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Text file through Adams Presidency

Text file through Adams Presidency

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  • 1. • “Native” Americans• Beringia – Eskimo – Northwest – Anasazi • Pueblos • Water conservation – Similarities • Diet – Hunt, farm, fish • Bows & arrows • No writing• Vs. Europeans – Less dense – No wheels or ships – Small animals only• Ericsson• Prince Henry• Bartolomeu Dias• Vasco da Gama breaks Mediterranean monopoly 1498• Portugal inches along African coast – Slaves – Religion • Cape Verde 1st plantations• Ottoman Turks
  • 2. – Genoa & Venice – Atlantic nations look west – Spain – Moors• Columbus – Bad with the ruler – San Salvador • Bahamas – Hispaniola • La Navidad – Returns with natives – 4 trips – Columbian Exchange • Goods, ppl & ideas• Treaty of Tordesillas – Portugal – Brazil only – de Gama 1498• Cabot – Northwest Passage/ cod• Cabral – Vespucci• Balboa• Magellan – West voyage not feasible
  • 3. • Conquistadores – Cortez • Aztec – Empire, tribute, sacrifice • Spain most powerful after – Pizarro • Inca• French – Verrazano – Cartier – Up to now – No settlements in America – Spanish Empire – Portugal to China – International fishing – Huguenots – Challenge to Spain – St. Augustine 1st• England – John Hawkins Africa to Haiti• Factors encouraging exploration – Technological advances – Monarchs looking to enlarge, enrich – Gold, glory & the Gospel• England supplants Spain
  • 4. – Henry VIII– Elizabeth • Reform– Drake– Roanoke Island– Armada • Spain defends Cath. • English pond • England Colonizes in a Big Way
  • 5. • Hakluyt – New trade partners – Ease unemployment • Pressure valve • 1530-1680 Pop doubled causing many to leave• Joint-stock company – VA London – VA Plymouth – Takes time for profit – Jamestown – License to poach – Terrible location • Swamp, drought – Gentlemen/servants – Search for gold • 38/144 – Malnutrition, disease, European traditions of labor – Could have done better if they learned to farm – John Smith • Harsh • “The Starving Time”• Powhatan Confederacy – Aid led to survival – Weapons for reinforcing• Lord de la Warr
  • 6. – Irish tactics • Raid, burn, steal • Natives inferior • Almost exterminated due to VA success• John Rolfe – Made VA a stable colony – Seals peace by marriage• Spread of the vile weed – Scattered settlements – Constant encroaching• Labor force – Indentured • Lack of labor • Poor, willing • Cheap, abundant • 2x or 3x pay • Most migrants to Chesapeake • Many premature deaths • Society of servants and ex-servants • Sometimes sold • Extended– legally – Stole, ran away, pregnant – Women no marriage – Freedom dues – Headright
  • 7. • Wealthy gentry class – More land, more workers – New arrivals in 1619 • Africans & wives?• House of Burgesses – Series of harsh rulers – Representative self-government • Local laws only but, it set a precedent of self-government at local level in colonies • James hates tobacco and distrusted H of B. • Charter revoked 1624, reinstated 1629• Maryland – Proprietary • Lord B’more • Sanctuary – But… conflict » Majority Protestants as yeoman » Catholics as gentry – Act of Toleration 1649 • Depended on tobacco & indentured servants• Polarized society post 1649 – Land, money in east – Untamed in the west – Gov. Berkeley • No elections for 15 years • Only male landowners & heads of households
  • 8. • Monopolized fur trade w/ Indians • Bacon’s Rebellion – Big guys & little guys, Berkeley removed – New workforce• New England• Pilgrims – Separatists – Too corrupt – Holland – Mayflower Compact • Political body & legal auth • Will of majority – Squanto • Pilgrims as allies • Thanksgiving• Mass. Bay Colony – Covenant • Contract for a mission – “City Upon a Hill” • Reform the Church of Eng. – King’s puppet – Families, educated, college – Voting rights • Property owning males • Popular got big tracts
  • 9. • The sewer where the “Lord’s debris” collected and rotted• Connecticut – Thomas Hooker – All males – Fundamental Orders of CT.• Rhode Island – Roger Williams • Land belonged to… • Freedom of religion – Newport 1658 – Anne Hutchinson • Comm. Directly with God• Relations with Indians• Pequot War of 1637 – White settlement disrupted trade – Narragansett allies – Heavily criticized • Tried to Christianize • Indians knew only unity stops encroachment• King Philip’s War – Encroachment • Surrounded Indian towns • Sassamon • Mohawk • Great Swamp
  • 10. • Sold into slavery • Debt, ruined frontier, hatred • Eunice Williams stayed • Mary Rowlandson– Redemption Rock• Trouble in New England• Salem – Tituba • Witchcraft • Specters – Causes • Continual disorder explained by blame – Indian attacks – Decline of Puritan society – Ergot• The Other Colonies• New York – 1609 Hudson – Albany – New Netherlands – New Amsterdam • Manhattan • Patroonships • Headright – Diverse – Huguenots
  • 11. • Peter Stuyvesant • Duke of York– James• Pennsylvania – Wm. Penn – Quaker – Proprietary – Indians • Purchase land, deal fairly, respect claims • Those having probs elsewhere – Religious toleration • “in the souls there is no sex”
  • 12. • Carolina – Restoration as others – Barbados in south • Charles Town • Slaves • Staple crops – Eliza Lucas – VA influence in north • Regulator – no reapportioning—not represented• Georgia – Oglethorpe – Buffer/Reform • Between two empires – Savannah• Navigation Acts – Mercantilism—raw materials – Only English/colonial ships – Enumerated – Designed to make money and stop competition – Board of Trade • Parliament passed rules but they didn’t affect the colonies unless stated – Salutary Neglect • Robert Walpole – Ignoring leads to more wealth • Admiralty Courts
  • 13. • Crown attacks colonies charters – Mass Bay Colony charter revoked – Dominion of New England • Under direct English control • All land titles invalidated – Edmund Andros – Glorious Revolution • Influenced colonists to rise as well • Mass Bay restored with additions – Leisler’s Rebellion – Coode• More Indian Wars – New York • Beaver Wars • Iroquois – Needed to war to replenish since European disease killing them – North Carolina • Tuscarora—many enslaved – South Carolina • Yamassee – Abused by whites (sold into slavery) – Threatened lands – Spanish intrigue• Slavery – Portuguese
  • 14. – Africans practiced violence • Europeans didn’t have to • Xtianized them instead – Triangular Trade • Products/ trade became basis of European economy • Middle Passage – Rebellion • Stono – Can’t overturn slavery; can’t win the fight for freedom.• Colonial experiences – The Great Awakening • First shared • Religious indifference – Convert non-believers and revive piety of believers – Most didn’t go to church • Revivals – Jonathan Edwards » Sinners… • Led to religious diversity • Enlightenment – Liberty, liberty, property » John Locke • Right of rebellion » Peter Zenger – Religion
  • 15. » Deism » God the Clockmaker – Ben Franklin » Poor Richard’s • Work & wealth• The French in America – Champlain • Coureurs de bois • Black Robes—Jesuits – Robert de la Salle • Mississippi – No suppression of Indian – They liked European goods • Kept Spanish out• Wars with the French – King William/Queen Anne • Mostly European affairs • Attacks on frontier towns by French/Indians told colonists that they still needed English protection – King George’s War – Louisbourg • Colonists furious – Boston widows• French and Indian War – Contested land • Ohio Valley
  • 16. • French forts • Gov. Dinwiddie – Washington » Surrenders » British retaliate • Nova Scotia– Albany Congress • Albany Plan for Union – Ben Franklin » Win Indians—they made no commitment » Colonists meet annually » Colonies & crown refused • Not enough or too much independence– General Braddock • Duquesne—war declared • Colonists refused to fight • British thought colonists bear the responsibility • Indians side with French—less land-hungry– William Pitt—Great Commoner • Picked better commanders – Recruitment was local now • Finance thoroughly—but… leads to huge debt – Boon to colonies economy – Turning point • Focus on North America
  • 17. – Attack Quebec – Cripple France’s colonies – Plains of Abraham » Wolfe & Montcalm » Iroquois allied w/ GB– Treaty of Paris • Indians lose land as colonists mover west • England east, Spain west
  • 18. – Colonial hangover • Colonists have military confidence • Colonist officers treated poorly – No promotions—British discipline brutal – Amateurs • British concerns – Americans traded with enemy – Americans begin to head west – Pontiac’s Rebellion • Refused to surrender lands • Britain raised prices • Several British forts attacked • Many lives lost, long time to quell • Britain retaliated with germ warfare – Proclamation of 1763 • Keep peace—no settling west • Stationed soldiers here for same• British problems – War debt – Colonists should help pay for empire – Pitt’s role – Standing Army (where?!?) – Quartering Act• Sugar Act – Molasses Act
  • 19. – Rewards for capture• Stamp Act – Internal tax – James Otis • No rep in Parle • Direct rep here • Grenville virtual – Sons & Daughters • Boycott – VA Resolves • Patrick Henry • Caesar, Chas I and George – Stamp Act Congress • First successful union • 9 of 13 • Rights & Grievances – Tax and represent redux – Jury w/o trial – Restrict on trade • Prevent distribution – Andrew Oliver » Effigy – Thomas Hutchinson » All resigned • Boycott worked
  • 20. • Declaratory Act• Townsend Acts – Revenue Act of 1765 – Customs collectors paid by crown – Tax on lead, glass, paint, tea – Writs of assistance – New York Assembly – Circular Letter • Sam Adams • Tax w/o consent? • VA Assembly agrees dissolved• Currently – Taxes – Houses searched – Troops stationed at the center of hotbeds• Boston Massacre – March 5, 1770 – Soldiers withdrawn – Townsend repealed• Gaspée – Crown’s commission to find perpetrators – Committees of Correspondence • Cooperation to oppose• Boston Tea Party – British East India Tea Co.
  • 21. • Smuggled tea • Tax lowered • Favoritism • Hurt current suppliers • Hurt smugglers• “Intolerable” Acts – 1. Boston Harbor – 2. Mass. Charter – 3. Trials in England – 4. New Quartering Act – 5. Quebec Act • New borders – Land granted to Catholics! – No precedent – General Gage• First Continental Congress – Rights & Grievances • Hope for cooler heads in Parlement– no response • Continental Association – Manage boycott – Ben Franklin » “we must hang together…” – Colonists forced to choose sides – Meet again in one year• Lexington & Concord 4/75
  • 22. – Stockpiles – Paul Revere/Wm. Dawes – Sam Adams/John Hancock – Boston under siege• Second Continental Congress – G. Washington C-in-C – Mass Militia named Cont. Army• Bunker Hill – 3 attempts – Pyrrhic victory – Hessians – Ports closed – Halifax
  • 23. • Ethan Allen• Canadian Invasion – Ben Arnold• Fawkes Day – Americans need European support• Common Sense/ Thomas Paine• Hessian = war’s unpopularity• Independence needed for European support – Richard Henry Lee – “these colonies are and of right ought to be independent states” – Committee formed • Adams, Franklin, Jefferson et al • SC & GA edit – “all men are… life, liberty and pursuit…” – Government purpose is to allow constituents… – Government derive their power – If government fails… • All signers… treason! – All states were encouraged to write const • All took power away from executive• Battle of New York – No pursuit – Lots of desertion – The Crisis• Brit ad/disadvantages
  • 24. – Profession army – 3000 miles – Re-conquer w/o destroy • Divide and conquer • Tories • Keep allegiance• Americans – Good generals/ bad also – Home game – Bonus (land) for enlistment• Women – Nurses, domestic tasks, Robert Shurtleff, Molly Pitcher• New Jersey – Delaware River • Trenton • Princeton• Britain attempts to cut off NE – Howe – Philadelphia – Burgoyne – Saratoga • One of the world’s biggest! • French – Repossess – Reconcile?
  • 25. • Home-rule • Philadelphia – Brandywine – Accomplished nothing – Fired-up colonists • Valley Forge – Baron von Steuben – Post Saratoga/Philadelphia new strategy• War in the west – Iroquois Alliance – George Rogers Clark – Indians neutral to British• War on the sea – John Paul Jones • Bonhomme Richard – Privateers• War in the South – Charleston/ Savannah • Put Tories in charge • African-Americans • Nathaniel Greene – “we fight, get beat, fight again – Guerrilla warfare » Francis Marion, Thomas Sumter » Drag British inland
  • 26. – Yorktown • De Grasse • Cut their loses– Treaty of Paris
  • 27. • State Constitutions – Reduced power of governors – Most bi-cameral – Limited voting rights—25-50% of all males disenfranchised • South—at least you ain’t Black – VA had Bill of Rights• Republican government – Elected reps – Most favor weak central government – Articles of Confed. • 1st constitution – Conduct foreign affairs – Maintain armed forces – Borrow money – Issue currency » Could not » Regulate trade » Draft an army » Tax » To pass law—9 of 13 » To amend—all 13 » No exec, no judicial » Tariff tried but… – One vote per state – Ratification problems
  • 28. » Western lands • March 1781 • Accomplishments – Won war – Foreign affairs – New states• Land Policy – Ordinance 1785 • First independent source of revenue • rectangular with 1 of every 36 for education • 640 acres each—$1 per acre • Public auction • Speculators – Ordinance of 1787 • Northwest Territory • 3 to 5 states • 60,000 • Equal to others • Bill of Rights • No slavery – Fugitive slave law included• Problems with money – Soldiers wages – 1781 march on PHL – Paper $ worthless
  • 29. – Dept. of Finance created • Robert Morris • 5% on imports – Denied—A of C government could get too powerful• Depression – Rice crop destroyed – Farms confiscated for non-payment of state taxes – West Indies closed to trade (Britain) – Britain flooded• Shay’s Rebellion – Mass broke – Tax farmers – Judge taking lands – Shay leads rebellion to courts, arsenal – 4 killed by Bowdoin’s troops • Many feared future rebellions • A of C not strong enough• Slavery – Many states immediate to gradual in Northern states – Manumission – All men…. Quok Walker • Only humans in South – NJ let free & women vote• Constitutional Convention – Annapolis Conference
  • 30. – Madison/Hamilton • Changes—A of C too weak • 55 delegates—most lawyers, all rich • Closed doors no notes – VA Plan & NJ Plan—how to satisfy big/small states • VA 2 house, both pop proportional, chief chose by legislature • People choose lower, lower chooses upper • NJ one house one vote per state • Plural execs – The Great Compromise • Roger Sherman • 2-house, H of Reps by pop, Senate (2 for all states) • 3/5 clause • Slavery not interfered with till 1808 • 9 of 13 states required to ratify• Ratification – Federalists – Anti-Federalists • Fear of a distant power • Bill of Rights – Delaware• New Hampshire• Virginia – B of Rights to be added• New York
  • 31. – Federalist essays • Detailed failure of A of C• First Election – Washington • Adams • Dept of State—Jefferson • Dept of the Treasury—Hamilton • Dept of War • Cabinet (advisers) – Adams just presided of Senate • Judiciary Act of 1789 – Supreme Ct. – John Jay • Bill of Rights – Madison – 12—10 – Nothing on who could vote• Financial Problems – Hamilton • Tariff – To protect/ foster – South no, North yes • Report on Public Credit • Fed debt (par) – Speculators—wealthy have stake
  • 32. • Assumption – States – South not happy – Washington • National Bank • Vault, loans, currency • Strict • Loose—Necessary & Proper • Political parties• Whiskey Rebellion – Hamilton’s programs • 25% • Barter = no cash • Serious threat • Nationalize PA militia• Frontier Problems – Indians look to Britain/Spain – Anthony Wayne • Battle of Fallen Timbers 1794 • Treaty of Greenville 1795 – Ohio• European Problems – French Revolution – Neutrality – Citizen Genet
  • 33. – Jefferson resigns – British impress • Jay’s Treaty – Hamilton’s role – Northwest – Withdraw – Pay for ships – Allow trade w/ British W.I. – Freed slaves – French capture US ships • Executive Privilege – Pinckney’s Treaty • Right of Deposit • Mississippi• Washington’s Farewell – Precedent – Party system – Foreign alliances• Election of 1796 – Adams/ Chas. Pinckney – Jefferson/ Burr – 71-68 – 12th Amendment• Adam’s Presidency – Problems w/ France
  • 34. • XYZ Affair – Shipping – Talleyrand • Undeclared war – Dept of Navy– Alien & Sedition Acts • Aimed at Republicans – 14 year naturalization • Sedition Act– KY & VA Resolutions • Constitution a compact • Nullification

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