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Hypothetical proposition

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  • 1. Categorical versus Hypothetical Proposition  Categorical proposition = declare something  Hypothetical proposition = express condition
  • 2. Hypothetical Proposition  does not declare an unconditional affirmation or denial, but expresses a relation of dependence such as an opposition or a likeness between 2 clauses.
  • 3. 3 kinds of Hypothetical Proposition 1. Conditional Proposition 2. Disjunctive Proposition 3. Conjuctive Proposition
  • 4. Conditional Proposition  Expresses a condition or relation of dependence between two propositions.  Expressed relation points out that one proposition necessarily follows from the other because of a definite condition.  Note that a conditional proposition is one in which two parts are joined by if, unless, when, where, suppose, in case.  Sometimes called an if-then proposition
  • 5. Conditional Proposition Examples: If a man is farsighted, he needs eyeglasses. If dry weather continues, the harvest will be poor.
  • 6. Conditional Proposition Two component 1. Antecedent/Implicans  Generally introduced by word IF  Contains the condition 2. Consequent/Implicate  Expresses the statement that follows the acceptance of condition.
  • 7. Condtional Proposition Examples: If a man is farsighted, he needs eyeglasses. If a man is farsighted = Antecedent/Implicans he needs eyeglasses = Consequent/Implicate
  • 8. Disjunctive Proposition  One whose subject or predicate consists of parts which exclude each other.  Sometimes called an either or statement due to its construction.  Parts of disjunction are called disjuncts (alternants)
  • 9. Disjunctive Proposition Examples: A body is either in motion or at rest. Either Pedro or Juan is dishonest.
  • 10. Disjunctive Proposition o Proper (perfect,complete,strict) • It is either raining or not raining. o Improper (imperfect,incomplete)  Jose is either sitting or writting. o Broad  Either my sister or I will go.
  • 11. Disjunctive Proposition 2 things are required for a proper disjunctive 1. The enumeration of the possibilities must be complete. 2. There must be an exclusive opposition between or among the enumerated possibilities.
  • 12. Conjuctive Proposition  One which denies that two contrary predicates together can be true of the same subject at the same time.  The truth of a conjuctive hypothetical proposition depends solely upon a true exclusive opposition existing between their component parts.  Parts of conjuctive are called conjucts
  • 13. Conjuctive Proposition Examples You cannot stand and sit at the same time. You cannot be in Quiapo and in Makati at the same time.
  • 14. Conjuctive Proposition  Reducible to two connective hypothetical propositions or a combination of hypothetical and categorical propositions.
  • 15. Conjuctive Proposition Examples If you are in Quiapo, you are not in Makati. If you are in Makati, you are not in Quiapo.

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