by using the technique known as slash-and-burn. They set fire to a piece of land to clear the undergrowth and then to take advantage of the initial fertility provided by the ashes. This practice, although it damaged the soil which was then exposed to erosion by wind and rain, did not affect the fertility of the land when the number of people who lived on it was relatively low, between 25 and 100. Nine to ten years was enough for the abandoned terrain to recover its residual topsoil and develop new tree canopies.8 Christopher Columbus, arrived to the Island on November 19, 1493, on his sec- ond travel to the New World. In 1508 Juan Ponce de Leon settles on the island with 42 men, and became the first governor of San Juan Bautista, Spanish name for Boriquen (Puerto Rico).9 Upon arrival, the Spanish colonists began a chain of events that redi- rected the music, religious and lifestyle course of Puerto Rico. The Church and the army change: Catholicism imported instruments and teachers, while the militia instituted 7 Http://www.topuertorico.org/reference/taino.shtml 8 Fernando Pico, History of Puerto Rico a Panorama of its People, (Princeton, NJ) 13 9 Lisa Pierce Flores, History of Puerto Rico, 8 19
  • 30. small bands. Since the beginning of the 16th century, the music area of the island heav-ily influenced by the Spanish presence included a variety of instruments of Europeanextraction such as drums, harp, bells and the harpsichord, among others. Music andreligion were not the only aspects of Taino habits and culture that changed, but also thearchitecture, social classes, government, economy and lifestyle in general. The conquerors founded gold deposits in the island, which lead Taínos to workfor them to provide gold to the Spanish crown. News of the island wealth encourageother Spaniards to join in the colonization. The contacts with the Spaniards and the newwork regime eventually exposed the Tainos to diseases they have never experiencedbefore and for which they lack immunity. 10 In 1511, King Ferdinand authorized massive trade of African slaves on the is-land. The groups of African affecting the ethnic and cultural formation of the island in-clude Ashanti and Fante in Ghana, the southern shore of River Niger Carabalíes, Congosof Equatorial Africa and, from late eighteen century until the middle of the nineteencentury, the Yoruba and Mende of West Africa. Slaves were characterized by a strongfoundation to their traditions and ancestral beliefs, intimately linked to their dances andmusic.11 As slaves, segregated from the rest of the community, they had their own activi-ties, music, rituals, and religion which become directly from their African roots. Bringingwith them their music, religion and traditions; and adapting it with the Caribbean envi-ronment and the materials they find to make musical instruments they begin the cre-10 R. A. Van Middeldyk, The History of Puerto Rico, (2008) 9 11 Fernando Pico, History of Puerto Rico: A Panorama of its People, (Princeton, NJ, 2009) 143 20
  • 31. ation of different music styles, dances, drinks and activities overall. Some of the music created by them still alive today forming an important part of the Puerto Rican culture. With these styles festivals, dances and parties celebrated under trees or any other place in contact with nature.12 Fortress have been constructed to protect the island from attacks, and the is- land became important due to geographical position and wealthy. In the first half of the sixteenth century, many Spanish ships took advantages of the favorable northeast- erly trade winds in navigation, what made of Puerto Rico’s western coast their first stop in the New World. There they took on water and provisions for their journey to Santo Domingo, Veracruz, the Panama coast, or some other Spanish Port. These stops at the watering places on the western coast stimulated the early development of that part of the island. 13 Once the exportation of gold declined in the 1520, the island became less pro- ductive, establishments of sugar mills in Puerto Rico started. Every mill had a hacienda, (modest area of land, generally situated on the banks of a river, and a destined for sug- arcane cultivation and the necessary food supplies for its workers. It generally included meadows for oxen and other domestic and industrial use. )14 The few slaves left on the island by the end of the 16th century were concentrated in the haciendas. The estan- cia’s workface was its household. Depending on the resources of the hato’s owners, it could accommodate kinsmen, slaves, servants, or any others who, in one way or an- other, found in it a means of subsistence. 12 Ivonne Figueroa, AfroBorinquen Culture, El Boricua, http://www.elboricua.com/AfroBorinquen_Culture. html, accessed 4/24/2012 13 Fernando Pico, History of Puerto Rico: A Panorama of its People., 71 14 Fernando Pico, History of Puerto Rico: A Panorama of Its People, (Princeton, NJ, )65 21
  • 32. In 1898 American troops led by General Nelson Miles, invade Puerto Rico andassigned an American governor to the Island. Further on after many rebellions anddisputes, Puerto Rico in 1949 achieved to have their own elected governor. In 1952the US Congress and the Puerto Rican people ratify constitution, making Puerto Rico aCommonwealth or freely associated state (Estado Libre Asociado).15 The presence of United States in the island brought with it many changes relat-ed to economy, industry and politics.16 Upon the arrival of Americans, existent PuertoRican culture based on agrarian capitalism of coffee and sugar plantations with peas-ant economy and patriarchal and semi-feudal relations, adverse those from the UnitedSates with its industrial capitalism, and financial and trade. 1715 Lisa Pierce Flores, The History of Puerto Rico, 24 16 Carlos Di Nubila, Carmen N. Rodriguez Cortes, “Puerto Rico:Sociedad, cultura y educacion:ANtologia deLecturas, 108 17 Carlos Di Nubila, Carmen N. Rodriguez Cortes, “Puerto Rico:Sociedad, cultura y educacion:Antologia deLecturas, 109 22
  • 33. A rchitectural Historic Background “A wide range of environmental factors has influenced architecture in the Caribbean Is- lands, and these factors differ from island to island, as well on individual island. Each en- vironmental aspect affected building material availability and each presented unique demands for shelter and comfort requirements.” - Edward E. Crain, Historic Architecture in the Caribbean Islands23
  • 34. If we go back to the primitive hut, we will understand how everything was re-lated to basic needs only and people helping them in favor of nature.1 With the passof the years this concept have changed drastically, same as architectural expressions.Constructions used to be done in order to fulfill basics needs only, but history havegave it other characteristics when changing government, religion or ideas. It have be-come a direct representation of the historic time we live therefore a depiction of cultureand country. As architecture represent space and space define the way the user will experi-ence the building and how it will feel in it, with architectural and aesthetic changesduring the history quality of spaces have varied as well; changing for better or worsethe quality of spaces people are daily using and experiencing. 1 Historic architecture in the Caribbean Island 24
  • 35. V ernacular Architecture The Taíno settlements were single family units in town of 50 or more houses ar- ranged around circular counts. Taino villages were called yucayeques. The houses were of two types: the huts and the caney.1 Huts, also called “bohios”, were circular, with diam- eter made from bamboo an exterior fixed with wild cane or palms which were secured with small branches of vine. (Figure 1.1) A cone shaped roof was framed to the center posts and attached with grass and palm fronds. The second tye of housing existent was the “Caney”, where the chieftains used to live. (Figure 1.2) It was rectangular in shape and a more spacious than the “Bohio”, with roof gable and a front marquee of receipt being located opposite the batey or place where the member of the tribe were gathered to celebrate many of their social and ceremonial activities. 1 Bobby Kalman, The Lands, People and Culture Series, New York, NY, 2003, 625
  • 36. Both type of housing were made of wood poles or bamboo buried in soil andreeds lapel made of Rattans with roofs of palm leaves, straw, leaving in the top a vent forthe easily extraction of air and smoke from the members who always kept the homes. Asingle bohío could accommodate several families, was common among the taínos mar-ried daughters lived in the homes of parents. Generally, villages were arranged surrounding a square or a platform in whichthe batey was performed, as well as the major festivities, such as the areítos and the cer-emony of cohoba. Hammocks were hung on the tree to be protected from sun and raineffect.Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2 26
  • 37. C olonial Architecture Colonial architecture was created in Puerto Rico during the 16th and 17th cen- tury with the arrival of Spaniards to the Island. This buildings were painted in pastel colors, had tiled roof and balconies with ornaments (Figure 1.3). All these buildings ac- cessed to an inner courtyard style of Andalucia in Southern Spain. 1 Fortress were constructed during these period as well, since the island was first port of call for galleons entering the West Indies and the last safe harbor for ships, laden with treasures , making the return to Cadiz or Sevilla. The most notable of these struc- tures include El Morro, the San Juan Cathedral and the Dominican Convent Casa Blanca. Constructions were made out of materials available in the area such as stone and wood. 1 Eduardo Tejeira Davis, Roots of Latin American Architecture, 1987, 42027
  • 38. Soon they started to join tiles and bricks as decorative materials. 2 Mélange of buildings that range from Popular style during the conquest to Neo-classic in the 19th century. The Dominican Convent is another 16th century structure, inwhich tall arcades galleries and large interior patios predominates. Churches were constructed near or in connection with the plaza of the munici-pality. This was important becoming the focus of a large open space. 3 All churcheswere constructed with the same characteristics, predominantly Gothic influence. 4 Colonial architecture has interior courtyards (Figure 1.4), balconies and canti-lever roof to protect spaces from sun and to bring breezes into spaces. The need toform a connection with outdoors environment is fundamental. 5 More appreciationfor the outdoor allowed the garden to become an important part of the living environ-ment, which led the connection of architectural elements between the outdoors andthe building enclosure.6 Architectural elements such as galleries, verandas, porches,balconies, larger windows, louvers, among others, are used as aesthetic as well as cli-mate features. These take advantage of the climate and at the same time offer a degreeof privacy while filtering sunlight, allowing air to flow into the building and maintaininga visual connection with the outside. Interior courtyards allow the flow of the breezesfrom one side of the building to the other while letting indirect light come into the2 Eduardo Tejeira Davis, Roots of Latin American Architecture, 1987, 23 3Thomas S Marvel, Maria Luisa Moreno, La Arquietctura de Templos Parroquiales de Puerto Rico, (SanJuan, PR 1994)32.4Thomas S Marvel, Maria Luisa Moreno, La Arquietctura de Templos Parroquiales de Puerto Rico, (SanJuan, PR 1994)34.5 Edward E. Crain, Historic Architecture in the Caribbean Islands, University Press of Florida, Gainsville, FL,856 Edward E. Crain, Historic Architecture in the Caribbean Islands, University Press of Florida, Gainsville, FL,86 28
  • 39. Figure 1.3 Figure 1.4 Figure 1.529
  • 40. spaces. Courtyards allow the plantation of vegetation, and at the same time create aspace for gathering people as well as for creating activities in contact with nature. Porches allow crossed ventilation improving the quality of air inside of the build-ings. The roof of the porch is the shadow device that avoids the direct entrance of light,and allows the pass of natural diffuse light into spaces. (Figure 1.5) This decreases theneed of artificial light during the day, as well as the need of artificial ventilation becauseair can get into spaces through the windows and because the presence of diffused lightdoes not transmit as much heat as the direct light do. 30
  • 41. C urrent Architecture The industrial revolution introduced to the world man made materials which require a lot of energy to be produced and which could be affecting nonrenewable resources, which end up affecting nature and the environment we live in. With the pres- ence of the Americans in the island, many changes occurred in architecture. Americans brought to the island that sense of modernism the island didn’t had and the view of progress that later on changed quality of spaces and modified lifestyle and relationship with environment. Nature and spaces for gathering people and socializing, used to be an impor- tant part of the architecture, as well as part of the cultural aspect. It was very common the use of wood doors to access interior courtyards and the existence of multiple win-31
  • 42. dows to allow crossed ventilation. The relationship between human and nature use tobe sacred, a really important part of life in every person. During this period the relation-ship with nature still important but addressed in a different manner. Since materialshave changed, the application of new materials with non-seen before qualities becameimportant and even popular. A good example of this is the glass, material that allow theentrance of natural light, and creating windows with that material also allow the crossventilation. Concrete is really important for Puerto Rican architecture, since its qualitiesallow it to persist during hurricanes and other natural disasters. Wood was substituted,mainly by these new materials that were inexistent before. The qualities, strengths, du-rability among other characteristics that these new materials had put them in the list ofpreferences when constructing; at the same time began the way to harm the environ-ment.1 In colonial architecture the architecture, construction, decorations, among oth-ers, were made from natural materials, most taken from renewable sources. It doesn’timply that these types of construction doesn’t harm environment at all, but at least, theway of manipulating the materials didn’t polished the environment in the same waythese new materials were acting. Not only that, but also the inclination about the pro-grams of the building were a problem to the environmental ambit as well. Construct-ing industries was seen as a symbol of progress and economic growth but at the sametime it was a subsidy for the environment and health of people. The implementationof machinery left in a secondary position the architectural design, giving more impor-1 Marian Keeler, Bill Burke, Fundamentals of integrated design for sustainable buildings, Hoboken, NJ, 87 32
  • 43. Figure 1.6 Figure 1.733
  • 44. tance to those engineering technologies.2 The implementation of air conditioning wasthe solution for hot weather and the substitution of crossed ventilation. Mentality ofpeople began to change believing that comfort was created by equipment rather thanarchitectural design.3 The new materials required as well new people to build trained in these materi-als. Architects from different parts of the world came to the island to implement themodern architecture. Henry Klumb was an important architect in the transformation ofthe island, and responsible for many important buildings, now considered historic. Heimplemented the environmental design in conjunction with the industrial techniques,creating spaces that improve the quality of life. His architecture implemented the useof natural light. (Figure 1.6) cross ventilation, environmental orientation of the building,relationship user with nature (Figure 1.7), referencing to all those strategies used in co-lonial architecture, but with the use of new materials. Many other architects tried to dosimilar things and many of them accomplished it. The problem became with the pass ofthe years, when the concrete became massive in the island and the dearth of vegetationimproved even more. (Figure 1.8) Standardization in construction, brought ceilings toits minimum making them 8 ft. height, what concentrate the heat absorbed by the con-crete during all day and liberating that heat during night making spaces warm all daylong. What used to be cantilevers to use as shade have been reduced to the point thatnatural light have become uncomfortable for the interior spaces, creating the necessityof curtains and therefore the use of artificial light in the interior space.4 (Figure 1.9)2Marian Keeler, Bill Burke, Fundamentals of integrated design for sustainable buildings, Hoboken, NJ, 883 Marian Keeler, Bill Burke, Fundamentals of integrated design for sustainable buildings, Hoboken, NJ, 874 Enrique Vivoni, Periferia: Publications: Hacia una modernidad tropical: la obra de Henry Klumb, http://www.periferia.org/publications/obraklumb.html, accessed 4/20/2012 34
  • 45. Figure 1.8 Figure 1.935
  • 46. All those things that were used in the past for a better quality of life have beenforgotten with the pass of the years making the new generations unaware of the im-portance of nature, of the environment and ignorant of the meaning of sustainability.Currently most spaces created are not environmentally oriented and do not related tonature. Many of the plazas created don’t have trees to provide shadow and better qual-ity of air and breeze. Almost all of the new buildings constructed, try to be too modernforgetting about all the environmental aspects that apply on the island. This is a bigmistake made by architects where the incorrect use of glass in buildings have let thepass massive amount of light without being filtered making a space uncomfortable andhotter. New developments are not taking in consideration geographical position, light,wind, among other natural consideration, while taking design decisions. Many treeshave been taken off the site without been replanted. Prior to the advent of air-conditioning, hot conditions were ameliorated byshading and air movement. To permit ventilation windows were operable and distrib-uted across different high elevations. 5 The lack of vegetation and the constant creationof massive concrete buildings, where civilians gather the most, make it impossible tocool places naturally.6 5 Marian Keeler, Bill Burke, Fundamentals of integrated design for sustainable buildings, Hoboken, NJ, 806 Marian Keeler, Bill Burke, Fundamentals of integrated design for sustainable buildings, Hoboken, NJ, 98 36
  • 47. E nvironmental and Sustainability Issues All those things that were used in the past for a better quality of life have been forgotten with the pass of the years making the new generations unaware of the impor- tance of nature, of the environment and ignorant of the meaning of sustainability.1 There is a lack of sustainable technologies, as well as a lack of practice of envi- ronmental design in the buildings that have been created in Puerto Rico, during the last couple of decades. Many years ago the sustainable technologies were inexistent but the design of buildings played an important role in the inner spaces.2 The orientation of the buildings and the design, use to allow natural ventilation as well as natural light into spaces, making unnecessary the use of artificial ventilation, and reducing the use of 1 Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, Gobierno Municipal Autonomo de Carolina, Declaración de Im- pacto Ambiental Preliminar de la Revision Integral del Plan Territorial, June 2005 2 Student Service Building, http://innbrooklyn.wordpress.com/2010/05/04/tropical-modern-architecture- with-a-green-twist/, accessed 5/7/201237
  • 48. artificial light, during the day. This practice has been lost. New constructions have notbeen environmentally oriented, what have made necessary the use of air conditioningin every building.3 Puerto Rico climate is known to be very hot consistently throughout almost ev-ery season. Lately, this has been getting worst due to global warming.4 Puerto Ricanshave not taken advantage of natural ventilation to address the issue of high tempera-tures inside living and work spaces; developments and constructions in general havenot been designed environmentally oriented. . The opening in windows is really important for the indoor air quality.5 To con-trol the air that is coming in the building as well as the quality of the air, is important toconsider certain factors, such as building sitting orientation, building height, buildingopenings, establishment of interior light and noise criteria, selection of ventilation andHVAC systems. All this considerations have to be appropriate for the climate, locationand building type and occupancy. The quantity and quality of green spaces in the island is reducing considerably,which make the situation even worst.6 The number of spaces without air conditioningin the island are becoming inexistent because is impossible to be without it due to thelack of ventilation. Even when windows are open there’s no flow of air because of thebad orientation or the quantity of wind barriers (other buildings). The island is becom-ing a mass of concrete with no ventilation and no interaction with nature.3 Marian Keeler, Bill Burke, Fundamentals of integrated design for sustainable buildings, Hoboken, NJ, 874 Marian Keeler, Bill Burke, Fundamentals of integrated design for sustainable buildings, Hoboken, NJ, 90 5 Marian Keeler, Bill Burke, Fundamentals of integrated design for sustainable buildings, Hoboken, NJ, 846 Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, Gobierno Municipal Autonomo de Carolina, Declaración de Im-pacto Ambiental Preliminar de la Revision Integral del Plan Territorial, June 2005 38
  • 49. E conomical Issues Utilities cost are increasing every day making unable the stability of business.1 Puerto Rican culture, as well as wellness of the people has been affected due to this. The mix of lack of sustainability and the increase in utilities prices have become a problem in the country. Since sustainable technologies haven’t been implemented in the country and the design have not been environmentally oriented, people don’t know of ways to reduce cost and get a better life style. With all the environmental issues that have been created globally is really im- portant to begin using technologies to help improve the situation, and to create re- sources for future generations. This is something many people try to apply to their life, 1CB Staff of Caribbean Business, Industry unhappy about imminent 100% rise in water rates, Puerto Rico Herald, June 23, 2005 http://www.puertorico-herald.org/issues2/2005/vol09n25/CBIndustry.html, ac- cessed 5/7/201239
  • 50. especially now when been green is the latest trend, have become very fashionable andpopular. The issue in Puerto Rico is that people don’t know how to be green, they thinkrecycling and reusing is the only way, but people haven’t started thinking about plant-ing vegetation, using sun or wind for creating energy instead of the conventional energysource produced by petroleum, among many other options available. These are issuesthat could improve even better the situation. This won’t change the environment com-pletely, but at least would help the economy; reducing costs of utilities. The economic crisis has affected salaries, employments and business all over theworld. These have been affecting even worst the culture, because the lack of money andthe amount of closing business have been restricting certain social habits. Figure 1.10shows the unemployment rate in the island. Because of the importance of the culture and the socialization among PuertoRican people, and the negative effect of the economic crisis, traditions among this popu-lation has been lost or significantly reduced. The variety of places for people to socializehas been significantly reduced, which affects directly the social aspect of Puerto Ricanpopulation. The economic crisis has affected the possibilities of people affording the lifestylethat people use to have before this crisis begun. 2 We are living in a period in which resources are limited even when we mightthink they aren’t. Starting by the water which compose 74% of the earth3 and 60 % of2 The wall Street Journal, Puerto Rico’s Economic Slump Weighs Hard on Consumers Cost of Living SurgesAs Inflation Helps Tip Island Into Recession, August 14, 2007, The wall Street Journal, Economy, http://on-line.wsj.com/article/SB118705864479596908.html, accessed 5/7/20123 Christen Petersen, Renewing Earth’s Water, Tarrytown, NY, 2011, 8 40
  • 51. human body, 4 97 % of the water the of the world is polluted, 2 % is frozen into polar ice sheets and glaciers and only 1% is remaining for consumption. This is what makes a re- sources basic as water important thou expensive.5 With combustible we are experienc- ing similar circumstances. Energy for cooling places, for light, refrigeration, and even for gas to run a car depend on this. Combustible comes from fossil fuels (non-renewable re- source) many miles away from distance. This way of acquiring energy could have been changed many years ago by many other existent alternatives, but still economy and government still supporting the entrance of this to the island. This source is hard to get and expensive since there’s not much left. The rises in these prices compromise every day more customer’s pockets. All this could be seen as an environmental issue, but many people don’t see it as an issue till their budgets is affected, seeing it from another perspective; economical. Puerto Rico has become one more in the list of countries affected by this issue. This has resumed in the increase of utilities prices. In 1978 the cost of petroleum starts increasing, but in 1985 it began decreasing again. The problem with this increases in petroleum price is that is immediately reflect- ed in the cost of electricity, but once the price of petroleum decrease is hard to see the difference in reductions of energy prices. Even when the petroleum reduces its costs the life style of people is changing, reason for the company to increase cost of energy. The really notable change in price of petroleum begins in 1998, since that the cost of electricity has changed yearly, affecting population economies. During the year 2010, the changes in price of electricity have increased monthly. These increases are 4 Denis M. Medeiros,Robert E. C. Wildman, Advanced Human Nutrition, MA, 2000,169 Second Edition 5 Markita K. Hill, Understanding Environmental Pollution, Cambridge University Press, 2010, 267 41
  • 52. changes of 1% or 2%, but in people’s budget are significant. The salaries of the popula-tion are not increasing at all but the life style is what makes imperative a solution forthings such as energy cost. Solving energy cost in the country would not solve the economical problem butit will contribute to the economy. Using the right technology, electrical as well as water costs can be reduced sig-nificantly, making it possible to keep a business running without major expenses. Morepeople will have to learn about this technology, experts in the area will be hired; moreemployments and more opportunities will be created. The requirements of people toinstall and give maintenance to these will help reduce the rate of unemployed popula-tion in the country as well. This change in electrical expenses could improve economy.All this together could also be translated into a decrease in unemployment rates, andthe possibility of increasing salaries. Unemployment Rate 18 16 14 12 10 Unemployment Rate 8 6 4 2 0Figure 1.10 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 42
  • 53. C ost of Petroleum VS Cost of Electricity Diagrams show how the cost of electricity, as well as the cost of the petroleum have been increasing from 1976 to 2007 . Prices reflected are: cents per kwh for electricity and cent per liter in petroleum. 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1934 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Price of liter - Petroleum 13.36 14.43 13.79 22.04 30.7 29.66 28.35 29.11 28.76 20.99 15.24 16.56 14.8 18.35 18.36 14.98 17.05 15.81 17.57 19.09 20.68 18.79 14.96 23.94 29.73 23.25 30.52 30.98 39.96 56.78 58.68 84.63 Price of Kwh - Electricity 5.32 5.69 5.62 7.47 9.83 10.98 10.64 10.64 10.59 8.86 7.8 8.05 7.69 9.41 9.65 8.97 9.49 9.11 9.48 9.76 10.15 9.7 8.99 10.94 12.44 11.3 12.61 12.83 14.81 17.99 17.76 22.1943
  • 54. Chart Title 120 100 80 Axis Title¢ 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Series2 13.36 14.43 13.79 22.04 30.7 29.66 28.35 29.11 28.76 20.99 15.24 16.56 14.8 18.35 18.36 14.98 17.05 15.81 17.57 19.09 20.68 18.79 14.96 23.94 29.73 23.25 30.52 30.98 39.96 56.78 58.68 84.63 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1934 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Series1 5.32 5.69 6.62 7.47 9.83 10.98 10.64 10.64 10.59 8.86 7.8 8.05 7.69 9.41 9.65 8.97 9.49 9.11 9.84 9.76 10.15 9.7 8.99 10.94 12.44 11.3 12.61 12.83 14.81 17.99 17.76 22.19 Figure 1.11 44
  • 55. 45
  • 56. Chapter 2 Context 46
  • 57. D emographics Population (1960-2010) Population (1960-2010) 5 Population, 4.027 millions 4 4 3 3 Millions 2 2 1 1 0 Figure 2.1 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2004 2005 201047
  • 58. Ages of Population Ages of Population Gender of Population Population Population 45% 40% 35% 30% Percentage 25% 52% 52% Female Female 20% Male Male 48% 48% 15% 10% 5% 0%Figure 2.2 0-15 15-44 45-64 65 + Figure 2.3 48
  • 59. I ndustry Agriculture plays a small role in the economy. Goods-producing industries, such as construction and manufacturing, are significant when compared to the norm in the United States (Table 2). The government also plays an important role: many of the utili- ties (electricity and water), education, and a lesser extent, health services are provided by government entities, In manufacturing, the number of jobs in the production of pharmaceuticals is exceptionally high. Nearly 4 % of all employees in the private sector of the Island work in this industry, more than ten times the average on the continent. Educational services are a substantial share of private sector jobs on the Island. In con- trast, the number of jobs in industries professional and technical services is relatively low and until the share of services in the field Financial is somewhat lower than average.49
  • 60. Industry Comparison Between Puerto Rico and USA Other Private Services Hospitality and Food Services Arts, Entertainment and Recreation Health and Welfare Educational Service Administrative Services and Waste Management Companies and Enterprises Management Technical amd Profesional Services Finances, Insurance and Real State Information Puerto Rico USA Public Services Transportation and Storage Retail Trade Wholesale Pharmaceutical Products Manufacturing Construction Mining Agriculture, Forestry fishing and hunting Figure 2.4 50
  • 61. E ducational and Professional Context 45 Education (Population between 25 and 44 years old) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No high school Diploma High School Diploma Some College Associate Degree, Bachelor Degree, Master Figure 2.5 Degree or PhD51
  • 62. Today, education is a matter of high priority for Puerto Rico; it is evident in theisland’s overall literacy rate of 90 percent and its budget for education, approximately40%. Education is obligatory between 6 to 17 years old. Primary school consists of sixgrades; the secondary levels are divided into 2 cycles of 3 years each. The school term inpublic schools starts in August through mid-December and January through late May.The school system is administered by the Department of Education and has several lev-els of learning. The language used in the schools is Spanish, however, English is taughtfrom kindergarten to high school as part of the school curriculum. Some private schoolsprovide English programs where all classes are conducted in English except for theSpanish class. Puerto Rico has more than 50 institutions of higher education. Puerto Rico hasachieved one of the highest college education rates in the world (6th) with 56% of itscollege-age students attending institutions of higher learning, according to World Bankdata. At the present time only a 17.9 percent of population between 25 and 44 yearsold haven’t finished high school, while 25.5 of the population have as higher educationachieved a high school diploma. The majority of population in the country betweenthose ages is educated, having a 16.4 of population with some college education and40.1 with associate degree, bachelor degree, or any graduate or professional degreesachieved.11 U.S. Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey. 52
  • 63. D escription of the Region Puerto Rico is part of the Antilles arc of islands that constitute as an introduction to Central America and helps form the inland seas American, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. The Antilles is a chain of islands that stretch more than 1500 miles starting from Florida (USA) to Venezuela (South America). They enclose the Caribbean sea. To the north and east is the Atlantic Ocean. These are divided into 3 main groups, the Bahamas, Greater Antilles and the Lesser Antilles. 1 Puerto Rico is actually an archipelago of islands within the archipelago of the Antilles. The smaller nearby islands are also part of Puerto Rico. Two of them, Vieques and Culebra, are municipalities and most of the other small islands are used for wild life 1 Jose Manuel Garcia Leduc, Apuntes para una historia breve de arquitectura,San Juan , PR, 2003, 67 53
  • 64. reserves and recreational areas. Puerto Rico is located at latitude 17 ° 50 ‘and 18 ° 30’ north and longitude 65 °13 ‘and 67 ° 58’ at the north of the Ecuador and south of the tropic of Cancer. This area ofland which means that receives direct sunlight throughout the year. The location in thetropics provides basic weather conditions along with other factors like the sea, makingdefined as tropical maritime climate. The tropical condition establishes a hot weathercondition throughout the year. The winds are another factor that affects the climate of Puerto Rico. The mainpattern of winds from the east-northeast and are called trade winds and the shaft, cen-tral mountain. Its geographical position places the country in an area of cyclones orhurricanes.Known as La Isla Grande, the main island of Puerto Rico is almost rectangular in shapeand has an area of 100 miles long by 35 miles wide. The territory is very mountainous(cover 60%), except in the regional coasts, but Puerto Rico offers astonishing variety:rain forest, deserts, beaches, caves, oceans and rivers. It is divided into three geographi-cal areas; the Central Interior Mountain Ranges, Northern Karst, Coastal Plains. The cen-tral interior Mountain Ranges cover the most of the island, including interior mountains,mountain sides, low areas within the mountains and hills. These mountain ranges are LaCordillera Central, La Sierra de Cayey, La Sierra de Luquillo, and La Sierra Bermeja.The Northern Karst is located in the northern interior mountainous part of the islandof Puerto Rico. This particular area consists of formations of limestone rock dissolvedby water throughout the geological ages. This area consists of formations of ruggedvolcanic rock dissolved by water throughout the geological ages. This limestone region 54
  • 65. is an extremely attractive zone of haystack hills, sinkholes, caves, limestone cliffs, and other karst features. The Coastal Plains are smaller in square miles than the Central Interior Mountain Rang- es and the Northern Karst. (Figure 2.6) This area, which is relatively flat, was originally formed by the erosion of the interior mountains. The largest cities on the island are located here, San Juan to the north, Ponce to the south and Mayaguez to the west. Beaches and sand dunes are abundant on Puerto Rico’s 1,126 kilometers of coast. 2 2Patricia Levy, Nazry Bahrawi, Cultures of the World Puerto Rico, Tarrytown, 2005, Second EditionNew York, 7-12 Costal Plains Areas of Karst Topography Mountainous Area Approximate axis of mountain chain55
  • 66. Atlantic Ocean Caribbean SeaN Figure 2.6 56
  • 67. C limate The climate is Tropical Marine with regular temperature of 86°F. Puerto Rico en- joys warm and sunny days most of the year. The winds, which blow from the East, moder- ate temperatures. In the interior, the temperature fluctuates between 73°F and 82°F. Rain tends to be evenly distributed throughout the year, but doubles during the months from May to October, which, unfortunately, coincides with hurricane season, as falls from November to April, with a driest period from January to April. The north coast gets twice as much rain as the south coast. Puerto Rico is expose to the cyclones of Caribbean. Hurricanes frequently occur between August and October. Dozens of hurricanes have been recorded in the island’s history, but probably the most destructive was San Ciriaco, which struck on August 8, 1899. The relative humidity is high, about 80% throughout the year.57
  • 68. Maximum and Minimum Temperature in San Juan Temperature in San Juan Maximum and Minimum 120 100 80 Temperature 60 Max. Min. 40 20 0 Figure 2.7 Month 58
  • 69. 59 C hapter 3 Site Analysis
  • 70. Puerto RicoN Figure 3.1 Location of the Island in the World Map. 60
  • 71. H istory and Description of the Area San Juan, the capital of Puerto Rico is divided in many districts, being Condado one of them. (See Figure 3.2 for location map) Condado is a wealthy tourist-oriented neighborhood, located near Old San Juan, and surrounded by Atlantic Sea and the Con- dado Lagoon. Currently all the area is being revitalized, erecting new buildings, restor- ing the roads and other residential buildings in the zone. According to the 2000 United States Census, it has a population of 6,170 residents. The beaches in the area are located along all the Atlantic coast, these are popu- lar by surfers and kite surfers. At the north as well, along the coastline, many hotels are located, as well as many commercial buildings such as nightclubs, casinos, shops and restaurants. (See Figure 3.3) This makes Condado one of the island’s primary tourist des- tinations, as well as a successful zone. It is also one of the few pedestrian oriented areas of Puerto Rico.61
  • 72. San Juan Condado N SiteFigure 3.2 62
  • 73. T N Atla ouristic Map ntic O cea n Con dado Lag oon Figure 3.363
  • 74. The site can be accessed from El Puente Dos Hermanos, a bridge that connectsthe Historic San Juan with the Ave. Ashford, Condado. In the 1970 this bridge was theplace where people use to go from Thursday to Saturday at night. The frequency ofpeople there, as well as having vendors who converted trucks into food stands, con-taminating Condado lagoon with food residue and trash. Puerto Rico government con-structs a sanitary sewer system to service the structures that were discharging their rawsewage into the water body. This effort in addition with the enlargement of the DosHermanos Bridge to increase water flow into the lagoon, improved significantly the wa-ter quality of the area. Now over 300 species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians andtropical fishes, are associated with the Lagoon and its mangrove habitat, including 124species of fish. The Lagoon includes coral reefs that are home to sponges, starfish andsea urchins and other fish and marine invertebrates. Turtles and manatees now makethe Condado Lagoon their habitat. El Condado began its process of urbanization in 1908 by the Behn brothers, twobrothers who worked in the industry in America. Their growth and development wasmostly in the form of transport-influenced by sub urbanization and developed a Plangrid. El Condado becomes a typical suburb to the traditional urban center of old SanJuan. This area experienced a change in the early decades of the 20th century, whensome of the richest families built their homes in the area, giving some prestige to thezone. The area looks very different compared to what it was in the 20th the century.Some of the luxurious homes located between the skyscrapers of condominiums havebecome mall inns, shops, museums and restaurants. 64
  • 75. S ite Surroundings Walking Time: Time in walking distance is measured from the center of the site First radius - 2.5 minutes walking distance, which equal 1/4 of a mile. Second radius - 5 minutes walk equals 1/2 mile and Third radius - 10 minutes walking distance, which equals 1 mile of distance from the center of the site.65
  • 76. N 10 Atla Figure 3.5 ntic O Conrad San Juan Condado Plaza cea n 5 Puente Dos Hermanos 2 .5 Ramada Con d ado Lag oon Figure 3.6 SiteFigure 3.4 Figure 3.7 66
  • 77. Figure 3.8Figure 3.9Figure 3.10Figure 3.11 Figure 3.12 Figure 3.1367
  • 78. View of the site surroundings taken Nfrom the street in the direction the ar-row is pointing ile 1m Atla ntic O cea n ile 2m 1/ Con d ado Lag oon Figure 3.14 68
  • 79. Solid Void: N ile m 1 Atla ntic O cea n ile Figure 3.16 m 2 1/ Office Building Restaurant Figure 3.17 Residence Con dado Lag oon Figure 3.15 Figure 3.1869
  • 80. Figure 3.19 Figure 3.20 Figure 3.21 The site is currently occupying two parking lots facing the beach front of Con- dado and having at one side the Ramada Hotel (Figure 3.15), at the other side an office building (Figure 3.16) and a restaurant (Figure 3.17). In front of the site are residential buildings. (Figure 3.18) The Ramada Hotel is currently abandoned, but there’s a plan for its revitalization in a near future. Right next to this hotel is located the Conrad San Juan Condado Plaza Hotel and Casino. (Figure 3.5) It is currently the closest functional hotel to the site, and a place often frequented by tourist and Puerto Rican population. The Conrad San Juan Condado Plaza Hotel and Casino is a luxury hotel in located at the entrance of Condado. This hotel overlooks the Atlantic Ocean and Con- dado Lagoon. The building has an energized and chic decoration. This resort has to offer, museums, upscale shopping, restaurants (Figure 3.19), a lounge (Figure 3.20), bar (Figure 3.21) and casino. 70
  • 81. U N ile m 1 Atla ses ntic O cea n m ile /2 1 Con d ado Lag oon Hotel Residential Parking Commercial Site Green Areas / Plaza Figure 3.2271
  • 82. H N le i 1m Atla eight ntic O cea n ile m 1/2 Con dado Lag oon11-15 Story Building1-5 Story Building6-10 Story Building+ 15 Story BuildingParking LotSiteGreen Areas / Plaza Figure 3.23 72
  • 83. C N ile 1m Atla ntic O cea losing Time n ile 2m 1/ Con d ado Public Building - Open 24 hours Lag oon Private Building - Open 24 hours Public Building - Open from 9 am to 8 PM Public Building - Open from 11 am to 12 am Public Building- Open from 6 PM to 2 am Site 24 hours Open Space Figure 3.2473
  • 84. S Figure 3.25 ite Existing Conditions N Atla ntic O cea n 247’ Project Area = 71,925 sq. ft.. 195’ ’ 13 148 2’Figure 3.26 74
  • 85. C limatic Conditions The site is in a position where receive direct sun in almost every part during every season of the year. It is also positioned in a place where wind affects directly, mak- ing possible the utilization of sustainable technologies for the generation of energy. Receives a constant wind from the north east at an average speed of 12 m/h at a height of 33 ft. The east side of the site receive strong waves with an altitude of 6 to 8 ft., what also allows to implements the wave power as an energy generator technology.75
  • 86. N Atla ntic O cea n Summer Solstice Equinox Winter Solstice Con dado Lag oonFigure 3.27 76
  • 87. T ransportation and Transit The approach to the site could be pedestrian as well as vehicular. (Figure 3.29) The main road is located in front of the site. One bus stop is located in front of the site, (Figure 3.28) there are several near the area. There are also several parking lots and parking garages available for the use of the public inside of the 5 minute walk radius. (See Figure 3.30 for parking garages, parking lots, bus stops and road direction)77
  • 88. N ile 1m Atla ntic O cea n ile mFigure 3.28 2 1/Figure 3.29 Con d ado Lag oonSiteGreen Areas / Square/ ParkParking GarageParking LotFigure 3.30 78
  • 89. 79
  • 90. Chapter 4 Program Analysis 80
  • 91. P rogram Planning Goals The site is located in a residential and touristic area, where many hotels and restaurants are located. The different typologies, and the importance of the zone for the economic development of the country, is what makes this project important to improve the zone, activating and transforming it into a hub. Having a project with 24 hours program will promote activity in the zone and contribute to a sustainable project. Because of the ambience and qualities the area possess people from all over the Metro- politan Area of Puerto Rico, (including San Juan, Caguas, Bayamon, Guaynabo, Trujillo Alto, Carolina and Cataño) comes frequently to work, diligences or for leisure purposes. This project tries to gather people of different taste and ages. The lack of places open 24 hours and the lack of options for different user groups create the need for this unique program. The only buildings open 24 hours in the area are residential, apart from that81
  • 92. are the hotels, which are more directed for tourist rather than for the community. Sincethe project and the program are unique, it is necessary to have a different aesthetic inthe building, in comparison with the rest of the buildings surrounding the area. Evenwhen the aesthetic of the project will be different from other buildings, there’s always aneed of respecting the context and surrounding.The interior spaces will be different from each other in lighting, sizes of spaces, material-ity, technologies, systems integrated, ways of interacting with nature, and the sensorialaspect of each space.Because of the lack of sustainable design in the country and the lack of knowledge frompopulation, sustainable technologies as well as sustainable materials, practices and de-sign decisions will be applied to the project and to the program.Sustainability covers a lot of different aspects, including among them the reduction ofland used for construction and the use of minimal space as possible. The project willaim to only 50% of the site for the buildings, using the rest as landscape.With tourist from other countries as well as people from different parts of Puerto Ricovisiting this area, it is suitable to promote the learning of sustainability through a build-ing that people from all ages can enjoy. The location of the site provides the conditionsneeded to potentially apply several technologies such as solar, wind and tidal power.
  • 93. S ustainability In sustainable design the health, safety and well being of people in the built environment are addressed by implementing six principles. 1 1. Respect of Wisdom of Natural Systems – Biomimicry Principle The respect of wisdom of natural systems is the most important principles, basically the one that incorporate the other five principles. This principle not only state the ap- proach to site design, in which includes attitude toward climate and place, but also the 1. Jason F. McLennan, The Philosophy of Sustainable Design: The Future of Architecture, Kanss City, Missouri, 2004, 3883
  • 94. use of energy, materials and the comfort of well being. The Biomimicry principle impliesthe change through every step of design and the humble process of unlearning andrelearning. In some cases the implementation of Biomimicry can imply the applicationof certain technologies such as photovoltaic cells, playing a large role in energy gener-ating without pollution, just with the use of sun light.2 This concept can also becomebroader when not utilizing any technologies but implementing the environmental de-sign in the project. Both the sustainable design by the implementation of technologiesand the environmental design will be applied in the design of the building shape takingnature in consideration and reflecting it in building responses. The reflection of thesein the building will be shown not only in shape of buildings and openings but also withthe use of design principles such as natural ventilation, daylight and passive solar heat-ing. Figure 4.1 shows the climate in the site and possible shape of a building takingthose elements in consideration. As part of the program the building shape will take animportant role deeply exploring the way of taking advantages of those climatic condi-tions.2. Respect for People – Human Vitality PrincipleSustainable design endeavor to create healthy habitats for all people without diminish-ing the ability of nature to provide nourishing places for all creation as well as for ourown species in the future. 3 The creation of open spaces for people to gather while being2. Jason F. McLennan, The Philosophy of Sustainable Design: The Future of Architecture, KanssCity, Missouri, 2004, 35-443. Jason F. McLennan, The Philosophy of Sustainable Design: The Future of Architecture, KanssCity, Missouri, 2004, 46-50 84
  • 95. N Figure 4.1 in contact with nature will contribute to this principle. Views to exterior, to ocean to green spaces, to the lagoon, will enhance the relationship user- nature. (See figure 4.2 for open spaces diagram) 3. Respect for Place – Ecosystem Principle. A respect for place demands that built environment differ from region to region and85
  • 96. community to community. In sustainable design picks up not only on place but also onculture and individual differences.4 This project is not only directed to environment butalso an important part of the project is the user and the culture. The project intent torevive an important part of culture which is social aspect of it and the program as wellas the building design will enhance socialization. The ecosystems would be improvedby the addition of vegetation of the site. The existing rocks will stay in their originalplace and the design will interact with the existent.4. Respect for Cycle of Life –This is the Seven Generation Principle, in which we understand that choices make todayhave consequences for animals and people yet to be born. Issues of today are no longerabout choosing the best of two evils, but to do choosing right solutions without harm-ing any part. 5“The human race is challenged more than ever before to demonstrate our mastery –not over nature – but of ourselves.” - Rachel Carson5. Principle of energy -“Energy is a critically valuable resource and that the use of energy always comes with agreat responsibility. We have a responsibility to use as little energy as technologicallypossible within any design, while striving to maximize the quality of the built environ-4. Jason F. McLennan, The Philosophy of Sustainable Design: The Future of Architecture, KanssCity, Missouri, 2004, 53-605. Jason F. McLennan, The Philosophy of Sustainable Design: The Future of Architecture, KanssCity, Missouri, 2004, 63-71 86
  • 97. ment. We need to head to a future where combustion as a primary mode of deriving energy has been replaced with only renewable source of fuel. We need to head to a future where all our energy should come directly from the sun, wind and tides” .6 Some energy generating technologies will be discussed further in this chapter. 6. Respect for the Process – Holistic Thinking Principle Life cycle analysis consider a material’s impact through all stages of its life from resourc- es extraction thought construction, use and disposal. Suggestions of sustainable mate- rials will be discussed further on this chapter. 6. Jason F. McLennan, The Philosophy of Sustainable Design: The Future of Architecture, Kanss City, Missouri, 2004, 73-7687
  • 98. Use of Open Space on SitePlaza, connection space between buildings andstreet.Beach, create a public space that connect thebeach with the plaza and the rest of the project.Public space smaller than the beach and theplaza but which let the user have view to theocean and to the plaza and street as well. NThe project will have different type of users andit is suitable for families, couples or groups. Plaza Beach Smaller Public Space Family Couples Groups Figure 4.2 88
  • 99. S ustainable Technologies for Energy Generation There are various methods of sustainability that could be applied such as solar power, wave power, wind power and kinetic power. Since Puerto Rico is an island sur- rounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea it has a lot of wind and sun dur- ing all seasons; and having the site located at the coast provide the perfect conditions to take advantages of wave power as well. “It is not enough to recognize the evils; one should know their roots and causes, [and] according to the circumstances, provide the remedies.” - Colonel George C. Flinter89
  • 100. S olar Power The conversion of solar energy into power could help significantly to reducethe amount of electrical power needed in any infrastructure. This is really importantbecause electrical power use nonrenewable natural resources, which is detrimental forthe environment. 1 What makes possible the conversion into power is the geographical position ofthe island, which is located in the humid tropical zone at the north of the Equator line inthe Caribbean where every season the sun is present.2The sun has produced energy for billions of years. Solar energy is the sun’s rays (solar1 Supt. of Docs., U.S. Government Printing Office, The environmental impact ofelectrical power generation: Nuclear and fossil: a minicourse for secondary schoolsand adult education, 1975, 892. Herman Schneider, Nina Schneider, Heath science series, DC Heath, 1973, 265 90
  • 101. radiation) that reach the Earth. This energy can be converted into other forms of energy, such as heat and electricity. Radiant energy from the sun has powered life on Earth for many millions of years. Solar powered electrical generation relies on heat engines and photovoltaic.3 To harvest the solar energy, the most common way is to use solar panels. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. 4 3. Andrej Stefan,V. Alexander Stefan, The Solar Cell Power in Your Home and Your Workplace: All You Need to Know, La Jolla California, 2009, 20 4. Leonard L. Northrup Jr, Solar Energy: Solar Power, Concentrating Solar Power, 2010, 32 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.491
  • 102. Solar Ivy (Figure 4.3) The Solar Ivy is one of the several sustainable technologies that work with thesun to generate energy. Density of Solar Ivy leaves can be increased or reduced de-pending on goals for energy gain, visibility requirements, or architectural needs. Itslight-sourcing leaves are not static, allowing them to move around and catch the sunfrom many directions. The organic shape of each panel, permit them to act like realleaves, providing a more authentic climbing ivy aesthetic. The stainless steel mesh that roots Solar Ivy to a building or sub-structure isflexible enough to stretch, bend, and curve to hug the contours of almost any surface,including building facades. It is also light weight what makes easy mounting it into awall. The Solar Ivy system is modular in nature and made up of ‘bricks’ of 5 leaves whichmay be scaled to any size necessary. Every leave is capable of generate 4 Watts, a 4 by7 foot strip of Solar Ivy is capable of generating 85 Watts of solar power. 5Dye Solar Cell Technology (Figure 4.4) Dye Solar Cell technology can be described as artificial photosynthesis. It useselectrolyte, a layer of titania (pigment) and ruthenium dye sandwiched between glass.Light striking the dye excites electrons which are then absorbed by the titania to be-come an electric current many times stronger than that found in natural photosynthesisin plants. When operating in a solar cell the sensitizer S gets excited by the visible light.5. SMIT,inhabitat, 2012, http://inhabitat.com/solar-ivy-photovoltaic-leaves-climb-to-new-heights/smitsolarivy-2/, accessed 5/20/2012 92
  • 103. Then it gets oxidized due to charge injection, and recycled by iodide reduction. The rate constants for charge injection and iodide reduction are at least 109 times higher than the rate constants for excited and oxidized state degradation. The sensitizer should be able to undergo around one billion cycles without significant degradation. 6Side reac- tions such as sensitization of oxygen are efficiently suppressed due to ultrafast electron injection into TiO2. Compared to conventional silicon based photovoltaic technology, produces electricity more efficiently even in low light conditions and can be directly incorporated into buildings by replacing conventional glass panels rather than taking up roof or extra land area.7 Dye solar cells from Solaronix perform remarkable photochemical stability under intense and continuous light irradiation. After 6000 hours at full sunlight, corre- sponding to about seven years of outside light exposure no loss of tri-iodide or chemi- cal transformation of the sensitizer was observed. Heating of a test solar cell at 70°C for 1000 hours under irradiation did not affect the conversion efficiency, indicating an excellent chemical stability. The overall quantum efficiency for green light is about 90%, with the “lost” 10% being largely accounted for by the optical losses in top electrode. Photovoltaic Cells (Figure 4.5) Photovoltaic (PV devices) or “solar cells” change sunlight directly into electric- 6. Dyesol, DSC Applications, Australia, 2005, http://www.dyesol.com/index. php?page=DSC+Applications, accessed 5/20/2012 7. Dyesol, Dyesol - Global Leaders in Dye Solar Cell Technology, Australia, 2005, http://www. dyesol.com/, accessed 5/12/201293
  • 104. ity. Individual PV cells are grouped into panels and arrays of panels that can be used ina wide range of applications ranging from single small cells that charge calculator andwatch batteries, to systems that power single homes, to large power plants coveringmany acres. 8 A photovoltaic is made up of several photovoltaic solar cells. An individual PVcell is usually small, typically producing about 1 or 2 watts of power. To boost the poweroutput of PV cells, they are connected together to form larger units called modules.Modules, in turn, can be connected to form even larger units called arrays, which can beinterconnected to produce more power, and so on. In this way, PV systems can be builtto meet almost any electric power need, small or large.Illustration of solar cells combined to make a module and modules combined to makean array.9 By themselves, modules or arrays do not represent an entire PV system. Systemsalso include structures that point them toward the sun and components that take thedirect-current electricity produced by modules and “condition” that electricity, usuallyby converting it to alternate-current electricity. 10 Figure 4.58. Antonio Luque,Steven Hegedus, Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering UnitedKingdom, 2011, Second Edition, 539. Elena Papadopoulou, Photovoltaic Industrial Systems: An Environmental Approach, BerlinHeidelberg, 2011, 3410. James Will, Photovoltaic Cells, a great way to utilize clean energy from the sun, world press,myhomesolarpower.com, April 9, 2011, accessed 5/20/2012 94
  • 105. W ave Power Wave energy is a concentrated form of solar energy, when the sun causes differ- ences in temperature across the globe causing winds that blow over the ocean surfaces causing ripples which grows into swells. These waves can travel thousand of miles with- out loosing energy. The power density generated by the waves is much higher than the power generated by the sun or wind. 11 BioSTREAM (Figure 4.6) The BioSTREAM is being developed for utility-scale power production from tidal 11. João Cruz, Ocean Wave Energy: Current Status and Future Perspectives, Berlin Heidelberg, 2008, 195
  • 106. currents. Its nature-inspired design (Biomimicry) combines high conversion efficiencywith the ability to continuously align with the current direction. The system employs an oscillating hydrofoil system to extract energy from mov-ing water. For the system to work properly it needs at least 2.5 m/s of peak currentspeed. 12 The site currently have a minimum current of 2.5 m/s ad the maximum of 16m/s which makes it suitable for the application of this technology. 13 An onboard computer continually adjusts the angle of the hydrofoil (fin) relativeto the oncoming flow such that the tail and fin system develops a swimming motion.The energy transferred by this side-to-side motion is converted to electricity by O-Drivemodules installed on the BioSTREAM. Each system can generate 250KW14Pelamis Technology (Figure 4.7) The Pelamis is an offshore wave energy converter that uses the motion of wavesto generate electricity. This machine is typically installed 2 to 10 km away from the coastand operates in water depths greater than 50 m. The machine is rated at 250KW witha target capacity factor of 25-40 per cent, depending on the conditions at the chosenproject site. The machine floats semi-submerged on the surface of the water and inherentlyfaces into the direction of the waves. Is made up of five tube sections linked by universal12. Bio Power System, BioSTREAM, http://www.biopowersystems.com/biostream.html, 2011,accessed 5/21/201213. Caribbean Coastal Ocean Observing System, http://www.caricoos.org/drupal/san_juan, ac-cessed 5/21/201214. Bio Power System, BioSTREAM, http://www.biopowersystems.com/biostream.html, 2011,accessed 5/21/2012 96
  • 107. joints which allow flexing in two directions. As waves pass down the length of the ma- chine and the sections bend in the water, the movement is converted into electricity via hydraulic power take-off systems housed inside each joint of the machine tubes, and power is transmitted to shore using standard subsea cables and equipment.15 15. Pelamis Wave Power, Leith, Edinburgh, http://www.pelamiswave.com/wave-power, ac- cessed 5/20/2012 Figure 4.6 Figure 4.797
  • 108. W ind Power Wind flow patterns are modified by the earth’s terrain, bodies of water, and veg-etation. Humans use this wind flow, or motion energy, for many purposes. The termswind energy or wind power describes the process by which the wind is used to generatemechanical power or electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the windinto mechanical power. This mechanical power can be used for specific tasks or a gen-erator can convert this mechanical power into electricity. When the wind strikes the blades of a wind turbine, it imparts a thrust or forcethat turns the rotor. A finite amount of energy in the spinning rotor. When a force doeswork on an object, energy is transferred from one to another. 16 Wind turbines range in16. Paul Gipe, Wind Power: Renewable Energy for Home, Farm, and Business, White River Junc- 98
  • 109. size from minuscule .05 meter in diameter to giant machines with rotors of 100 meters in diameter. The .05 meter diameter wind turbine can generate 20 watts while the 100 meter diameter wind turbine can generate as much as 3 MW17 Modern wind turbines fall into two basic groups: the horizontal-axis variety (Fig- ure 4.9) and the vertical-axis design (Figure 4.8). Horizontal-axis wind turbines typically either have two or three blades. These three-bladed wind turbines are operated “up- wind,” with the blades facing into the wind. tion, VT, 2004, 3 17. Paul Gipe, Wind Power: Renewable Energy for Home, Farm, and Business, White River Junc- tion, VT, 2004, 9 Figure 4.8 Figure 4.999
  • 110. Whale Power (Figure 4.10) This technology use Tubercle Technology blades which require lower windspeeds, increasing the amount of time and the number of locations where they canactively generate electricity.18 18. Whale Energy, Our Technology, manufacturer’s website, http://www.whalepower.com/drupal/?q=node/3, accessed 5/20/2012Figure 4.10 100
  • 111. S ustainable Materials “The sustainability of this industrial sector is dependent on a fundamental shift in the way in which resources are used, from nonrenewable to renewable, from high levels of waste to high levels of reuse and recycling, and from products based on lowest first cost to those based on life cycle costs and full cost accounting, especially as applied to waste and emis- sions from the industrial processes that support construction activity.” 1 1. Charles J. Kibert and others, Construction Ecology Nature as a basis for green buildings, New York, NY, 2002, 7101
  • 112. Materials and interior spaces play a very important role in every user experi-ence. A material can change mood, orient people and transmit information. This can beachieved not only by shape, application and color but also with smell, texture, interac-tion, among other qualities. A material can also define the safety of a place. The fire rat-ing in materials is very important, and probably the most popular when thinking aboutsafety in a building. There are also many other things to keep in mind while choosingmaterials for a place. Many materials for public use have high emission of toxins. Dueto the application of chemical substance to make a material safer during fire, some ma-terials end up harming users in other ways. Fortunately there are new materials in themarket that are suitable for health and safety. In very frequented building is very important to select materials that can avoiddirt or self-cleaning materials, because this will help to keep the place clean avoidingbacteria and the propagation of any disease in the building. Since the building will befrequented during every time of the day, the materials will have to collaborate with thecleaning process of the building. When planning interior the first thing that comes up to mind is the color, whichwill set the mood of the place we design. Paint in walls is the most common thing wecan think of when giving color to surface, but thinking about environmental paint is notthat common. Reben is a paint made 100 from natural ingredients with no harmful or-ganic volatile compounds. This paint controls humidity and prevent molds and bacteriaas well as flame spread. When this paint is illuminated it gets to deodorize the spaceand absorb pollution. Beside paint there are other different materials with similar qualities. An exam- 102
  • 113. Figure 4.11 Figure 4.12 Figure 4.13103
  • 114. ple of a recycled material that have a very low emission of toxins is the Acrovyn 3000,this material is a wall panel available in different colors. 1 FR Eco Intelligent Polyester is perpetually recyclable material with a nontoxicfootprint. 2 This material have pattern and texture unlike the Acrovnym 300 (Figure 4.11)that comes in a solid color. The FR Eco Intelligent Polyester’s(Figure 4.12) pattern andtexture which can help to create a different environment. Textile is another material that can give color and texture to a space. Textilesare not only used for furniture and curtains but also for the exterior design. Remede3(Figure 4.13) is a breathable textile which finishes protect from spills and stains. Stainsis not the only thing a material need to be proof of, because bacteria and microbescan still be in some materials without been seen. Fosshield-Powder Pellet is a coatingmaterial that protect against 99.99% of odor-causing bacteria, mold, mildew and othermicrobes. This can be incorporated into nearly any fabric, polymer or rubber. Can beapplied to a endless list of products where odor –causing bacteria and deterioratingmicrobial growth is not desired. Among these products we can include carpets, wallcovering, bedding, furniture, HVAC air filters among others. Another product that reduces the dirt and water from being tracked into build-ings is the Power Point’s Berber Pattern.4 (Figure 4.14) Having wet surface can promote1. Construction Specialist Inc, Acrovyn products 2010, Mc Graw Hill Construction, http://www.c-sgroup.com/acrovyn/, accessed 5/19/20122. Victor, Group Inc, FR Eco Intelligent polyester, 2008, http://www.victor-innovatex.com/en/ecoProducts.php, accessed 5/19/20123. HDR Inc, Fabric Furniture and Function, http://www.hdrinc.com/sites/all/files/content/ar-ticles/article-files/3690-fabric-furniture-and-function.pdf, accessed 5/19/20124 Construction Specialist Inc, CS Entrance Flooring, 2010, http://www.c-sgroup.com/entrance-flooring/design-step/power_point_pwpt, accessed 5/12/2012 104
  • 115. Figure 4.14 Figure 4.15 Figure 4.16 Figure 4.17105
  • 116. the growing of bacteria into surfaces and can cause users to fall, especially in thoseareas where kids will be conglomerated. Among flooring materials we can find a wide variety, from materials that pro-mote good indoor quality, such as the Acoustiflor5 (Figure 4.15)to materials that arestain resistant such as the MG Paradiso tile (Figure 4.16) or the Microban Ceramic tiles6(Figure 4.17), recycled material that reduce the 99% of bacteria and have low reflectiveproperties. There are also other technologies available for flooring options, which achievesomething different to everything mentioned before. Smart materials are very helpfulfor transmitting signals and information. Is important to keep in mind the teachinggoal in addition to the sustainability and letting people interact with the material hav-ing visual reactions in response is a great way. Metal Series7 (Figure 4.18) is a materialthat can trace the footsteps of the user. Going back to textiles and surfaces we have to mention Naturtex A-14628, (Fig-ure 4.19) is made from linen and cork, what makes it unique and textured. The materialhas warm colors. Beside Naturtex there are also other materials that have texture andare suitable for touch sense. Super Cilia Skin9 (Figure 4.20) is a tactile, visual and smart5. Johnsonite a Tarkett Company, Acczent Heterogeneous Sheet, http://www.johnsonite.com/Default.aspx?tabid=911, accessed 5/17/20126. Microban International, Building Materials, 2012, http://www.microban.com/partners/amer-icas/building-materials/english, accessed 5/12/20127. Blaine Brownell, Transmaterial 3: A Catalog of Materials That Redefine Our Physical Environ-ment, New York, NY, 2010, Volumen 3, 1138. XNaturtex fabrics, rugs and more, product A-1462, Spain, http://www.naturtex.es/en/prod-ucts/fabrics/nature-sense/a-1462, accessed 5/19/20129. MIT: Tangible Interfaces, Super Cilia Skin, http://web.media.mit.edu/~hayes/mas834/scs1. 106
  • 117. Figure 4.18 Figure 4.19 Figure 4.20 Figure 4.21107
  • 118. material that contains computer-controlled actuators that are anchored to an elasticmembrane. It is able to reply dynamic gestures which makes it valuable tool for educa-tion and hepatic communication. Part of a childhood is writing on walls, but that’s not something that looks goodat all aesthetically speaking. There’s a water based finish called Wink10 that turns anysurface into a dry-erase surface, making the surface to act as a whiteboard. This is amaterial that could be potentially used in any of the kids area, letting them space forperform a new art every day. The use of light is very important to define each space, depending on thisthe mood we want to create in the space the lighting should change; always keepingin mind the important factor of saving as much energy as possible. The Fuzzy LightSwitch11 (Figure 4.21)is an embroided light sensor for dimming lights or controlling elec-tronic devices. It is an interactive material that can cover a wall or even become part offurniture, what makes it incredibly versatile. Because of the implementation of the en-vironmental factors we can also consider to have window treatments to control the en-trance of light in the space. There are many different of treatments that can be appliedbut every treatment have a different reaction in space, as well as a different aesthetic.The Sun Control Selector 12is a solar shade made from aluminum extrusion, what makeshtml, accessed 5/20/201210. Wolf-Gordon, Wink, Wolf-Gordon 2011, http://www.wallsloveink.com/about_wink.html,accessed 5/20/201211. Blaine Brownell, Fuzzy Light Switch, Transmaterial, textile, June 27, 2011, http://transmate-rial.net/index.php/2011/06/27/fuzzy-light-switch/, accessed 5/0/201212. Construction Specialist Inc, The Sun Control Selector, Mc Graw Hill Construction, 2010,http://products.construction.com/manufacturer/c-s-sun-controls-nst151576/products/sun-controls-color-selector-nst33975-p, accessed 5/20/2012 108
  • 119. it durable and resistant to weather conditions. It provides to the building effective sun control admitting soft dappled light but at the same time offering views to the exte- rior. On the other hand we have Solarmotion Dynamic Facades13 (Figure 4.22), which is an intelligent sun shading system. This system is formed from louvers attached to an electronic mechanism that respond to external environment and adapts to provide the most optical building conditions. It is an effective way to reduce heat and glare, lower energy consumption and maximize dimmed light that come into the building. Louvers are good options for dimming light, Kool Shade is screen with miniature louvers which blocks the directs rays of solar light coming into the space, but at the same time allow- ing view to the exterior. This screen blocks 86% of the heat, what eventually results in a reduction of energy use. Window treatments materials are not the only materials that deal with light, Light Sensitive Concrete14 (Figure 4.23) is a technology that allows concrete to be sensi- tive to ambient light level. It distributes the light in the surface of the material and send data to a computer which can control sound light projected visuals among others. Sound is something that is really important to maintain the environment de- sired and to avoid loud noises provided from the users of the building, reason why acoustic panels are very important. Heradesign Fine15 (Figure 4.24) is a decorative wood 13. Construction Specialist Inc, The Sun Control Selector, Mc Graw Hill Construction, 2010, http://products.construction.com/manufacturer/c-s-sun-controls-nst151576/products/sun- controls-color-selector-nst33975-p, accessed 5/20/20 14. Blaine Brownell, Transmaterial 3 A Catalog of Materials That Redefine Our Physical Environ- ment, New York, NY, 2010, 21 15. Knauf Insulation GmbH, Heradesign, Austria, http://www.heradesign.com/heradesign- spanisch/loesungen/heradesign-fine.php, accessed 5/1/2012109
  • 120. wool panel with very good sound absorption. Is very important that this acoustic panel don’t have any harmful effect on humans since don’t produce toxic emissions and also contribute with the environment since save resources during production. These materials mentioned are only few examples of the hundreds of options available in the market. Fortunately the environment is becoming an important issue, and materials designers are taking it in count when designing.Figure 4.22 Figure 4.23 Figure 4.24 110
  • 121. O ther Sustainable Aspects Beside all the energy technologies and the sustainable materials, there are many other factors to consider in the program in order to make a project sustainable and environ- mental friendly. Water for instance, is a natural resource that cannot be wasted, and which can be reused. The recollection of water from the rain, water conservation measures; en- hanced waste-water treatment; and recycling protocols could be an alternative for the reduction of water demand. The creation of green roof in the building and green spaces are important for the reduction of heat in the building, as well as for the implementation of nature into it. The plants to be used should be native plants to minimize water needs.111
  • 122. Expansive windows and ceilings that emit natural light throughout the units aswell as motion-sensors contribute to the reduction of energy use in the building. To reduce the waste produced is important to have recycling and compostingcontainers in the building. The transportation could be addressed by the implementation of bicycle stor-age or public transportation.As part of variety and interaction with natural environment and part of a visual con-nection between different types of users, different zones of open plazas, green roofs,balconies and interior courtyard will be created. The site is located in beach front, andnear the Condado Lagoon, these views could be implemented as part of the program ofthe project to enhance the user experience. The zoning allows the different programming opportunities and the desire tomake it available to most user groups as possible bring a wide range of activities to it. There’s a possibility to create different zones in the public space where the pub-lic can interact with buildings created and with nature. Different zones in open spacecould function as transitional areas. Beach area will be one open zone that should bedivided from the plaza created in the middle of the site, which is the welcoming area forthe project. Some other smaller public area can also be provided, this open the possibil-ity to having outdoor dining or space for more quiet activities. 112
  • 123. A djacencies See Figure 4.25113
  • 124. Figure 4.25 114
  • 125. U ses and Spatial Qualities of Interior and Exterior Spaces All the places designated to serve food need to be located having access a plaza to make easier the access to it specially during breakfast and lunch hours. These space will have that in common but will be totally different in spatial qualities. (See figure 4.26) 1. Café – Will be a very open and with minimal design, wide spaces, high light level and no variety in seating and tables. Here the connection with the plaza will create the opportunity of having interior and exterior seating. 2. Boutique restaurant – High design space with different types of light depend- ing of the area, as well as different types of seating and table areas. This space could be transformed into a sophisticated nightclub – lounge during night.115
  • 126. The possible opening of the space to the exterior not only expands the space but also transforms it and allow interaction between man-made and nature. This res- taurant can open to center of the buildings, where the plaza ends. This gave the oppor- tunity to use the exterior in a different way 3. Beach Club – Needs to be oriented to the beach. This space is supposed to emu- late fantasy and excitement, in different layers of water from natural to artificial; the ocean being the natural, turning into hot tub with natural rocks in the intermediate lev- el and an elevated and floating crystal pool. The pool will bring the feeling as if people walks under the water and that the space is compressed in that area. There will be twoFigure 4.26 116
  • 127. levels, giving the opportunity to enjoy the view of the different systems from different heights. There’s an opportunity to represent the wave power in the beach club using the pool as a vivid representation of how nature acts. People in the beach club will have direct connection with nature, in a tropical environment, receiving natural breezes, hav- ing contact with sky, ocean and the rest of the city and having view to technologies such as wind power generator and solar power generator. The building accessed from the beach and from the plaza, (Figure 4.27) located in the middle of the other buildings will be alluding the ancestral culture, when the taínos used to live near the sea in con- nection with nature and with the batey in front (their plaza). In this building having access from the beach will open the opportunity to attract not only people that is enjoy- ing the beach but also people that comes from the street because of the dual access. During the day it will be place for aquatic rentals as well. The building will be open dur- ing day and night, to serve food and drinks and also to make activities. 4. Child Care – This part of the program requires a separate building because of the importance of high hygiene, of less noise and security issues. During the day this Figure 4.27117
  • 128. building is a kids learning center while during the night it becomes a baby-sitting. Thisbuilding need access to the plaza (Figure 4.28) and to be located in a position there’sdirect visibility between the lobby of the main building and this building for those par-ents that leave their kids while enjoying other programmatic space of the project. Theintent is to make kids to appreciate nature and have fun with it while learning aboutenvironment. The space need light enough to make them feel comfortable and secure.The playgrounds will be a series of natural hardscapes bringing nature to these kids ina playful way. This space should have a feeling of been relax and be stimulant to learnwhile having fun.Beside the Child Care, all other programmatic spaces designated for the use of kids orteenagers will be located in the same floor to concentrate ages per area as a securitymeasure. This is the reason why the kid’s gym, game room and teen’s club should be ad-jacent one to the other. (See Figure 4.29) Even when it is not directly connected to otherlevels, every space in this level will include outside balconies or green space to enhancethe communication between other programmatic areas, as well as the connection withthe exterior, context and nature.5. Kid’s Gym – This will be a gym designed specially for kids, to teach them to takecare of health. There will be some rooms for dance classes and a climbing wall will bemade from the rocks of the site. Some connection with outside spaces will be an impor- Figure 4.28 118
  • 129. tant part in the design. This place becomes a teen’s club during night. 6. Game room – Is a child’s place and therefore contains those qualities in the de- sign. The colors are juvenile and the design is one dynamic and playful. Materials should be non-slippery and antibacterial, since kids are touching everything all the time. The games should be related to nature, environment and sustainability. This place open the possibility of implementing interactive materials, where by using difference senses the kids can have different experiences. 7. Teen’s Club - This space is created to the enjoyment of teenagers what cannot go into night clubs but are interested in them. This is a trendy place to dance and make parties but also to be in contact with nature and with the technologies. Technologies will be implemented visually as well as physically by the implementation of systems as the sustainable dance floor. Same technique used with children and teenagers is used with adults trying to concen- trate them in an area. (Figure 4.30) Figure 4.29119
  • 130. 8. Adult’s gym – The gym is not a typical gym. This gym is more oriented in hav- ing an open floor plan, but different rooms for classes at the sides. The rooms for differ- ent classes bring the opportunity of having different activities and gathering different users at the same time. It also allows performing a sequential transformation of space in order to have the building working 24 hours. This space is transformed into a nightclub during night. 9. Nightclub – Located in upper levels. It is mostly open and uncovered. The rela- tion with nature is very important in this space, as well as the visual connection with all the sustainable technologies. Is from this space where wind turbines and the tor are visibly seen from everywhere, as well as other technologies such as the tidal pool, the energy wall, the solar ivy, etc. The roof gardens change the feeling of what being in a typical nightclub is. 10. Hookah – Bed lounge – wine bar - This space is the connector between two buildings, main building and beach club. This space appearance is modern, and sophis- ticated. Contains beds to relax as a Zen space and connection to the outside with viewFigure 4.30 to the plaza, to the pool, to the sea and to the beach. 120
  • 131. Psychological Effect of Spaces in the User: Calming Dramatic Dynamic Eccentric Energetic Increase Thoughts Mystic Peace Provoke Creativity Purity Refreshing Spiritual Realization Warm Youthful r Ba nt er ra e w in au To W st om n d Re ym ub b io an re b lu m ue at Ro sG Cl lu Ca ah C Gy e rv iq tC by ng h lt’ n’s e ok ild se ac ut m d’s fe u gh b u e Figure 4.31 Ob Ho Ad Ch Ga Bo Ca Be Lo Te Lo Ki Ni121
  • 132. Views:Views to exterior (sea)View to the plazaView to the streetView to other spaceDirect Access to:Exterior spacesOther part of the program(Lobby not included)Versatility:Transformable SpaceMovable Walls to integrate:Exterior with interiorDifferent programmatic spac-es r Ba nt er ra e w in au To W st om n d Re ym ub io an b re m lu ue at Ro sG Cl Ca ah Gy e tC rv iq ng by h lt’ e ok ild se gh ac ut m d’s fe u b u Ob Ho Figure 4.32 Ad Ch Ga Bo Ca Be Lo Lo Ni Ki 122
  • 133. Materials: Durable Interactive Recyclable Opacities Transparencies Translucencies Lighting: Different type of lighting High light level Low light level r Ba nt er ra e w in au To W st om n d Re ym ub io an b re m lu ue at Ro sG Cl Ca ah Gy e tC rv iq ng by h lt’ e ok ild se gh ac ut m d’s fe u b u Figure 4.33 Ob Ho Ad Ch Ga Bo Ca Be Lo Lo Ni Ki123
  • 134. Green RoofSystems integration:Solar Technology:(Physical integration)(Visual integration)Wave Technology:(Physical integration)(Visually integration)Wind Technology:(Physical integration)(Visual integration) r Ba nt er ra e w in au To W st om n d Re ym ub io an b re m lu ue at Ro sG Cl Ca ah Gy e tC rv iq ng by h lt’ e ok ild se gh ac ut m d’s fe u b u Ob Ho Figure 4.34 Ad Ch Ga Bo Ca Be Lo Lo Ni Ki 124
  • 135. T ransitional Spaces Diagram show how spaces transform during the day. (Figure 4.35) What from 6 AM to 9 PM is used as a gym designated for adults, becomes a Nightclub from 10 PM till 5 AM. The place need to provide a solution to machines and equip- ment in order to work properly as nightclub and as gym. Something similar hap- pens with the kid’s gym and the teen’s club, which relationship between spaces is not other but transformation of a same space. The kid’s gym works from 4 AM till 6 PM, transforming to a Club for teenagers at 8 PM and closing at 3 AM. On the other hand, the restaurant, which is used as lounge as well don’t have a transformation of space but a transition in environment. The intent is to create a restaurant, which later in night become a lounge, party but relaxing scene for young adults and pro- fessionals. The restaurant will be working from Noon till Midnight and overlapping this hours the lounge environment will begin at 10 PM and will be open till 5 AM.125
  • 136. Figure 4.35 126
  • 137. B uilding Clock Adult’s Gym Night Club Hookah Bar Kid’s Gym Teen’s Club Game Room Beach Club Aquatic Rental Restaurant Lounge Cafe Child Care Lobby127
  • 138. AM Clock PM Clock 12 12 11 1 11 1 10 2 10 29 3 9 3 8 4 8 4 7 5 7 5 6 6 Figure 4.36 128
  • 139. C ase Studies129
  • 140. L/B’ S. Lounge, Cape Town South Africa, designed by Sabina Lang and Daniel Baumann Is a “dream like bar” made for cultural events, discussions, parties and video screening. The design play with curves, changing levels and colors. (Figure 4.37) Application in 0E 24H Social: The colors and the organic forms of this design could be similar to the ambience is intended to be achieved in areas oriented to kids. Greenhouse, New York , designed by Bluarch Architecture + interiors, Antonio Di OronzoFigure 4.37 New York’s first environmentally friendly and LEED-approved nightclub. Veg- etation is inserted in the interior space achieving to convey the dynamism of nature. The place intent to bring outdoors to the interior. (Figure 4.38) Application in 0E 24H Social: The building will intent to bring the exterior in to the interior and to integrate nature in different ways. The vegetation is inserted in the interior the same way the rocks of the site could be inserted in the gym as a climbing wall.Figure 4.38 Bed Supperclub, Bangkok Thailand, designed by Kim Inglis Is a ‘dining in bed’ experience. Combination of upscale restaurant, club, art gal- lery, theatre and stage merged into one. Housed in a custom-built building with a mod- ern, all white futuristic setting, BED crosses the divide between dining and cutting edge entertainment.1 (Figure 3.39) Application in 0E 24H Social:Figure 4.38 1 Kim Inglis,Masano Kawana, Asian Bar and Restaurant Design, 2007, 92 130
  • 141. The variant program of the Bed Supperclub is what is intended to be done in this proj- ect. The concept used in the Bed Supperclub, where beds are used to dine will be simi- lar to the Hookah Bed and Wine Bar, where hookah and wine will be served in bed. The Clubhouse, located at Bali, designed by Shinta Siregar. (Figure 4.39) This is a chic multifunctional club, which serves as a hotel reception concierge, internet access room, bar, restaurant and pool lounging area. Is a very open area where interior and exterior are connected and all the different uses purposes mix in a same space. Application in 0E 24H Social: 2 The openness of this project is what is intended to be done in the beach club. Figure 4.39 Having various functions such as pool, restaurant, bar and equipment rental in the same building. Austin Convention Center, Austin Texas, designed by James Carpenter (Figure 4.40) Is a LEED Gold certified building located in the heart of the capital of Texas. Con- structed of native Texas materials, from rustic limestone to polished granite, the facility’s different facades reflect the architectural diversity of an historic and vibrant city.3 The new facade is an installation of photovoltaic panels. Application in 0 E 24 H Social: The application of the PV in the facade can be used as a precedent for the instal- 2. Kim Inglis,Masano Kawana, Asian Bar and Restaurant Design, 2007, 48 3. Austin Convention center Department, http://www.austinconventioncenter.com/, accessed Figure 4.40 5/21/2012131
  • 142. lation of different systems in the facades of the building. LACMA (Los Angeles County Museum of Art)(sculptural installation), Los Angeles, by Chris Bur- den (Figure 4.41) The sculpture incorporates more than two hundred restore cast-iron lamp posts from Los Angeles County4 Application in 0 E 24 H Social: The way the lamp post are integrated as a sculpture can be used as a precedent for the installation of wind technology in the site. The installation of wind turbines can become a sculptural an artistic element in the design of site and building instead of an object in the space.Figure 4.41 4. David, Art & Perception a multi-disciplinary dialog, Urban Light / Chris Burden @BCAM @ LACMA, 2008, http://artandperception.com/2008/02/urban-light-chris-burden-bcam-lacma. html, accessed 05/21/2012 132
  • 143. 133
  • 144. Chapter 5 Quantitative Program 134
  • 145. Programmatic Space Service Space Amount Sq. ft.. per space Total Sq.Ft. Lobby 1 2900 2900 Restrooms 1 280 280 Security Office- 1 150 150 Information Observatory 1 2000 2000 Service Circulation n/a 440 440 Egress n/a 1780 1780 Circulation n/a 2000 2000 Café Kitchen 1 550 550 Bar 1 325 325 Storage 1 150 150 Seating Area 1 5835 5835 Exterior Space 1 700 700 7560135
  • 146. Programmatic Space Service Space Amount Sq. ft.. per space Total Sq.Ft.Boutique Restaurant - Kitchen 1 523 523 Restrooms 1 280 280 Storage 1 120 120 Dj Booth 1 60 60 Bar 1 512 512 Outside Area 2 400 860 1260 Seating Area 1 4465 4465 Lounge Area 3 390 380 505 1275 8495Beach Club Kitchen 1 175 175 Aquatic Rental 1 200 200 Bar 2 170 645 815 Dj Booth 2 60 80 140 Restrooms 1 200 200 Pool 1 1755 1755 Hot Tub 1 480 480 1 1375 1375 Seating Area 1 3500 3500 Deck to Ocean 8640 136
  • 147. Programmatic Space Service Space Amount Sq. Ft. per space Total Sq.Ft. Child Care Office 2 150 each 300 Restrooms 1 300 300 Classroom 5 400 each 2000 Art Room 1 350 350 Kitchen 1 200 200 Playground 1 1000 1000 4150 Kids Gym Climbing Wall 1 300 300 Storage 1 300 300 Bar 1 370 370 Dj Booth 1 80 80 Restrooms 1 5000 5000 Office 1 80 80 Dance Room 1 350 350 6480 Game Room Restrooms 1 350 350137
  • 148. Programmatic Space Service Space Amount Sq. Ft. per space Total Sq.Ft. Game Room Kitchen- 1 215 215 Storage Bar 1 325 325 Exterior Space 1 2675 2675 Machines 1 3635 3635 7200Adults Gym Interior Space 1 11800 11800 Storage 4 530 600 250 260 1640 Showers 1 775 775 Restrooms 1 650 650 Office 1 200 200 Bar 2 275 205 480 Dj Booth 2 80 130 210 Rooms 2 80 each 160 2 205 each 410 1 2200 2200 Exterior Space 18525 138
  • 149. Programmatic Space Service Space Amount Sq. Ft. per space Total Sq.Ft. Hookah-Bed Lounge - Wine Bar Bar 1 315 315 Dj Booth 1 1000 1000 Storage 1 125 125 Restrooms 1 250 250 Exterior Space 1 4195 4196 Interior Space 1 1750 1750 7635 Total Project area 70,675 Total Site Area - 71,925 Area of Site permitted to be used by code 75% Build Area of the Site 23,240 Sq.Ft. Area of the site impacted with enclosed construction 32% Open Space-Landscape- Recreation Area 48,685139
  • 150. Function of Space Floor Area in Sq.Ft. Sq. Ft. per function Occupants Per Occupant Accessory Storage AreaMechanical Equipment Room 300 gross 5000 Sq.Ft. 16AssemblyGaming Floor 11 gross 7200 Sq.Ft. 654Assembly without foodseats - standing space 5 net 3905 Sq.Ft. 781Assembly with food -tables and chairs 15 net 3910 Sq.Ft. 200 Day Care 35 net 1050 Sq.Ft. 30Institutional Sleeping Area 120 gross 4200 Sq.Ft. 35Kitchen, Commercial 200 gross 9120 Sq.Ft. 45Reading Room 50 net 500 Sq.Ft. 10Stack Area 100 gross 1350 Sq. Ft. 13Locker Room 50 gross 1755 Sq.Ft. 35Deck 15 gross 3500 Sq.Ft. 233Stages and Platform 15 net 1035 Sq.Ft. 69Exercise Room 50 gross 20490 Sq.Ft. 409 140
  • 151. Z oning Requirements 247’ Atlantic Ocean N Site Area: 71,925 sq. ft.. 195’ ’ 148 132 ’ Figure 5.1141
  • 152. The site is located in a Touristic-Residential zone. Zoning code only permits theuse of 75% of the site, and require to have a design in the building where facade is dif-ferent from the building surroundings. From the 75 % of area permitted to be used onlya 32 % of the site is programmatically used for buildings while the rest is used for openspace. Parking in this zone and for this type of building is not required only if a parkinglot or parking garage is available near the 1 mile radius. Figure 5. 1 shows the site withits measurements, the purple color shows the 75 % of the site, which is maximum areapermitted to be built. 142
  • 153. C143 hapter 6 Schematic Design
  • 154. Figure 6.1 144
  • 155. C oncept The design intent to attract and engage the majority of the public, which in- voluntarily and unconsciously will get involved with nature, sustainable practices and project in general, while having social activities. The concept used in this project is the Trance. Trance is a word with several meanings which need to be defined in order to understand the application of the concept to the project.: 1) Psychological state induced by magical incantation1 The project try to achieve a change in people in the way they feel in the project and the way they interact, as if magical incantation take control of the environment. 2) Capture, attract2 3) Denotes a variety of processes, techniques, modalities and states. Trance 1 Dictionary.com, Trance, http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/trance, accessed 5/22/2012 2 Enciclopedia Britanica Company, Merrian Webster Dictionary, http://www.merriam-webster. com/dictionary/trance, accessed 5/12/2012145
  • 156. states may occur involuntarily and unbidden. 3The project will be dynamic and changing due to technologies applied in the build-ing, materials and the effect of time and climatic conditions in the building. The useschange as well in some programmatic areas but other areas stay the same throughoutthe day. The building won’t move, it won’t change, but the materials applied will makeit look dynamic even though is constant. Building will be controlled by the nature, theway it changes with time, what makes supernatural force to be acting over it all the time,since climatic conditions are uncontrolled. 4) Genre of electronic dance music4Music will be present in many of the programmatic areas of the project. 5) Unconscious condition; a state of concentration, awareness and/or focusthat filters information and experience. 5The building will be a different and innovative experience for the country and PuertoRican society. The information every technology and material reflects integrated withthe shape of the building and interaction with nature will be filtered by the user andcaptured with the pass of time.Using the Trance as a concept an inspirational image was created in order to get in-spired for the design of the building. (Figure 6.1)3 Dictionary.com, Trance, http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/trance, accessed 5/22/20124 Farflex, The Free Dictionary, http://www.thefreedictionary.com/trance, accessed 5/22/20125 Enciclopedia Britanica Company, Merrian Webster Dictionary, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/trance, accessed 5/12/2012 146
  • 157. F orm Evolution (Diagrams) Figure 6.2 Figure 6.3 Atlantic Ocean Atlantic Ocean N N147
  • 158. Figure 6.5 Atlantic Ocean NFigure 6.4 Figure 6.6 Atlantic Ocean Atlantic Ocean N N 148
  • 159. P rocess Perspectives Figure 6.7 Figure 6.8149
  • 160. 150
  • 161. Figure 6.9 Figure 6.10151
  • 162. Figure 6.11 Figure 6.12 152
  • 163. P rogram Observation Tower / Wind Turbines Night Club t Club Hookah/Bed Lounge/W Adult’s Gym/ Nigh Lobby and Game Ro om ine Bar Club vertical Beach Club Kid’s Gym/ Teen’ circulation Restaurant / Lounge Cafe Child Ca re Figure 6.13 Program adjacencies inserted in shape of building153
  • 164. Program Diagram Open space VS Enclosed SpaceFigure 6.14 Figure 6.15 154
  • 165. S chematic Plans N Figure 6.16 TOP VIEW155
  • 166. GROUND LEVELN Figure 6.17 156
  • 167. SECOND LEVEL N Figure 6.18157
  • 168. THIRD LEVELN Figure 6.19 158
  • 169. FOURTH LEVEL N Figure 6.20159
  • 170. ELEVATIONWind Turbines Solar IvyZero Energy Media Wall Whale Power Figure 6.21 160
  • 171. P erspective View Figure 6.22161
  • 172. Chapter 7 Design Development 162
  • 173. B Figure 7.1 uilding Plans Lobby Wind Child Care Sun Aquatic Rental Beach Club Restaurant Lounge Cafe163
  • 174. 164
  • 175. 165
  • 176. 166
  • 177. 167
  • 178. 168
  • 179. B uilding Section Figure 7.13 SECTION A-A169
  • 180. W all Section This section shows the green roof and the istallation of the zero energy media wall. Sec- tio taken where marked in Figure 7.15Figure 7.14 Figure 7.15 170
  • 181. 171
  • 182. This section showsthe constructiondetails from groundlevel to the top ofthe tower where theobservation point islocated, cutting thebuilding and alsothe wind turbines toshow their partsCONSTRUCTION DETAILFigure 7.16 172
  • 183. A pplied Technologies BioSTREAM Figure 7.17 CLIMATIC CONDITIONS APPLIED IN DESIGN, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES INTEGRATED, VIEW OF WAVE POWER173
  • 184. Figure 7.18 SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES APPLIED IN DESIGN, PERSPECTIVE VIEW 174
  • 185. B uilding Exterior Figure 7.19 VIEW OF BUILDING EXTERIOR TERRACES175
  • 186. Figure 7.20 VIEW OF THE PLAZA 176
  • 187. Figure 7.21 PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE PROJECT PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS177
  • 188. Energy Consumption Typical Restaurant use 50KWH per Sq.Ft.Interior building area 52,000Sq.Ft.52,000 X 50 KWH = 2,600,000Total energy generated by technologies applied to the building Technology Size / Amount KW Area or amount KW generated Total in the building Solar PV 2’ X4’ Panels 300 Watts 21,852 sq.ft.. 8,195 KWH Ivy Solar 24 leaves per Sq.Ft. 4 Watts per leave 45,000 sq.ft.. 19,440 KWH Zero Energy Media Wall 1 sq.ft.. 35 KWH 25,650 sq.ft. 16,450 KWH Wind 30 ft.. rotor diameter 1 35 KWH 4 140 KWH 22 ft.. rotor diameter 1 10 KWH 4 40 KWH 14 ft.. rotor diameter 1 4 KWH 7 28 KWH 44,293 KWHTotal energy generated by technologies located at the site and water Technology Size / Amount KW Area or amount KW generated Total in the buildingWind 30 m. rotor diameter 1 2,500 KWH 870 2,000,208 Wave BioSTREAM 1 1,000 KWH 600 600,000 KWH 2,600,208 KWH 178
  • 189. R RESTAURANT FLOOR PLAN Figure 7.22 2 estaurant Plans 1179
  • 190. RESTAURANT CEILING PLAN Figure 7.23 180
  • 191. R RESTAURANT ELEVATION Figure 7.24 estaurant Views RESTAURANT VIEW 1 Figure 7.25 RECYCLED CD CASE CHANDELIER SUSTAINABLE DANCE FLOOR181
  • 192. Figure 7.26 RESTAURANT VIEW 2 182
  • 193. C onclusion During investigation and design process results of sustainability and energy re- compiling wasn’t as expected. The original intention was to have a building that could run by itself without needing any external energy and by using sustainable techniques to generate energy and to teach people. Achieving this sounded easy as a theory but proving and implementing it was became a challenge. During the process of design the building emerge into the site being one environmentally and sustainable designed, but that didn’t imply that at the end it will became a zero energy. Even when the building doesn’t harm the environment with its impact, the accomplish of having a zero energy building takes much more than just implementing technologies that would teach and183
  • 194. that will be visible as part of the aesthetic of the building. Having people interactingwith it, such as in the dance floor, can make a significant impact in people and theirunderstanding of the project but not as significant in the energy generation. This, aswell as the low amount of energy generated by the implemented devices, forced thedesigner to add a significant quantity of devices compared to what was originally stipu-lated in order to accomplish the goal of zero energy building. All these devices (windturbines and tidal power generators) were added at the end final phase of the designand located throughout the plaza and sea perimeter, what end up giving the look of avisual sustainable gallery. Since the beginning there were many things to keep in mind in order to keepthis building functional, what makes it much more complicated than what it could bethink of. Changing uses of spaces from day to night, and depending of the day of theweek; requires a high standard design and meticulous thinking about users, uses andequipment. Making people understand and learn from materials and technologies ishard to do without a reading or hearing explanation, but making people notice chang-es in their surrounding isn’t. Maybe people doesn’t learn directly about how does thetechnologies implemented in the building work, how much energy does it generates orwhat is it for, but they notice changes drastically enough at least to make them wonder.Without a manual or instructions is hard to understand how a sustainable dance floorworks, but people will anyway know that their steps are changing the lighting of thespace, what will make them feel they are making a contribution in some way. Making the building available to be frequented the 24 hours a day makes itmore accessible. Places that achieve to have different uses also are more visited. The 184
  • 195. more types of users than can be gathered in one place the more suitable for the imple- mentation of cultural activities. The creation of a social place in which people from dif- ferent ages and social status can share culture and join to do different activities was completely accomplished since there were many places designed for different taste and activities. Changes in nature will always occur, and materials in this building highlight those changes. The nature is all over the site, and this is in direct contact with the build- ing interior since the building opens in majority to the exterior taking advantage to views, natural light and ventilation. This is something people will totally understand while experimenting the building, since the building doesn’t only demonstrate nature, sustainability and architecture; but also the change of space through time making every second a different memory and different story.185
  • 196. 186
  • 197. B ibliography187
  • 198. Alan Jefferis, David A. Madsen, Architectural Drafting and Design fifth edition, (Clifton Park, NY,2005) 5Charles Smith, Sensory Learning StylesVisual, Auditory and Kinesthetic Learning Styles in Grappling, whitebelt.orgDavid Edwards, “Energy trading & investing trading, risk management and structuring deals inthe energy markets”, (2009)Erica Sanchez, Camila Espina, “Crisis Economica y Criminalidad:un explosive binomio”, DialogoDigital, 6/21/2011, www.dialogodigital.com/index.php/Crisis-economica-y-criminalidad-un-explosivo-binomio.html, accessed 4/19/2012Erica Sanchez, Camila Espina, “Crisis Economica y Criminalidad: un explosivo binomio”, DialogoDigital, 6/21/2011, www.dialogodigital.com/index.php/Crisis-economica-y-criminalidad-un-explosivo-binomio.html, accessed 4/19/2012Erica Sanchez, Camila Espina, “Crisis Economica y Criminalidad:un explosive binomio”, DialogoDigital, 6/21/2011, www.dialogodigital.com/index.php/Crisis-economica-y-criminalidad-un-explosivo-binomio.html, accessed 4/19/2012Jason F. McLennan, The Philosophy of Sustainable Design: The Future of Architecture, (KansasCity, Missouri, 2004) 79Jason F. McLennan, The Philosophy of Sustainable Design: The Future of Architecture, (KansasCity, Missouri, 2004)Jorge San Inocencio, Monografias, Es Puerto Rico un pais Sustentable?, Monografias.com/traba-jos64/PuertoRico-pais-sustentable.shtml, accessed April 18, 2012Julio Morales, Puerto Rican Poverty and Migration, We just had to try elsewhere, (West Port, CT,1986) 33Louise Jones, environmentally responsible design: green and sustainable design for interiordesigners (New Jersey, 2008) 4-5 188
  • 199. Maria Lorena Lehman , Sensing architecture, New Ideas for architecture of tomorrow, Why Architecture Can Make a Positive Difference in an Occupant’s Life, http://sensingarchitecture. com/8099/why-architecture-can-make-a-positive-difference-in-an-occupant%e2%80%99s-life/ Marian Diaz, “Hay Negocio despues de la quiebra”, El Nuevo Dia, 9/26/2010, Negocios Merrian Webster dictionary,2012,http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/culture%5B1%5 D?show=0&t=1326336686 Odette Rodriguez Garcia, Puerto Rico: una isla de sustentabilidad, Universia Puerto Rico Noti- cias, 09/7/2008, http://noticias.universia.pr/ciencia-nn-tt/noticia/2008/09/17/132387/puerto- rico-isla-sustentabilidad.html Peter Gevorkian, Alternative Energy systems in Building design, (2009), Progrma de Desarrollo Profesional, UPR/PUPR/ATI, Mejora de la calidad de espacio public pea- tonal a lo largo de la Avenida Roosevelt, 4, 30 informe final Puerto Rico Expresa, “La falta de empleos es la verdadera crisis”, 10/18/2011, http://www.puer- toricoexpresa.com/2011/10/la-falta-de-empleos-es-la-verdadera-crisis/, accessed 4/19/2012 Rachel Carson Jason F. McLennan, The Philosophy of Sustainable Design: The Future of Architec- ture, (Kansas City, Missouri, 2004) 72 Raffaello Beetti, Survival of Weakn Countries in the Face of Globalization: Perto Rico and the Caribbean, (San Juan, PR, 2003) 94 Sally Agustin PhD, Place Advantage: Applied Psychology for Interior Architecture, (New Jersey, 2009) Senator Fas Alzamora, Senado de Purto Rico, Resolution R.del S. 2247. S.E. Smith, O. Wallace,http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-holistic-design.htm, what is holistic design, article written Last modified 05, April 2012, copyright protected 2003-2012 conjecture corporation We care green team UPRM, “Reducir energia”, http://www.uprm.edu/wecare.redenergy.html, accessed 4/19/2012.189
  • 200. 190
  • 201. 1 T able of Figures
  • 202. Figures Chapter 1:1.1 - Bohio1.2 - Caney1.3 - Colonial Architecture in Old San Juan1.4 - Interior Courtyards from colonial architecture1.5 - Balconies and large windows from colonial architecture1.6 - Henry Klumb Church, the picture shows the entrance of natural light and the open-ings for the entrance of natural ventilation1.7 - Henry Klumb House brings the exterior to the interior by having a house that iscompletely open leaving the air to flow freely and the light to come into the space.1.8 - Construction where houses are near each other not allowing flow of air nor naturallight.1.9 - New building from the University of Puerto Rico, where the south facade use largeamounts of glass. This space allow the natural light to come into the space but doesn’tfilter it in any way and the windows are fixed not letting the air flow what makes thespace inside uncomfortable for the user.1.10 - Table of unemployment rates in the island.1.11 - Cost of Petroleum versus the cost of Electricity in the Island.Figures from Chapter 2:2.1 - Population of Puerto Rico from 1963 till 20102.2 - Percentage of population by ages.2.3 -Percentage of population by gender. 192
  • 203. 2.4 - Industry, comparison between the industry in Puerto Rico and the industry in the United States of America 2.5 - Education of Population in the Island. 2.6 - Geographical Map. 2.7 - Maximum and Minimum temperature per month in San Juan area. Figures Chapter 3: 3.1 - Location of Puerto Rico in the world map. 3.2 - Location of San Juan in the map of Puerto Rico, location of Condado in the map of San Juan and location of the site in Condado. 3.3 - Touristic map of the site surroundings. 3.4 - Walking time radius. 3.5 - Picture of the Conrad San Juan Condado Plaza Hotel and Casino and the Puente do Hemanos. 3.6 - Picture of the Ramada Hotel. 3.7 - Picture of the site/ 3.8 - Picture looking from the site to the Conrad San Juan Condado Plaza Hotel and Casino. 3.9 - Residential Building in front of the site, (picture taken from site) 3.10 - View of the Street in front of the site and buildings around it. 3.11 - View of the Street in front of the site and buildings around it. 3.12 - View of the Street in front of the site and buildings around it. 3.13 - View of the Street in front of the site and buildings around it.193
  • 204. 3.14 - Diagram showing where pictures 3.8 - 3.13 were taken.3.15 - Solid Void3.16 - Office building next to the site3.17 - Restaurant next to the office building.3.18 - Residential buildings in front of the site.3.19 - Restaurant located in the Conrad San Juan Condado Plaza Hotel and Casino3.20 - Lounge located in the Conrad San Juan Condado Plaza Hotel and Casino3.21 - Bar located in the Conrad San Juan Condado Plaza Hotel and Casino3.22 - Diagram of the uses of surrounding buildings.3.23 - Diagram of the height of surrounding buildings.3.24 - Diagram of closing time of the buildings around the site.3.25 - Picture of the site.3.26 - Site natural conditions, palms, trees, rock area and beach area.3.27 - Diagram of climatic conditions for the site3.28 - Picture of the bus stop located in front of the site.3.29 - Picture of peatonal, vehicular and public transportation in the site area.3.30 - Diagram of transportation and transit in the area.Figures Chapter 4:4.1 - Diagram of shape of building based on climatic conditions of the site4.2 - Use of open spaces on site4.3 - Solar Ivy4.4 - Dye solar Technology 194
  • 205. 4.5 - Photovoltaic Cells 4.6 - BioSTREAM 4.7 - Pelamis Technology 4.8 - Vertical Axis Turbine 4.9 - Wind Turbine, horizontal Axis 4.10 - Whale Power 4.11 - Acrovyn 3000 4.12 - FR Eco Intelligent Polyester 4.13 - Remede 4.14 - Power Point’s Berber Pattern 4.15 - Acoustiflor 4.16 - MG Paradiso 4.17 - Microbium Ceramic tile 4.18 - Metal Series 4.19 - Naturex A 1462 4.20 - Super Celia Skin 4.21 - The Fuzzy Light Switch 4.22 - Solar Motion Dynamic Facades 4.23 - Light Sensitive Concrete 4.24 - Era Design Fine 4.25 - Diagram of adjacencies 4.26 - Diagram of food level adjacencies (cafe, restaurant, lounge) 4.27 - Ground level access to beach club195
  • 206. 4.28 - Child care diagram of relationship with the plaza4.29 - Diagram of children and teenager level adjacencies4.30 - Diagram of adult level adjacencies4.31 - Psychological effect of space in the user4.32 - Diagram of access, versatility and views4.33 - Diagram of Spatial qualities4.34 - Diagram of System integration4.35 - Diagram of transitional spaces4.36 - Building clock4.37 - L/B Lounge, Cape Town4.38 - Greenhouse, New York4.39 - Bed Supperclub, Bangkok4.40 - The clubhouse, Bali4.41 - Austin Convention Center4.42 - LACMAFigures Chapter 55.1 - Zoning RequirementsFigures Chapter 66.1 - Inspiration Image6.2 - Diagram showing public spaces to be created6.3 - Diagram of possible shape of building taking advantages of climatic conditions 196
  • 207. 6.4 - Shape evolution, sketched plan 6.5 - Shape evolution, sketched plan 6.6 - Shape evolution, sketched plan 6.7 - Shape evolution, sketched perspective 6.8 - Shape evolution, sketched perspective 6.9 - Shape evolution, sketched perspective 6.10- Shape evolution, sketched elevation 6.11- Shape evolution, computer model 6.12- Shape evolution, computer model 6.13- Program adjacencies inserted in building shape, 3 dimensional diagram 6.14- Program adjacencies shown in plan 6.15- Diagram of open areas VS enclosed space 6.16- Schematic design top view 6.17- Schematic design ground and site plan 6.18- Schematic design second level 6.19- Schematic design third level 6.20- Schematic design fourth level 6.21- Schematic design elevation 6.22- Schematic design perspective view Figures Chapter 7 7.1 - Ground level clock 7.2 - Ground level plan inserted in site 7.3 - Second level plan197
  • 208. 7.4 - Second level clock7.5 - Section of beach club connection between plaza and ocean7.6 - Third level plan7.7 - Third level clock7.8 - Fourth level clock7.9 - Fourth level plan7.10- Gym to club transitional space, storage of machines7.11- Fifth level plan7.12- Fifth level clock7.13- Building section A-A7.14- Wall Section7.15- Diagram showing where wall section was taken7.16- Construction detail7.17- Climatic conditions applied in design, sustainable integration of wave power tech-nology7.18- Sustainable technologies applied in design, perspective view7.19- Building exterior showing terraces7.20- View to the plaza7.21- Perspective view of the project7.22- Restaurant floor plan7.23- Restaurant Ceiling plan7.24- Restaurant elevation7.25- Restaurant view 17.26- Restaurant view 2 198
  • 209. A199 ppendix
  • 210. First Review Board 1-3 200
  • 211. First Review Board 2-3201
  • 212. First Review Board 3-3 202
  • 213. Inspiration Board203
  • 214. Schematic Design Board 2-2 204
  • 215. Schematic Design Board 1-2205
  • 216. Third Review Board 1 206
  • 217. Final Defense Board 1-2207
  • 218. Final Defense Board 2-2 208
  • 219. Exhibition Board209
  • 220. 210

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