CULTURE
Lee Ann R. Benkert
SLIMDenverCohort X
LI 802 Learning Assignment #1
July 18, 2009
Seminar to Learning Group
ANSWERS
BROOKY
How does a librarian’s perception of a
culture affect the reference interview?
LIBRARIAN BIAS IN THE REF.
INTERVIEW
 Worldview of the
librarian
 Worldview of
the patron
(stude nt)
Kumar and Suresh, 2...
LIBRARIAN BIAS IN THE REF.
INTERVIEW
 Closed stacks
 Returning books
 Reference service
 Self-service
 Classification...
LIBRARIAN BIAS IN THE REF.
INTERVIEW
 Linguistic
bigotry
 Black English
 Spanish accents
Hall, 1992
LIBRARIAN BIAS IN THE REF.
INTERVIEW
 Are Virtual
Reference
Services Color
Blind?
Shachaf and Horowitz, 2006
LIBRARIAN BIAS IN THE REF.
INTERVIEW
 More ignored requests
 Slower response time
 Less time and effort
 Less adherenc...
LIBRARIAN BIAS IN THE REF.
INTERVIEW
 More ignored requests
 Slower response time
 Less time and effort
 Less adherenc...
REFERENCES
 Hall, P.A. (1992). Peanuts: A note on intercultural communication. The
Jo urnalo f Acade m ic Librarianship, ...
AMY
Are there predictable differences between
how MEN and WOMEN meet their
information needs?
AMY
Are there predictable differences between
how MEN and WOMEN meet their
information needs?
PREDICTABLE GENDER
DIFFERENCES
Burdick’s Study
 How do males and
females experience the
Information Search
Process?
Burdi...
PREDICTABLE GENDER
DIFFERENCES
Burdick, 2006
 Initiation = gather/complete
 Emphasized information
collection
 Those wh...
PREDICTABLE GENDER
DIFFERENCES
Burdick, 2006
Males
 Initiation = gather/complete
 Emphasized information
collection
 Th...
PREDICTABLE GENDER
DIFFERENCES
Liu, 2008
Lorigo et al., 2006
PREDICTABLE GENDER
DIFFERENCES
 Submitted longer queries
 Revisit results more often
 Greater dissatisfaction with
onli...
PREDICTABLE GENDER
DIFFERENCES
Females
 Submitted longer queries
 Revisit results more often
 Greater dissatisfaction w...
REFERENCES
 Burdick, T. A. (1996, Fall). Success and diversity in
information seeking: genderand the information search
s...
NICOLE
Does the disproportionate
number of women working
in libraries affect different
cultures’ usage of the
library?
Any...
WOMEN IN
LIBRARIES/LIBRARY USAGE
 Library
 Libraries
 Library use
 Library services
 Librarians
 Multicultural
 Inf...
WOMEN IN
LIBRARIES/LIBRARY USAGE
 “A librarian’s gender may
influence the way an international
student approaches them” (...
WOMEN IN
LIBRARIES/LIBRARY USAGE
 Non-user populations excluded in
studies
WOMEN IN
LIBRARIES/LIBRARY USAGE
 Non-user populations excluded in
studies
REFERENCES
 Trew, F. (2006). Serving different
constituencies: International
students. In P. Dale, M. Holland, &
M. Matth...
HOLLY
In library communities
with high populations of
Mexican immigrants,
what (if any) cultural
shifts or adjustments
hav...
LIBRARY RESPONSE TO
IMMIGRANTS
 Collection
 Collection adjustments
 Foreign language reference materials
 Foreign lang...
LIBRARY RESPONSE TO
IMMIGRANTS
 Training and Development
 Active recruitment of bilingual/bicultural librarians
 Educat...
LIBRARY RESPONSE TO
IMMIGRANTS
Fox News article, 2005
 Role of library
and public funds
REFERENCES
 DeLaurie, A. (1998, Spring). Diversity and the library media teacher
[children's books about cultural adjustm...
IMAGE CREDITS
 Images from slides 4, 7-9, 11-13, and 24: Retrieved July 11, 2009,
from Microsoft Clip Art
 Image from sl...
IMAGE CREDITS
 Image from slide 9: YSL Head Scarf by Indigo Goat. Reproducible
under the Creative Commons license. Retrie...
APPLICATIONS TO LIS?
 Gender differences
 Librarian bias
 Women working in libraries
 Library response to Mexican immi...
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  • Deeper diver – can’t do that today. Too much info to be comprehensive in 5 minutes
    We are going to skim the surface (like top diver) and only focus on the findings of a handful of studies per question
    Hopefully, with less information, you’ll remember more.
    PASS OUT SLIDE HANDOUTS – As we go, use these to write down 3 things that interest you and applications to LIS to discuss at end
  • Due to overwhelming number of studies on international students…
    My focus = reference interviews in (higher ed) academic setting
  • Takeaway = If there is unawareness of the worldviews of your patrons, there could be problems.
    Studies focus = Academic libraries & international students
    - interviews/focus groups with international students about their information needs and their interactions with ref. librarians in academic libraries. Similar study by Liu.
    Different worldviews
    - Librarian = Assumptions that people know how to use the library, how it’s set up
    - Patron = Unfamiliarity with U.S. library missions and organization. Library systems are not set up the same way.
    - Very few publicly supported, open-to-the-public libraries
    - Closed stacks (lends itself as a study hall vs. place for research)
    - Reference assistance is not common or not available to students
    - Respect for age and authority (may inhibit questions)
    - Limited access to databases
    - Western classification systems are very different (arranged logically to us, but not to them)
    - (Pacific: Japan and China excluded): Books not primary source of information.
    - Students from Asian countries (vs. those from Western Europe) face more communication problems and more differences between the educational and library systems.
    If expectation of the librarian is biased or uninformed, makes it even HARDER for that patron to succeed during the reference interview.
  • - Librarian = Assumptions that people know how to use the library, how it’s set up
    - Patron = Unfamiliarity with U.S. library missions and organization. Library systems are not set up the same way.
    - Very few publicly supported, open-to-the-public libraries
    - Closed stacks (lends itself as a study hall vs. place for research)
    - Reference assistance is not common or not available to students
    - Respect for age and authority (may inhibit questions)
    - Limited access to databases
    - Western classification systems are very different (arranged logically to us, but not to them)
    - (Pacific: Japan and China excluded): Books not primary source of information.
    - Students from Asian countries (vs. those from Western Europe) face more differences between the educational and library systems.
    If expectation of the librarian is biased or uninformed, makes it even HARDER for that patron to succeed during the reference interview.
  • Hall gives us two examples of what he calls “linguistic bigotry” in his paper on intercultural communication:
    #1 – For many Americans, bias against black English shapes the way we relate with people
    #2 – Cites a study that shows a strong bias against Spanish accents
    Doesn’t have to be a “foreigner”; could be someone in your backyard
  • In 2002, Shachaf & Horowitz conducted a study called “Are Virtual Reference Services Color Blind?”
    Primary research question: Are virtual reference services providing unbiased services to diverse user groups?
    Solicited 23 participant libraries from Assoc. of Research Libraries (ARL) during the summer of 2005 for their unobtrusive study (similar to unobtrustive reference test in 1986 that prompted the 55% rule).
    Pass out handout:
    Each week for six weeks, a different question was received at the reference service of an institution from a different user.
    Note: Answers to all questions were available to each reference librarian in the study.
  • Content analysis of 138 email transactions
    Revealed differences in the quality of service that virtual reference libs provide to various user groups.
    Best level of service? Caucasian (Mary Anderson-Christian, Moshe Cohen-Jews)
    Worst level of service? African American (Latoya Johnson) and Arab (Ahmed Ibrahim)
    Not unprecedented: Article likened it to studies from pre-civil rights act era where formal written requests for service were found to be rejected more often than in-person requests by minorities.
    Librarians responding virtually more likely to be less self-aware and less likely to monitor their behavior than during in-person reference interactions (whether intentionally or not). Service is more unregulated than other services.
  • Content analysis of 138 email transactions
    Revealed differences in the quality of service that virtual reference libs provide to various user groups.
    Best level of service? Caucasian (Mary Anderson-Christian, Moshe Cohen-Jews)
    Worst level of service? African American (Latoya Johnson) and Arab (Ahmed Ibrahim)
    Not unprecedented: Article likened it to studies from pre-civil rights act era where formal written requests for service were found to be rejected more often than in-person requests by minorities.
    Librarians responding virtually more likely to be less self-aware and less likely to monitor their behavior than during in-person reference interactions (whether intentionally or not). Service is more unregulated than other services.
  • The word PREDICTABLE drew me to empirical evidence.
    h
  • The word PREDICTABLE drew me to empirical evidence.
    h
  • Exploratory study during fall trimester of 1994 of 103 high-school students (male=54%, female=46%)
    Used a triangulation of qualitative and quantitative methods.
    Examined process survey, teacher’s assessment of the student participants, and student journals/written responses to specific prompts.
    Primary Research Question: How do males and females experience the Information Search Process? Are their information-seeking actions, thoughts, and feelings the same?
  • Two studies on information behavior in the online environment.
    Lorigo’s article: “The influence of task and gender on search and evaluation behavior using Google”
    Google Study:
    Navigational tasks (specific web page – SLIM)
    Informational tasks (topical – i.e., cancer)
    Transactional tasks (action – i.e., online purchase)
    Eye-tracking study of 14 males and 9 females
    400 queries and 600 Google results pages
    Given navigational and informational tasks
    2 minutes to respond
    Liu’s article: “Gender difference in the online reading environment”
    Zhongshan University in China:
    Undergrads (50%) / Grads (50%) = male (40%), female (60%)
    Self-reported survey about their experiences with online and offline reading
    Survey Purpose: How do male readers and female readers differ in the preference for reading media and in the overall satisfaction with online reading?
  • Men pay significantly more attention to results 6-10.
    Significant, since search engine ranking can produce nearly equivalent weights for the top 5-10 ranked results.
  • Men pay significantly more attention to results 6-10.
    Significant, since search engine ranking can produce nearly equivalent weights for the top 5-10 ranked results.
  • Search Terms & Combinations
  • EX: - Middle Eastern students may not respect or believe the advice of a female librarian
    - Those from stratified societies may view the librarian as inferior – may insist on speaking to a higher authority
    - Those from privileged backgrounds may be used to having other people do the running for them and expect librarians to do the same.
    Again, self-sufficiency in the library may be an alien concept to international students
  • Widening their collections
    Offering reference materials in foreign languages
    Collection:
    EX: At Pasco Public Library in Washington (state), once was common for Spanish-lang. materials to sit on shelves and take over two years to be processed and in circulation
    EX: Queen’s Public Library rotate foreign-language titles for test-drivers
    EX: Friends from the Other Side/Amigos del otro lado by G. Anzaldúa, DeLaurie’s comment “Those of us who are second, third, fourth, fifth generation, etc., should learn to be tolerant of those who came from the very same roots we did.”
    EX: F-L Ref materials = need to have knowledge staff members select them
    EX: Problem with catalog systems, because while interface is in Spanish, the subject headings are all in English
    Also, when type in “perros” for “dogs,” only results in Spanish are retrieved, not ALL info on “dogs”
    Programming:
    EX: Appointing Community Liaisons or Hispanic/Latino Services Associate
  • Changes inside vs. outside the library walls
  • 02 culture

    1. 1. CULTURE Lee Ann R. Benkert SLIMDenverCohort X LI 802 Learning Assignment #1 July 18, 2009 Seminar to Learning Group
    2. 2. ANSWERS
    3. 3. BROOKY How does a librarian’s perception of a culture affect the reference interview?
    4. 4. LIBRARIAN BIAS IN THE REF. INTERVIEW  Worldview of the librarian  Worldview of the patron (stude nt) Kumar and Suresh, 2001, Wang and Frank, 2002, & Liu, 1993
    5. 5. LIBRARIAN BIAS IN THE REF. INTERVIEW  Closed stacks  Returning books  Reference service  Self-service  Classification Systems  Plagarism Kumar and Suresh, 2001, Wang and Frank, 2002, & Liu, 1993
    6. 6. LIBRARIAN BIAS IN THE REF. INTERVIEW  Linguistic bigotry  Black English  Spanish accents Hall, 1992
    7. 7. LIBRARIAN BIAS IN THE REF. INTERVIEW  Are Virtual Reference Services Color Blind? Shachaf and Horowitz, 2006
    8. 8. LIBRARIAN BIAS IN THE REF. INTERVIEW  More ignored requests  Slower response time  Less time and effort  Less adherence to professional guidelines Shachaf and Horowitz, 2006
    9. 9. LIBRARIAN BIAS IN THE REF. INTERVIEW  More ignored requests  Slower response time  Less time and effort  Less adherence to professional guidelines Shachaf and Horowitz, 2006
    10. 10. REFERENCES  Hall, P.A. (1992). Peanuts: A note on intercultural communication. The Jo urnalo f Acade m ic Librarianship, 1 8 (3), 211–213.  Kumar, S.L., & Suresh, R.S. (2001, August 2). Strategies forproviding effective reference services forinternational adult learners. The Re fe re nce Librarian, 33(69), 327–336.  Liu, M. (1995). Ethnicity and information seeking. The Re fe re nce Librarian, 23(49), 123–134.  Liu, Z. (1993, January). Difficulties and characteristics of students fromdeveloping countries using American libraries. Co lle g e & Re se arch Librarie s, 54(1), 25–31.  Shachaf, P., & Horowitz, S. (2006, November 1). Are virtual reference services colorblind? Library & Info rm atio n Scie nce Re se arch, 28 (4), 501–520.  Wang, J., & Frank, D.G. (2002, April). Cross-cultural communication: Implications foreffective information services in academic libraries. po rtal: Librarie s and the Acade m y, 2(2), 207–216.
    11. 11. AMY Are there predictable differences between how MEN and WOMEN meet their information needs?
    12. 12. AMY Are there predictable differences between how MEN and WOMEN meet their information needs?
    13. 13. PREDICTABLE GENDER DIFFERENCES Burdick’s Study  How do males and females experience the Information Search Process? Burdick, 2006  Are their information-seeking actions, thoughts, and feelings the same?
    14. 14. PREDICTABLE GENDER DIFFERENCES Burdick, 2006  Initiation = gather/complete  Emphasized information collection  Those who were confident strongly expressed that confidence  Initiation = investigate/ formulate  Expressed reflection  Less comfortable expressing “I” in their focus statements  More optimistic at beginning, more doubtful/uncertain at end
    15. 15. PREDICTABLE GENDER DIFFERENCES Burdick, 2006 Males  Initiation = gather/complete  Emphasized information collection  Those who were confident strongly expressed that confidence  Topic selection = M only  Less likely to ask for help Females  Initiation = investigate/ formulate  Expressed reflection  Less comfortable expressing “I” in their focus statements  More optimistic at beginning, more doubtful/uncertain at end  Topic selection = M & F  More likely to work together
    16. 16. PREDICTABLE GENDER DIFFERENCES Liu, 2008 Lorigo et al., 2006
    17. 17. PREDICTABLE GENDER DIFFERENCES  Submitted longer queries  Revisit results more often  Greater dissatisfaction with online reading  Print out e-documents to read  More thorough readers (online and paper)  Make more marginal notes Lorigo et al., 2006 & Liu, 2008  Viewed results more linearly  Spent more time on results page  More browsing/scanning, one-time reading, and non-linear reading (e.g., jump from link to link)  Paid attention to lower- ranked results
    18. 18. PREDICTABLE GENDER DIFFERENCES Females  Submitted longer queries  Revisit results more often  Greater dissatisfaction with online reading  Print out e-documents to read  More thorough readers (online and paper)  Make more marginal notes Lorigo et al., 2006 & Liu, 2008 Males  Viewed results more linearly  Spent more time on results page  More browsing/scanning, one-time reading, and non-linear reading (e.g., jump from link to link)  Paid attention to lower- ranked results
    19. 19. REFERENCES  Burdick, T. A. (1996, Fall). Success and diversity in information seeking: genderand the information search styles model [findings of a study in fall 1994 at the laboratory school of a large university]. School Library Media Quarterly, 25(1), 19–26.  Liu, Z. (2008). Genderdifferences in the online reading environment. Jo urnalo f Do cum e ntatio n, 6 4(4), 616– 626.  Lorigo, L., Pan, B., Hembrooke, H., Joachims, T., Granka, L., & Gay, G. (2006). The influence of taskand genderon search and evaluation behaviorusing Google. Info rm atio n Pro ce ssing & Manag e m e nt, 42 (4), 1123–
    20. 20. NICOLE Does the disproportionate number of women working in libraries affect different cultures’ usage of the library? Any resistance from some cultures?
    21. 21. WOMEN IN LIBRARIES/LIBRARY USAGE  Library  Libraries  Library use  Library services  Librarians  Multicultural  Information barriers  Perception  Gender  Gender differences  Gender discrimination  Gender bias  Cultural bias  Women  Women librarians  Muslim, Muslim- American 
    22. 22. WOMEN IN LIBRARIES/LIBRARY USAGE  “A librarian’s gender may influence the way an international student approaches them” (p. 153). Trew, 2006
    23. 23. WOMEN IN LIBRARIES/LIBRARY USAGE  Non-user populations excluded in studies
    24. 24. WOMEN IN LIBRARIES/LIBRARY USAGE  Non-user populations excluded in studies
    25. 25. REFERENCES  Trew, F. (2006). Serving different constituencies: International students. In P. Dale, M. Holland, & M. Matthews (Eds.), Subje ct librarians : Eng ag ing with the le arning and te aching e nviro nm e nt (pp. 149–172). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
    26. 26. HOLLY In library communities with high populations of Mexican immigrants, what (if any) cultural shifts or adjustments have resulted?
    27. 27. LIBRARY RESPONSE TO IMMIGRANTS  Collection  Collection adjustments  Foreign language reference materials  Foreign language-based catalog systems  Programming  Collaboration with local community organizations  Bilingual advertising Herring, 2005, DeLaurie, 1998, & Guerena and Erazo, 2000
    28. 28. LIBRARY RESPONSE TO IMMIGRANTS  Training and Development  Active recruitment of bilingual/bicultural librarians  Educating staff on cultural/linguistic cues (e.g., pointing, gesturing)  Educating the patrons on available resources/services  Communication  Inte rnal: Multilingual signage (e.g., hours of operation, Spanish-language option RE: automated phone system)  Exte rnal: Outreach officers, gatekeepers,Herring, 2005, DeLaurie, 1998, & Guerena and Erazo, 2000
    29. 29. LIBRARY RESPONSE TO IMMIGRANTS Fox News article, 2005  Role of library and public funds
    30. 30. REFERENCES  DeLaurie, A. (1998, Spring). Diversity and the library media teacher [children's books about cultural adjustment; bibliographical essay] [Electronic version]. CSLAJo urnal, 21 (2), 23–24.  Güereña, S., & Erazo, E. (2000, Summer). Latinos and librarianship. Library Tre nds, 49 (1), 138–181.  Herring, S. (2005, Spring). Meeting the information needs of a community: A case study of services to Spanish-speaking patrons at the Pasco Branch of the Mid-Columbia Library District [Electronic version]. PNLAQuarte rly, 6 9 (3), 5, 21–25.  Payne, J. (1988, May). Public libraries faceCalifornia’s ethnic andracial diversity(Report No. R-3656-SUL). Santa Monica, CA: Stanford University Libraries. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EDED305073)  Roznik, S. Misconceptions about Hispanics beingtackled: A pathto understandingtheHispanic community. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://thelatinojournal.blogspot.com/2009/01/misconceptions-about-
    31. 31. IMAGE CREDITS  Images from slides 4, 7-9, 11-13, and 24: Retrieved July 11, 2009, from Microsoft Clip Art  Image from slide 2: Bi-Fins by jayhem. Reproducible under the Creative Commons license. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.flickr.com/photos/jayhem/3643603988/  Images from slide 3:  skeptical in seattle by lanuiop. Reproducible under the Creative Commons license. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.flickr.com/photos/lanuiop/2376190710/  Kimat the Reference Deskby Cloned Milkmen. Reproducible under the Creative Commons license. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.flickr.com/photos/clonedmilkmen/2764078058/  SharoneyBaloney by Bah Humbug. Reproducible under the Creative Commons license. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.flickr.com/photos/gibbons/1083309919/
    32. 32. IMAGE CREDITS  Image from slide 9: YSL Head Scarf by Indigo Goat. Reproducible under the Creative Commons license. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.flickr.com/photos/indigogoat/180015143/  Images from slide 16:  Google logo. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.hotmobile.org/2008/uploads/images/google_logo.jpg  Sun Yat-Sen University (i.e., Zhongshan University). Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.sysu.edu.cn/en/index.html  Image from slide 20: Librarian by queenmab04. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://bookology.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/librarian.jpg  Image from slide 26: Ann ArborLibrary – Pittsfield Branch by jhoweaa. Reproducible under the Creative Commons license. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.flickr.com/photos/jhoweaa/327651705/
    33. 33. APPLICATIONS TO LIS?  Gender differences  Librarian bias  Women working in libraries  Library response to Mexican immigrants

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