•   ―Native‖ Americans•   Beringia       –   Eskimo       –   Northwest       –   Anasazi               •    Pueblos      ...
•      Cape Verde 1st plantations•   Ottoman Turks       –     Genoa & Venice       –     Atlantic nations look west      ...
–     Vespucci•   Balboa•   Magellan       –     West voyage not feasible•   Conquistadores       –     Cortez            ...
–   John Hawkins Africa to Haiti•   Factors encouraging exploration       –   Technological advances       –   Monarchs lo...
•   Hakluyt       –   New trade partners       –   Ease unemployment              •   Pressure valve              •   1530...
–   Weapons for reinforcing•   Lord de la Warr       –   Irish tactics              •   Raid, burn, steal              •  ...
–   Stole, ran away, pregnant                       –   Women no marriage                       –   Freedom dues       –  ...
•   Polarized society post 1649       –   Land, money in east       –   Untamed in the west       –   Gov. Berkeley       ...
•    Contract for a mission       –   ―City Upon a Hill‖              •    Reform the Church of Eng.                      ...
–    Narragansett allies       –    Heavily criticized               •     Tried to Christianize               •     India...
–   Ergot•   The Other Colonies•   New York       –   1609 Hudson       –   Albany       –   New Netherlands       –   New...
•   Carolina       –   Restoration as others       –   Barbados in south               •   Charles Town               •   ...
–   Ignoring leads to more wealth              •    Admiralty Courts•   Crown attacks colonies charters       –   Mass Bay...
–   Threatened lands                       –   Spanish intrigue•   Slavery       –   Portuguese       –   Africans practic...
•   Enlightenment                       –   Liberty, liberty, property                              »   John Locke        ...
•   Attacks on frontier towns by French/Indians told colonists that they                  still needed English protection ...
•   Colonists refused to fight       •   British thought colonists bear the responsibility       •   Indians side with Fre...
–   Colonial hangover              •   Colonists have military confidence              •   Colonist officers treated poorl...
•   Sugar Act       –   Molasses Act       –   Rewards for capture•   Stamp Act       –   Internal tax       –   James Oti...
»   Effigy                       –   Thomas Hutchinson                              »   All resigned                •   Bo...
•   Gaspée       –   Crown’s commission to find perpetrators       –   Committees of Correspondence              •   Coope...
•   Hope for cooler heads in Parlement– no response              •   Continental Association                        –   Ma...
•   Ethan Allen•   Canadian Invasion       –   Ben Arnold•   Fawkes Day       –   Americans need European support•   Commo...
–   The Crisis•   Brit ad/disadvantages       –   Profession army       –   3000 miles       –   Re-conquer w/o destroy   ...
•   One of the world’s biggest!              •   French                        –   Repossess                        –   Re...
•   African-Americans       •   Nathaniel Greene               –   ―we fight, get beat, fight again               –   Guer...
•   State Constitutions       –   Reduced power of governors       –   Most bi-cameral       –   Limited voting rights—25-...
–   One vote per state                     –   Ratification problems                             »     Western lands      ...
•   Problems with money       –   Soldiers wages       –   1781 march on PHL       –   Paper $ worthless       –   Dept. o...
–   Manumission       –   All men…. Quok Walker              •    Only humans in South       –   NJ let free & women vote•...
–   Anti-Federalists               •     Fear of a distant power               •     Bill of Rights       –   Delaware•   ...
–    12—10                      –    Nothing on who could vote•   Financial Problems       –   Hamilton              •   T...
•   Serious threat              •   Nationalize PA militia•   Frontier Problems       –   Indians look to Britain/Spain   ...
–   Pinckney’s Treaty              •    Right of Deposit              •    Mississippi•   Washington’s Farewell       –   ...
–   KY & VA Resolutions       •   Constitution a compact       •   Nullification
•   Election of 1800       –   Adams hurt by A/S & taxes to build navy       –   Jay’s Treaty       –   Whiskey Rebellion ...
–   Sedition Act expires—many freed                        –   Repealed Naturalization Act                        –   Kept...
•   Eli Whitney•   Robert Livingston, James Monroe mission•   Haitian Revolt       –   Toussaint L’Ouverture       –   Mal...
»   Duel                              »   Burr flees                                       •   Southwest Empire?          ...
•   Hope both drop restrictions              •   Napoleon deceives       –   War Hawks              •   Henry Clay        ...
–   Dis-ad:       •   Small army & old       •   ―Mr. Madison’s War‖–   Invasion of Canada       •   William Hull & Detroi...
•   British invade from Canada                     –     Macdonough                              »   Plattsburgh 9/14     ...
–   Florida       •   Adams- Onis–   1816 Election       •   James Monroe–   Rush-Bagot/Convention of 1818       •   Demil...
•   Panic of 1819       –   Westward migration              •     Steamships              •     Land speculation          ...
•   No slavery north of 36-30•   Foreign Policy under Monroe cont’d       –   Monroe Doctrine              •   US with GB ...
•    Naval College?•   Election of 1828       –   Jackson              •    Democratic Republicans (Democrats)            ...
•      SC Exposition              •      Calhoun              •      KY & VA Resolutions       –   Nullies              • ...
–   Davis/Lincoln              •     Seminole/Osceola•   Eaton Malaria       –   Peggy Eaton—wife of Sec’y of War       – ...
–   Later morphed into Whigs•   Killing the Bank       –   Roger Taney       –   BUS calls in loans to create crisis      ...
–   ―Machine-made‖–   Other Dems resented–   Trouble in Maine       •    Aroostook       •    Webster-Ashburton 1842–   Ab...
Ccri text 2012
Ccri text 2012
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Ccri text 2012

  1. 1. • ―Native‖ Americans• Beringia – Eskimo – Northwest – Anasazi • Pueblos • Water conservation – Similarities • Diet – Hunt, farm, fish • Bows & arrows • No writing• Vs. Europeans – Less dense – No wheels or ships – Small animals only• Ericsson• Prince Henry• Bartolomeu Dias• Vasco da Gama breaks Mediterranean monopoly 1498• Portugal inches along African coast – Slaves – Religion
  2. 2. • Cape Verde 1st plantations• Ottoman Turks – Genoa & Venice – Atlantic nations look west – Spain – Moors• Columbus – Bad with the ruler – San Salvador • Bahamas – Hispaniola • La Navidad – Returns with natives – 4 trips – Columbian Exchange • Goods, ppl & ideas• Treaty of Tordesillas – Portugal – Brazil only – de Gama 1498• Cabot – Northwest Passage/ cod• Cabral
  3. 3. – Vespucci• Balboa• Magellan – West voyage not feasible• Conquistadores – Cortez • Aztec – Empire, tribute, sacrifice • Spain most powerful after – Pizarro • Inca• French – Verrazano – Cartier – Up to now – No settlements in America – Spanish Empire – Portugal to China – International fishing – Huguenots – Challenge to Spain – St. Augustine 1st• England
  4. 4. – John Hawkins Africa to Haiti• Factors encouraging exploration – Technological advances – Monarchs looking to enlarge, enrich – Gold, glory & the Gospel• England supplants Spain – Henry VIII – Elizabeth • Reform – Drake – Roanoke Island – Armada • Spain defends Cath. • English pond • England Colonizes in a Big Way
  5. 5. • Hakluyt – New trade partners – Ease unemployment • Pressure valve • 1530-1680 Pop doubled causing many to leave• Joint-stock company – VA London – VA Plymouth – Takes time for profit – Jamestown – License to poach – Terrible location • Swamp, drought – Gentlemen/servants – Search for gold • 38/144 – Malnutrition, disease, European traditions of labor – Could have done better if they learned to farm – John Smith • Harsh • ―The Starving Time‖• Powhatan Confederacy – Aid led to survival
  6. 6. – Weapons for reinforcing• Lord de la Warr – Irish tactics • Raid, burn, steal • Natives inferior • Almost exterminated due to VA success• John Rolfe – Made VA a stable colony – Seals peace by marriage• Spread of the vile weed – Scattered settlements – Constant encroaching• Labor force – Indentured • Lack of labor • Poor, willing • Cheap, abundant • 2x or 3x pay • Most migrants to Chesapeake • Many premature deaths • Society of servants and ex-servants • Sometimes sold • Extended– legally
  7. 7. – Stole, ran away, pregnant – Women no marriage – Freedom dues – Headright • Wealthy gentry class – More land, more workers – New arrivals in 1619 • Africans & wives?• House of Burgesses – Series of harsh rulers – Representative self-government • Local laws only but, it set a precedent of self-government at local level in colonies • James hates tobacco and distrusted H of B. • Charter revoked 1624, reinstated 1629• Maryland – Proprietary • Lord B’more • Sanctuary – But… conflict » Majority Protestants as yeoman » Catholics as gentry – Act of Toleration 1649 • Depended on tobacco & indentured servants
  8. 8. • Polarized society post 1649 – Land, money in east – Untamed in the west – Gov. Berkeley • No elections for 15 years • Only male landowners & heads of households • Monopolized fur trade w/ Indians • Bacon’s Rebellion – Big guys & little guys, Berkeley removed – New workforce• New England• Pilgrims – Separatists – Too corrupt – Holland – Mayflower Compact • Political body & legal auth • Will of majority – Squanto • Pilgrims as allies • Thanksgiving• Mass. Bay Colony – Covenant
  9. 9. • Contract for a mission – ―City Upon a Hill‖ • Reform the Church of Eng. – King’s puppet – Families, educated, college – Voting rights • Property owning males • Popular got big tracts• The sewer where the ―Lord’s debris‖ collected and rotted• Connecticut – Thomas Hooker – All males – Fundamental Orders of CT.• Rhode Island – Roger Williams • Land belonged to… • Freedom of religion – Newport 1658 – Anne Hutchinson • Comm. Directly with God• Relations with Indians• Pequot War of 1637 – White settlement disrupted trade
  10. 10. – Narragansett allies – Heavily criticized • Tried to Christianize • Indians knew only unity stops encroachment• King Philip’s War – Encroachment • Surrounded Indian towns • Sassamon • Mohawk • Great Swamp • Sold into slavery • Debt, ruined frontier, hatred • Eunice Williams stayed • Mary Rowlandson– Redemption Rock• Trouble in New England• Salem – Tituba • Witchcraft • Specters – Causes • Continual disorder explained by blame – Indian attacks – Decline of Puritan society
  11. 11. – Ergot• The Other Colonies• New York – 1609 Hudson – Albany – New Netherlands – New Amsterdam • Manhattan • Patroonships • Headright – Diverse – Huguenots • Peter Stuyvesant • Duke of York– James• Pennsylvania – Wm. Penn – Quaker – Proprietary – Indians • Purchase land, deal fairly, respect claims • Those having probs elsewhere – Religious toleration • ―in the souls there is no sex‖
  12. 12. • Carolina – Restoration as others – Barbados in south • Charles Town • Slaves • Staple crops – Eliza Lucas – VA influence in north • Regulator – no reapportioning—not represented• Georgia – Oglethorpe – Buffer/Reform • Between two empires – Savannah• Navigation Acts – Mercantilism—raw materials – Only English/colonial ships – Enumerated – Designed to make money and stop competition – Board of Trade • Parliament passed rules but they didn’t affect the colonies unless stated – Salutary Neglect • Robert Walpole
  13. 13. – Ignoring leads to more wealth • Admiralty Courts• Crown attacks colonies charters – Mass Bay Colony charter revoked – Dominion of New England • Under direct English control • All land titles invalidated – Edmund Andros – Glorious Revolution • Influenced colonists to rise as well • Mass Bay restored with additions – Leisler’s Rebellion – Coode• More Indian Wars – New York • Beaver Wars • Iroquois – Needed to war to replenish since European disease killing them – North Carolina • Tuscarora—many enslaved – South Carolina • Yamassee – Abused by whites (sold into slavery)
  14. 14. – Threatened lands – Spanish intrigue• Slavery – Portuguese – Africans practiced violence • Europeans didn’t have to • Xtianized them instead – Triangular Trade • Products/ trade became basis of European economy • Middle Passage – Rebellion • Stono – Can’t overturn slavery; can’t win the fight for freedom.• Colonial experiences – The Great Awakening • First shared • Religious indifference – Convert non-believers and revive piety of believers – Most didn’t go to church • Revivals – Jonathan Edwards » Sinners… • Led to religious diversity
  15. 15. • Enlightenment – Liberty, liberty, property » John Locke • Right of rebellion » Peter Zenger – Religion » Deism » God the Clockmaker – Ben Franklin » Poor Richard’s • Work & wealth• The French in America – Champlain • Coureurs de bois • Black Robes—Jesuits – Robert de la Salle • Mississippi – No suppression of Indian – They liked European goods • Kept Spanish out• Wars with the French – King William/Queen Anne • Mostly European affairs
  16. 16. • Attacks on frontier towns by French/Indians told colonists that they still needed English protection – King George’s War – Louisbourg • Colonists furious – Boston widows• French and Indian War – Contested land • Ohio Valley • French forts • Gov. Dinwiddie – Washington » Surrenders » British retaliate • Nova Scotia – Albany Congress • Albany Plan for Union – Ben Franklin » Win Indians—they made no commitment » Colonists meet annually » Colonies & crown refused • Not enough or too much independence – General Braddock • Duquesne—war declared
  17. 17. • Colonists refused to fight • British thought colonists bear the responsibility • Indians side with French—less land-hungry– William Pitt—Great Commoner • Picked better commanders – Recruitment was local now • Finance thoroughly—but… leads to huge debt – Boon to colonies economy – Turning point • Focus on North America – Attack Quebec – Cripple France’s colonies – Plains of Abraham » Wolfe & Montcalm » Iroquois allied w/ GB– Treaty of Paris • Indians lose land as colonists mover west • England east, Spain west
  18. 18. – Colonial hangover • Colonists have military confidence • Colonist officers treated poorly – No promotions—British discipline brutal – Amateurs • British concerns – Americans traded with enemy – Americans begin to head west – Pontiac’s Rebellion • Refused to surrender lands • Britain raised prices • Several British forts attacked • Many lives lost, long time to quell • Britain retaliated with germ warfare – Proclamation of 1763 • Keep peace—no settling west • Stationed soldiers here for same• British problems – War debt – Colonists should help pay for empire – Pitt’s role – Standing Army (where?!?) – Quartering Act
  19. 19. • Sugar Act – Molasses Act – Rewards for capture• Stamp Act – Internal tax – James Otis • No rep in Parle • Direct rep here • Grenville virtual – Sons & Daughters • Boycott – VA Resolves • Patrick Henry • Caesar, Chas I and George – Stamp Act Congress • First successful union • 9 of 13 • Rights & Grievances – Tax and represent redux – Jury w/o trial – Restrict on trade • Prevent distribution – Andrew Oliver
  20. 20. » Effigy – Thomas Hutchinson » All resigned • Boycott worked • Declaratory Act• Townsend Acts – Revenue Act of 1765 – Customs collectors paid by crown – Tax on lead, glass, paint, tea – Writs of assistance – New York Assembly – Circular Letter • Sam Adams • Tax w/o consent? • VA Assembly agrees dissolved• Currently – Taxes – Houses searched – Troops stationed at the center of hotbeds• Boston Massacre – March 5, 1770 – Soldiers withdrawn – Townsend repealed
  21. 21. • Gaspée – Crown’s commission to find perpetrators – Committees of Correspondence • Cooperation to oppose• Boston Tea Party – British East India Tea Co. • Smuggled tea • Tax lowered • Favoritism • Hurt current suppliers • Hurt smugglers• ―Intolerable‖ Acts – 1. Boston Harbor – 2. Mass. Charter – 3. Trials in England – 4. New Quartering Act – 5. Quebec Act • New borders – Land granted to Catholics! – No precedent – General Gage• First Continental Congress – Rights & Grievances
  22. 22. • Hope for cooler heads in Parlement– no response • Continental Association – Manage boycott – Ben Franklin » ―we must hang together…‖ – Colonists forced to choose sides – Meet again in one year• Lexington & Concord 4/75 – Stockpiles – Paul Revere/Wm. Dawes – Sam Adams/John Hancock – Boston under siege• Second Continental Congress – G. Washington C-in-C – Mass Militia named Cont. Army• Bunker Hill – 3 attempts – Pyrrhic victory – Hessians – Ports closed – Halifax
  23. 23. • Ethan Allen• Canadian Invasion – Ben Arnold• Fawkes Day – Americans need European support• Common Sense/ Thomas Paine• Hessian = war’s unpopularity• Independence needed for European support – Richard Henry Lee – ―these colonies are and of right ought to be independent states‖ – Committee formed • Adams, Franklin, Jefferson et al • SC & GA edit – ―all men are… life, liberty and pursuit…‖ – Government purpose is to allow constituents… – Government derive their power – If government fails… • All signers… treason! – All states were encouraged to write const • All took power away from executive• Battle of New York – No pursuit – Lots of desertion
  24. 24. – The Crisis• Brit ad/disadvantages – Profession army – 3000 miles – Re-conquer w/o destroy • Divide and conquer • Tories • Keep allegiance• Americans – Good generals/ bad also – Home game – Bonus (land) for enlistment• Women – Nurses, domestic tasks, Robert Shurtleff, Molly Pitcher• New Jersey – Delaware River • Trenton • Princeton• Britain attempts to cut off NE – Howe – Philadelphia – Burgoyne – Saratoga
  25. 25. • One of the world’s biggest! • French – Repossess – Reconcile? • Home-rule • Philadelphia – Brandywine – Accomplished nothing – Fired-up colonists • Valley Forge – Baron von Steuben – Post Saratoga/Philadelphia new strategy• War in the west – Iroquois Alliance – George Rogers Clark – Indians neutral to British• War on the sea – John Paul Jones • Bonhomme Richard – Privateers• War in the South – Charleston/ Savannah • Put Tories in charge
  26. 26. • African-Americans • Nathaniel Greene – ―we fight, get beat, fight again – Guerrilla warfare » Francis Marion, Thomas Sumter » Drag British inland– Yorktown • De Grasse • Cut their loses– Treaty of Paris
  27. 27. • State Constitutions – Reduced power of governors – Most bi-cameral – Limited voting rights—25-50% of all males disenfranchised • South—at least you ain’t Black – VA had Bill of Rights• Republican government – Elected reps – Most favor weak central government – Articles of Confed. • 1st constitution – Conduct foreign affairs – Maintain armed forces – Borrow money – Issue currency » Could not » Regulate trade » Draft an army » Tax » To pass law—9 of 13 » To amend—all 13 » No exec, no judicial » Tariff tried but…
  28. 28. – One vote per state – Ratification problems » Western lands • March 1781 • Accomplishments – Won war – Foreign affairs – New states• Land Policy – Ordinance 1785 • First independent source of revenue • rectangular with 1 of every 36 for education • 640 acres each—$1 per acre • Public auction • Speculators – Ordinance of 1787 • Northwest Territory • 3 to 5 states • 60,000 • Equal to others • Bill of Rights • No slavery – Fugitive slave law included
  29. 29. • Problems with money – Soldiers wages – 1781 march on PHL – Paper $ worthless – Dept. of Finance created • Robert Morris • 5% on imports – Denied—A of C government could get too powerful• Depression – Rice crop destroyed – Farms confiscated for non-payment of state taxes – West Indies closed to trade (Britain) – Britain flooded• Shay’s Rebellion – Mass broke – Tax farmers – Judge taking lands – Shay leads rebellion to courts, arsenal – 4 killed by Bowdoin’s troops • Many feared future rebellions • A of C not strong enough• Slavery – Many states immediate to gradual in Northern states
  30. 30. – Manumission – All men…. Quok Walker • Only humans in South – NJ let free & women vote• Constitutional Convention – Annapolis Conference – Madison/Hamilton • Changes—A of C too weak • 55 delegates—most lawyers, all rich • Closed doors no notes – VA Plan & NJ Plan—how to satisfy big/small states • VA 2 house, both pop proportional, chief chose by legislature • People choose lower, lower chooses upper • NJ one house one vote per state • Plural execs – The Great Compromise • Roger Sherman • 2-house, H of Reps by pop, Senate (2 for all states) • 3/5 clause • Slavery not interfered with till 1808 • 9 of 13 states required to ratify• Ratification – Federalists
  31. 31. – Anti-Federalists • Fear of a distant power • Bill of Rights – Delaware• New Hampshire• Virginia – B of Rights to be added• New York – Federalist essays • Detailed failure of A of C• First Election – Washington • Adams • Dept of State—Jefferson • Dept of the Treasury—Hamilton • Dept of War • Cabinet (advisers) – Adams just presided of Senate • Judiciary Act of 1789 – Supreme Ct. – John Jay • Bill of Rights – Madison
  32. 32. – 12—10 – Nothing on who could vote• Financial Problems – Hamilton • Tariff – To protect/ foster – South no, North yes • Report on Public Credit • Fed debt (par) – Speculators—wealthy have stake • Assumption – States – South not happy – Washington • National Bank • Vault, loans, currency • Strict • Loose—Necessary & Proper • Political parties• Whiskey Rebellion – Hamilton’s programs • 25% • Barter = no cash
  33. 33. • Serious threat • Nationalize PA militia• Frontier Problems – Indians look to Britain/Spain – Anthony Wayne • Battle of Fallen Timbers 1794 • Treaty of Greenville 1795 – Ohio• European Problems – French Revolution – Neutrality – Citizen Genet – Jefferson resigns – British impress • Jay’s Treaty – Hamilton’s role – Northwest – Withdraw – Pay for ships – Allow trade w/ British W.I. – Freed slaves – French capture US ships • Executive Privilege
  34. 34. – Pinckney’s Treaty • Right of Deposit • Mississippi• Washington’s Farewell – Precedent – Party system – Foreign alliances• Election of 1796 – Adams/ Chas. Pinckney – Jefferson/ Burr – 71-68 – 12th Amendment• Adam’s Presidency – Problems w/ France • XYZ Affair – Shipping – Talleyrand • Undeclared war – Dept of Navy – Alien & Sedition Acts • Aimed at Republicans – 14 year naturalization • Sedition Act
  35. 35. – KY & VA Resolutions • Constitution a compact • Nullification
  36. 36. • Election of 1800 – Adams hurt by A/S & taxes to build navy – Jay’s Treaty – Whiskey Rebellion – Jeff called Jacobin etc – Fathered mulatto – Atheist – Jeff v. Burr – 26 ballots later – Deal made? – Hamilton role – VA threat to march on DC – Revolution of 1800—peaceful transition—―we are all Republicans, we are all…‖• Jeff presidency – Weak gov’t • States center of power – Compact! • New capital • Pay down debt – Albert Gallatin – Warships decommissioned – Army downsized – Excise tax abolished
  37. 37. – Sedition Act expires—many freed – Repealed Naturalization Act – Kept par, assumption, tariff• Midnight Appts – Keep feds in power – John Marshall – Marbury v. Madison • Madison Secy of State*** – Writ of mandamus – Part of 1789 Act unconstitutional because only exec can enforce, not SC – Judicial Review – Sam Chase—big proponent of Sedition Act • Senate too Federalist • SC maintains its independence• Foreign Policy – Tripoli • Increased tribute refused by Jeff • War declared • Stephen Decatur – Louisiana Purchase • French get Louisiana back • Threat to Right of Deposit • French Empire here?
  38. 38. • Eli Whitney• Robert Livingston, James Monroe mission• Haitian Revolt – Toussaint L’Ouverture – Malaria killed 1000s of French soldiers – War w/ GB financed by sale• Federalists oppose—losing influence to South & West – Strict v. loose – Louisiana 1812 – Doubled size – Lewis & Clark » Foster good relations » Flora/fauna » Water route to Pacific » Claim to Oregon » Sacajawea • Scout/translator• Domestic – Essex Junto » New England, NY & NJ • NE threatened by Louis. Purchase » Burr as governor of NY » Hamilton remarks
  39. 39. » Duel » Burr flees • Southwest Empire? • Acquitted of treason• 2nd Term – Problems w/ Britain & France • Continental system • Orders in Council • Impressment – 6,000 from 1808-1811 • Chesapeake v. HMS Leopard – 3 dead, 18 wounded • Embargo Act – Disaster – Smuggling – GB not as reliant as hoped – Feds in Northeast hating on Jeff – Started Industrial Revolution as US became self-sufficient • 1809 Non-Intercourse Act – Every nation except GB/FR• Election of 1808 – Madison but Feds gain seats in Congress – Macon’s Bill Number 2
  40. 40. • Hope both drop restrictions • Napoleon deceives – War Hawks • Henry Clay • John C Calhoun • Andrew Jackson • Anti-British – Tippecanoe • William Henry Harrison • Prophet/Tecumseh • Federation • Tecumseh flees to Canada• Causes for War – War Hawks push for declaration of war and attack on Canada – Attack Florida – Impressment – Federalists opposed – Sectional vote – Orders in Council suspended but news travels slow• War of 1812 – Ad: GB tied up w/ Napoleon • Home game • Canada real target & not heavily populated
  41. 41. – Dis-ad: • Small army & old • ―Mr. Madison’s War‖– Invasion of Canada • William Hull & Detroit • NY militia– Lake Erie • Oliver Hazard Perry • Retreating British (former loyalists) at Thames/Tecumseh by Harrison • York– Naval Victories • USS Constitution • Mostly fought on inland lakes • Privateers very successful • British impose blockade – Economy crippled – Treasury broke – Bank allowed to expire– 1814 Napoleon defeated • British invade Chesapeake – Washington – Baltimore 8/14 » Francis Scott Key
  42. 42. • British invade from Canada – Macdonough » Plattsburgh 9/14 » Too costly • Southwest Campaign – Andrew Jackson – Horseshoe Bend – Treaty of Ghent • Status Quo Ante Bellum • Battle of New Orleans• Hartford Convention – Feds last hurrah • Openly traded w/ GB • Militia refused to leave states – 3/5 Clause—60 day embargo—1 term President—no successive Pres. From same state—2/3 vote for new states – Delegation arrives same time as news of Jackson victory• Era of Good Feelings – Nationalism high – BUS re-chartered 1816 • Local banks printed worthless • War effort hurt – Tariff of 1816 • Protect
  43. 43. – Florida • Adams- Onis– 1816 Election • James Monroe– Rush-Bagot/Convention of 1818 • Demilitarized Great Lakes • To the Rockies • 49th
  44. 44. • Panic of 1819 – Westward migration • Steamships • Land speculation • Wildcat banks • Couldn’t redeem notes • 1st panic ever • Many people lost $$$ • Led to distrust of BUS – MD tried to tax BUS out of existence – McCulloch v. MD• MO Compromise – Whitney and LA Purchase – Slavery to foreground • Profitable & expanding – Balanced Senate • Tallmadge Amendment – Gradual abolition – Dangerous precedent for rest of LA Purchase » Dangerous for South too – Comp reached • Clay • MO slave, Maine free, 12-12
  45. 45. • No slavery north of 36-30• Foreign Policy under Monroe cont’d – Monroe Doctrine • US with GB help • Closed • US stays out of European affairs • Britain maintains trade & Canada• Election of 1824 – Caucus system breaks down • One party • Crawford—Clay—Adams—Jackson • Jackson wins pop & electoral but – Plurality – House – Clay’s role – ―Corrupt Bargain‖• Adam’s Presidency – Internal improvements • National road • Canals – Chesapeake & Ohio – Erie—private • National University?
  46. 46. • Naval College?• Election of 1828 – Jackson • Democratic Republicans (Democrats) – Property qualifications dropped (RI 1842 Dorr) • Rachel • Opposed to all things Adams – Adams • National Republicans• Jackson’s Presidency – Inauguration • ―King Mob‖ – Spoils System • Loyalists • Beginnings of patronage in a two-party system• Jackson & the Tariff of 1828 – Inherited – Abominations – South manufactured little – South sold worldwide so could be penalized – Real crux—slavery could be interfered with by feds • MO Compromise rekindled • Denmark Vesey Rebellion 1822
  47. 47. • SC Exposition • Calhoun • KY & VA Resolutions – Nullies • Tariff of 1832 – Not enough – Declared null & void – Threatened secession – Jackson… ―Hang the first…‖ – Clay compromise » 1833 tariff drops to 1816 levels » Force Bill • Repealed nullification & nullified Force Bill• Indian Removal—Trail of Tears – Cherokee Americanized • Sequoya alphabet • Slave owners • GA refused to recognize them • Supreme Court ruled them a sovereign nation • Worcester v. GA • ―John Marshall has made his decision…‖ • West to save them • Sauk/Fox led by Black Hawk
  48. 48. – Davis/Lincoln • Seminole/Osceola• Eaton Malaria – Peggy Eaton—wife of Sec’y of War – Floride Calhoun – Rachel??? – Entire cabinet resigned – Martin Van Buren sympathetic – Becomes frontrunner for VP• The Bank War & Election of 1832 – BUS controlled economy – Private & answerable to few – Controlled gold & silver – Nicholas Biddle – Clay/ Webster try to re-charter in 1832 • Charter not up till 1836 • Force the issue w/ Jackson to beat him • Vetoed (as he did more than any other Pres.) • Clay as Nat-Rep – 1st National Nominating Conventions (no more caucus) with platforms • Third Party—Anti-Mason – William Wirt/ William Morgan (former Mason) – Anti- Jackson party
  49. 49. – Later morphed into Whigs• Killing the Bank – Roger Taney – BUS calls in loans to create crisis – ―Pet‖ banks • Wildcats again – Specie Circular • Public lands in ―hard‖ currency to counter wildcats • Led to less speculation but another panic in 1837 that cost his successor• Whig Party origins & the Election of 1836 – Anti-Jacksonians—King Andrew I • Only last so long • South hates tariffs • North hates slavery • Clay hates Jackson • Westerners for Clay & the American System • Anti-Masons – Election of 1836 • Van Buren • Whigs—―Favorite Sons‖ – Wm. Henry Harrison• Van Buren’s Presidency – First born in ―America‖
  50. 50. – ―Machine-made‖– Other Dems resented– Trouble in Maine • Aroostook • Webster-Ashburton 1842– Abolitionism in full swing– Panic of 1837 • Land spec. • Wildcats • Specie Circular • Wheat crop fail • Pet banks failed • Government $$$ • Buren– laissez faire • Independent Treasury Bill– Trail of Tears 1838– Texas

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