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  • 1. 1984In Class NotesPart 1Ms. Ramirez Cruz
  • 2. Main Character• Winston Smith is introduced as a frail 39year old man with a varicose ulcer• He is malnourished – food is rationed• He drinks the cheap “Victory Gin” andsmokes• Although he is extremely fearful andparanoid of the party when the novelbegins he takes a brave step and rebelsby beginning a diary
  • 3. Setting• 1984 takes place in the dark, bleak world ofAirstrip One (London) in the fictional empireof Oceania• Airstrip One is in a constant state of war withEurasia or Eastasia• The enemy changes from time to time andthe previous enemy must be forgotten• The city is in shambles with several bombsites, shacks and poorly maintained buildings• Above the city loom the ministry buildings:Minitrue, Miniluv, Miniplenty, and Minpax
  • 4. Ministries• The Ministries are the official agencies that control thegovernment• Their names are paradoxes:• Minitruth – Ministry of Truth - Winston’s place ofemployment is in charge of recreating and rewritingevents and history• Minpax – Ministry of Peace – in charge of matters ofwar• Miniplenty – Ministry of Plenty – in charge of rationingfood and products – dealing in “with starvation”• Miniluv – Ministry of Love – in charge of torturingopponents of the Big Brother
  • 5. Setting• Air Strip One is ruled by a tyrannicalgovernment that relentlessly monitors andcontrols every move of it’s citizens throughsurveillance and telescreens• Winston must watch even his facialexpressions from the telescreens• The “leader” of the party is the ever present“Big Bother” or BB• His mustaged image can be seeneverywhere with the caption: “Big Brother isWatching”
  • 6. The Party Slogans• WAR IS PEACE• FREEDOM IS SLAVERY• IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH
  • 7. Newspeak• Newspeak is the official language of Oceania• Devised to meet the ideological needs ofIngsoc – English Socialism - the politicalideology that governs Oceania• Vocabulary decreases each year and it isdedicated to the “destruction of words”• It was created so it would not be possible tothink a dissenting thought and ultimatelyeliminate thoughtcrime
  • 8. Newspeak Terms• Doublethink – the power to hold twocompletely contradictory beliefs in one’s mindsimultaneously and accept them both• Thoughtcrime – to even consider a thoughtnot in line with the principals of the party• Thought Police – police force in charge ofeliminating thoughtcrime, they monitoreverything• Prole – Proletarians – 85% of Oceania’spopulation – were viewed as animals –“Animals and proles are free”
  • 9. Newspeak Terms• facecrime – to wear an improper expression onyour face that might demonstrate nonconformitywith Big Brother• Two minute hate – daily propaganda telescreenspecials which all citizens must participate in -they show terrible images and loud noises – hateis directed towards enemy and Goldstein (enemyof the people) former party leader that betrayedBB and formed the Brotherhood – an undergroundnetwork of conspirators dedicated to overthrowingthe state
  • 10. Winston’s Job• Winston works for Minitrue• His job is rewrite history by rewriting articlesand news stories to realign them with themessage of Big Brother• He enjoys his work because he can “lose”himself in it• He uses three orifices: speakwrite, apneumatic tube, and memory holes• Memory hole is a paradox – they are used todestroy evidence thus eliminate proof andmemory
  • 11. Comrade Ogilvy• In order to replace the disgrace of ComradeWithers who most likely has now beenvaporized Winston creates Ogilvy• Ogilvy is the epitome of a party member• He sacrifices all personality, privacy, family allsense of “self” for the sake to the party• This is ironic• By creating Ogilvy Winston is actuallymocking the ideals of the party someone likeOgilvy could not possibly exist
  • 12. Winston• When Winston begins writing in his diaryat first he can’t even remember what hewanted to say• After the descriptions of the film and thetwo minute hate he writes:• DOWN WITH BIG BROTHER! severaltimes
  • 13. Winston• Is seemingly different from the other partymembers• He still shows empathy and emotion• The movie scene• He sees hope in the proles to overthrow the state• He takes the step of rebelling by writing in thedairy although he knows it will bring about hisdoom• “Thoughtcrime does not entail death: thoughtcrimeIS death”
  • 14. Winston• He longs for human connection• Feels deep resentment and hatredtowards the party for creating his state ofisolation• Isolation = Death• He ends his marriage to Katherinebecause of its lack of intimacy – sex wasfor procreation – “Duty to the party”
  • 15. Winston’s Quest for Connection• His writing in the journal is the first step to connectto his consciousness• In his encounter with the prostitute – at first she ismore human and real – “party women never painttheir faces”• Her perfume smells of “fornication” – lust, humandesire• The encounter fails – it is really an encounter withdeath• Basement – underground• The woman is death – white face, white hair, noteeth, mouth is “cavernous blackness”
  • 16. Winston’s Quest for Connection• He hates the party for killing humanconnection and intimacy – humanity• Hatred for women• Katharine his wife• The girl with the dark hair – his desire forher is manifest in his hatred for her –wants to hill her – Junior – Anti – SexLeague
  • 17. Winston’s Quest for Connection• Winston believes that O’Brian is a member of“the Brotherhood”• A brief glance at the two minute hate• After he writes in his diary he begins todream• Emotions have been awakened• Dreams of O’Brien – “We will meet at theplace where there is no darkness”• Light=Knowledge – awakening
  • 18. • Dreams about his mother and sister –feels guilt – they died for me• Dreams about the girl with the dark hair –the act of her flinging her clothes isrebellion• She can destroy an entire era
  • 19. Intimacy and Thought are Rebellion• His thoughts about O’Brian• His memories of the past• The dark haired girl’s clothes in the dream• Once he had proof of an act of falsification• At work he had seen a Times article that putJones, Aaronson and Rutherford at a partymeeting in New York. During the trials they hadconfessed to being in Eurasia conspiring with theenemy• “Freedom is the freedom to say that two plus twomake four. If that is granted, all else follows.”
  • 20. Winston Longs for the Past• He feels frustrated that he can’t proveanything that went on in the past• This is ironic since it is his job to rewritethe past• When finds himself at the antique shopwhere he purchased the diary• Mr. Charrington shows him a room abovethe shop
  • 21. The Room Above the Antique Shop• “There’s no telescreen!” – privacy• The room is a connection to the past• Comforting, antique furniture• “We lived here till my wife died” – a realcouple lived here – love and intimacyexisted in this room
  • 22. The Room Above the Antique Shop• This is a holy place• The picture of St Clement’s Church hangson the wall• Finds out from Charrington that it stillexists• Charrington teaches him the old rhyme• “Oranges and lemons say the bells of St.Clement’s”