Ccri ppt 2012 a

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Powerpoints through Reconstruction

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Ccri ppt 2012 a

  1. 1. “Native” Americans• Beringia – Eskimo – Northwest – Anasazi • Pueblos • Water conservation – Similarities • Diet – Hunt, farm, fish • Bows & arrows • No writing
  2. 2. • Vs. Europeans – Less dense – No wheels or ships – Small animals only• Ericsson• Prince Henry• Bartolomeu Dias• Vasco da Gama breaks Mediterranean monopoly 1498
  3. 3. • Portugal inches along African coast – Slaves – Religion • Cape Verde 1st plantations• Ottoman Turks – Genoa & Venice – Atlantic nations look west
  4. 4. • Spain – Moors• Columbus – Bad with the ruler – San Salvador • Bahamas – Hispaniola • La Navidad – Returns with natives – 4 trips – Columbian Exchange • Goods, ppl & ideas
  5. 5. • Treaty of Tordesillas – Portugal – Brazil only – de Gama 1498• Cabot – Northwest Passage/ cod• Cabral – Vespucci• Balboa• Magellan – West voyage not feasible
  6. 6. • Conquistadores – Cortez • Aztec – Empire, tribute, sacrific e • Spain most powerful after – Pizarro • Inca• French – Verrazano – Cartier
  7. 7. • Up to now – No settlements in America – Spanish Empire – Portugal to China – International fishing
  8. 8. • Huguenots – Challenge to Spain – St. Augustine 1st• England – John Hawkins Africa to Haiti• Factors encouraging exploration – Technological advances – Monarchs looking to enlarge, enrich – Gold, glory & the Gospel
  9. 9. • England supplants Spain – Henry VIII – Elizabeth • Reform – Drake – Roanoke Island – Armada • Spain defends Cath. • English pond
  10. 10. England Colonizes in a Big Way• Hakluyt – New trade partners – Ease unemployment • Pressure valve • 1530-1680 Pop doubled causing many to leave• Joint-stock company – VA London – VA Plymouth – Takes time for profit
  11. 11. • Jamestown – License to poach – Terrible location • Swamp, drought – Gentlemen/servants – Search for gold • 38/144 – Malnutrition, disease, Eur opean traditions of labor – Could have done better if they learned to farm – John Smith • Harsh • “The Starving Time”
  12. 12. • Powhatan Confederacy – Aid led to survival – Weapons for reinforcing• Lord de la Warr – Irish tactics • Raid, burn, steal • Natives inferior • Almost exterminated due to VA success• John Rolfe – Made VA a stable colony – Seals peace by marriage
  13. 13. • Spread of the vile weed • Society of servants and ex-servants – Scattered settlements • Sometimes sold – Constant encroaching • Extended– legally• Labor force – Stole, ran away, pregnant – Indentured – Women no marriage • Lack of labor – Freedom dues • Poor, willing – Headright • Cheap, abundant • Wealthy gentry class • 2x or 3x pay – More land, more • Most migrants to workers Chesapeake – New arrivals in 1619 • Many premature deaths • Africans & wives?
  14. 14. • House of Burgesses – Series of harsh rulers – Representative self- government • Local laws only but, it set a precedent of self- government at local level in colonies • James hates tobacco and distrusted H of B. • Charter revoked 1624, reinstated 1629
  15. 15. • Maryland – Proprietary • Lord B’more • Sanctuary – But… conflict » Majority Protestants as yeoman » Catholics as gentry – Act of Toleration 1649 • Depended on tobacco & indentured servants
  16. 16. • Polarized society post 1649 – Land, money in east – Untamed in the west – Gov. Berkeley • No elections for 15 years • Only male landowners & heads of households • Monopolized fur trade w/ Indians • Bacon’s Rebellion – Big guys & little guys, Berkeley removed – New workforce
  17. 17. • New England• Pilgrims – Separatists – Too corrupt – Holland – Mayflower Compact • Political body & legal auth • Will of majority – Squanto • Pilgrims as allies • Thanksgiving
  18. 18. • Mass. Bay Colony – Covenant • Contract for a mission – “City Upon a Hill” • Reform the Church of Eng. – King’s puppet – Families, educated, colle ge – Voting rights • Property owning males • Popular got big tracts
  19. 19. The sewer where the “Lord’s debris” collected and rotted• Connecticut – Thomas Hooker – All males – Fundamental Orders of CT.• Rhode Island – Roger Williams • Land belonged to… • Freedom of religion – Newport 1658 – Anne Hutchinson • Comm. Directly with God
  20. 20. Relations with Indians• Pequot War of 1637 – White settlement disrupted trade – Narragansett allies – Heavily criticized • Tried to Christianize • Indians knew only unity stops encroachment
  21. 21. • King Philip’s War – Encroachment • Surrounded Indian towns • Sassamon • Mohawk • Great Swamp • Sold into slavery • Debt, ruined frontier, hatred • Eunice Williams stayed • Mary Rowlandson– Redemption Rock
  22. 22. Trouble in New England• Salem – Tituba • Witchcraft • Specters – Causes • Continual disorder explained by blame – Indian attacks – Decline of Puritan s. – Ergot
  23. 23. The Other Colonies• New York – 1609 Hudson – Albany – New Netherlands – New Amsterdam • Manhattan • Patroonships • Headright – Diverse – Huguenots • Peter Stuyvesant • Duke of York– James
  24. 24. • Pennsylvania – Wm. Penn – Quaker – Proprietary – Indians • Purchase land, deal fairly, respect claims • Those having probs elsewhere – Religious toleration • “in the souls there is no sex”
  25. 25. • Carolina – Restoration as others – Barbados • Charles Town • Slaves • Staple crop – Eliza Lucas – VA influence
  26. 26. • Georgia – Oglethorpe – Buffer/Reform • Between two empires – Savannah
  27. 27. Governing the Colonies• Navigation Acts – Only English/colonial ships – Enumerated list – Make money/ competition – Salutary Neglect • Robert Walpole • Admiralty Courts
  28. 28. • Crown attacks colony’s charters – Mass Bay – Dominion of New England • Under direct crown control • Land titles invalidated • Edmund Andros • Glorious Revolution – Mass Bay restored
  29. 29. – Leisler’s Rebellion – John Coode• More Indian Wars – New York • Beaver Wars • Iroquois – European diseases – North Carolina • Tuscarora – Many enslaved – 6th Nation
  30. 30. • South Carolina – Yamassee • Abuse (slavery) • Lands • Spanish intrigue• Slavery – Portuguese • Africans practiced violence – European didn’t have too – Xtianized them instead
  31. 31. – Triangular Trade • Products & trade basis of economy • Middle Passage – Rebellion • Stono • No overturn, no winning fight for freedom• Colonial Experiences – The Great Awakening • First Shared
  32. 32. – Religious Indifference • Convert non-believer • Revive piety – Revivals • Jonathan Edwards – “Sinners… • Religious Diversity• Enlightenment – Life, liberty, property • John Locke – Right of rebellion • Peter Zenger
  33. 33. – Religion • Deism • God the Clockmaker – Ben Franklin • Poor Richard’s• The French in America – Champlain • Coureurs de bois • Black Robes – Robert de la Salle • Mississippi
  34. 34. – No suppression Indians – Like European goods • Kept Spanish away• Wars with France – King William/Queen Anne • Mostly European • Frontier towns attacked – Still need English prot. – King George’s War • Louisbourg – Colonists furious » Boston widows
  35. 35. • French/Indian War – Contested land • Ohio Valley • French forts • Gov. Dinwiddie – Washington » Surrenders » British retaliate • Nova Scotia – Albany Congress • Albany Plan for Union – Ben Franklin
  36. 36. » Win Indians » Colonists meet annually » Refused by colony & crown • Independence – not enough, too much– General Braddock • Duquesne • Colonists refused • British feel colony bear responsibility • Indians side with French– less land hungry
  37. 37. – William Pitt • Better commanders – Local recruitment • Finance thoroughly, but… – Boon to colonial economy • Focus on NA not WI – Attack Quebec – Cripple colonies – Plains of Abraham » Wolfe/Montcalm » Iroquois ally GB
  38. 38. – Treaty of Paris • Indians lose land • England east, Spain west– Colonial hangover • Colonists – Military confidence – Colonists treated poorly » No promotions » Discipline brutal » Amateurs • British concerns – Am. Trade w/ enemy – Am. Headed west
  39. 39. • Pontiac’s Rebellion – Refused to surrender lands – British raised prices – Several Br. Forts attacked – Many lives – Germ warfare• Proclamation of 1763 – Keep peace – Soldiers stationed here
  40. 40. • British problems – War debt – Colonists should help pay for empire – Pitt’s role – Standing Army (where?!?) – Quartering Act• Sugar Act – Molasses Act – Rewards for capture
  41. 41. • Stamp Act – Internal tax – James Otis • No rep in Parle • Direct rep here • Grenville virtual – Sons & Daughters • Boycott – VA Resolves • Patrick Henry • Caesar, Chas I and George
  42. 42. – Stamp Act Congress • First successful union • 9 of 13 • Rights & Grievances – Tax and represent redux – Jury w/o trial – Restrict on trade • Prevent distribution – Andrew Oliver » Effigy – Thomas Hutchinson » All resigned
  43. 43. • Boycott worked • Declaratory Act• Townsend Acts – Revenue Act of 1765 – Customs collectors paid by crown – Tax on lead, glass, paint, tea – Writs of assistance – New York Assembly
  44. 44. – Circular Letter • Sam Adams • Tax w/o consent? • VA Assembly agrees dissolved• Currently – Taxes – Houses searched – Troops stationed at the center of hotbeds
  45. 45. • Boston Massacre – March 5, 1770 – Soldiers withdrawn – Townsend repealed• Gaspée – Crown’s commission to find perpetrators – Committees of Correspondence • Cooperation to oppose
  46. 46. • Boston Tea Party – British East India Tea Co. • Smuggled tea • Tax lowered • Favoritism • Hurt current suppliers • Hurt smugglers• “Intolerable” Acts – 1. Boston Harbor – 2. Mass. Charter – 3. Trials in England
  47. 47. – 4. New Quartering Act – 5. Quebec Act • New borders – Land granted to Catholics! – No precedent – General Gage• First Continental Congress – Rights & Grievances • Hope for cooler heads in Parlement– no response
  48. 48. • Continental Association – Manage boycott – Ben Franklin » “we must hang together…” – Colonists forced to choose sides – Meet again in one year• Lexington & Concord 4/75 – Stockpiles – Paul Revere/Wm. Dawes – Sam Adams/John Hancock
  49. 49. – Boston under siege• Second Continental Congress – G. Washington C-in-C – Mass Militia named Cont. Army• Bunker Hill – 3 attempts – Pyrrhic victory – Hessians – Ports closed – Halifax
  50. 50. • Ethan Allen• Canadian Invasion – Benedict Arnold• Common Sense – Thomas Paine• Hessian’s (unpopularity)• Fawkes Day – Need European support
  51. 51. • Independence needed – Richard Henry Lee – “These colonies…” • Adams, Franklin, Jeff • SC & GA edit – All men… – Life, liberty & – Government purpose to allow – Government derives power – If government fails to allow
  52. 52. • All signers… treason • All states write their own• Battle of New York – No pursuit – Desertion – The Crisis• British ad/disad – Army – 3000 miles – Re-conquer judiciously
  53. 53. • New Jersey – Delaware – Trenton – Princeton
  54. 54. • Americans – Good officers as well as bad – Home game – Women • Nurses • Domestic • Shurtleff • Pitcher
  55. 55. • Britain cuts off New Eng – Howe – Philadelphia • Brandywine • No accomplishment – Burgoyne – Saratoga • One of the biggest • French – Repossess – Fear reconcile • Home-rule
  56. 56. • Valley Forge – Baron von Steuben• War in the West – Joseph Brandt • Iroquois Alliance – George Rogers Clark – Indians mostly neutral to leaning British• War on the Sea – John Paul Jones
  57. 57. • Bonhomme Richard – Privateers• War in the South – Charleston/ Savannah • Put Tories in charge • African- Americans • Nathaniel Greene – We fight… – Guerrilla » Marion » Sumter » Further inland
  58. 58. • Yorktown – De Grasse – Cut their losses• Treaty of Paris
  59. 59. • State Constitutions – Governors – Bi-cameral – Limit voting rights • South “at least you…” – VA had bill of rights• Republican government – Elect reps – Weak central gov’t
  60. 60. • Articles of Confederation • Foreign affairs • Maintain army • Borrow • Issue currency – Could not • Regulate trade • Draft • Tax • Laws 9/13, amend 13/13 • No exec, no judiciary
  61. 61. • One vote per • Ratification problems – Western lands – 3/1781 – Accomplishments • Won war • Foreign affairs • New states• Land policy – Ordinance of 1785 • 1st independent source of revenue
  62. 62. • 6x6 • Education • Auction • Speculators • 640 for $1 each• Ordinance of 1787 – Northwest Territory – 3 to 5 (equal) states • 60,000 – Bill of Rights – No slavery but…
  63. 63. • Problems with Money – Soldiers wages – March on PHL – Paper worthless – Dept of Finance • Robert Morris • 5% imports – Denied (gov’t too powerful?)
  64. 64. • Post war depression – Rice crop – Farms confiscated – WI closed – Britain flooded states• Shays’ Rebellion – Mass broke – Tax farmers – Confiscate land – Shays marches to courts/ arsenal – A of C not strong enough
  65. 65. • Slavery – Immediate to gradual freedom – VA manumission – “All men…” • Quok Walker • South… not human • NJ• Const. Convention – Annapolis Conf.
  66. 66. – Madison/Hamilton • Change A of C– too weak • 55 delegates– lawyers– VA Plan • Bi-cameral • Pop. proportioned • Exec chosen by legis.– NJ Plan • Uni-cameral • Plural execs
  67. 67. • Great Compromise – Roger Sherman – Bi-cameral • House, Senate • 3/5 clause • Slavery till 1808 • 9 of 13 ratify• Ratification – Federalists/anti- Federalist • Fear distance power • Bill of Rights
  68. 68. – Delaware – New Hampshire – VA • Bill to be added – NY • Federalist Papers – Failure of A of C• First Election – Washington • Adams
  69. 69. • Dept of Treasury – Hamilton• State – Jefferson• War• “Cabinet” – Advisers• Judiciary Act of 1789 – Supreme Ct. – John Jay
  70. 70. • Bill of Rights – Madison – 12-10 – No mention of who can vote• Financial problems – Hamilton • Tariff • South no – Report on Public Credit
  71. 71. – Fed debt at par • Speculators (wealthy) – Assumption • States have stake • South not happy • Washington D.C.• National Bank – Vault, loans, currency – Strict – Loose • Necessary and… • Political parties
  72. 72. • Whiskey Rebellion – Hamilton’s programs • 25% • Bartering • Serious threat • Nationalize PA militia• Frontier problems – Indians look to Eng./Sp. – Anthony Wayne • Fallen Timbers • Greenville – Ohio
  73. 73. • European problems – Revolution • Neutrality • Citizen Genet • Jefferson resigns • British impress – Jay’s Treaty • Hamilton’s role • Northwest • Pay for ships • Allow trade w/ Brit. W.I.
  74. 74. • Freed slaves? • Executive privilege – Pinckney’s Treaty • Spain • Right of Deposit • Mississippi• Washington’s Farewell – Precedent – Party system – Alliances
  75. 75. • Election of 1796 – Adams – Jefferson – 71-68 – 12th Amendment• Adam’s presidency – Problems w/ France – XYZ Affair • Shipping • Talleyrand
  76. 76. – Undeclared war • Dept of Navy– Alien & Sedition Acts • Aimed at Republicans – 14 year • Sedition Act– KY & VA resolutions • Compact • Nullification
  77. 77. • Election of 1800 – Adams • A/S • Taxes for Navy • Whiskey • Jay’s Treaty – Jefferson • Atheist • Jacobin • Sally Hemings • Burr as help • Tie • “Revolution”
  78. 78. • Jefferson Presidency – States center • Compact – Capital – Debt paid down • Gallatin • Army/navy • Excise tax • Sedition Act • Naturalization repealed • Kept par, et al
  79. 79. • Midnight Appointments – Federalists – John Marshall – Marbury v. Madison – Writ of Mandamus – Judicial Review – Samuel Chase
  80. 80. • Foreign Policy • Tripoli • Stephen Decatur – Louisiana Purchase • French control/empire? • Right of Deposit • Eli Whitney • Livingston/Madison • Haiti – Toussaint L’Ouverture • Napoleon needs $$$ more
  81. 81. • Feds oppose• Strict v. Loose• Doubled size• Lewis & Clark – Good relations – Flora/fauna – Water route – Oregon – Sacajawea – Louisiana 1812
  82. 82. • Domestic Issues – Essex Junto • New England, NY, NJ – Feds losing influence – Burr as governor – Hamilton – Southwest Empire?• 2nd Term – Problems w/ Britain & France • Continental System • Orders in Council
  83. 83. • Impressment – 6,000 1808-1811 • Chesapeake v. Leopard • Embargo Act – Disaster – Smuggling • Non- Intercourse Act• Election of 1808 – Madison – Feds gain seats – Macon’s Bill #2
  84. 84. – War Hawks • Henry Clay • John C. Calhoun • Andrew Jackson • All anti-British– Tippecanoe • Wm. Henry Harrison • Tecumseh • Federation • Tecumseh flees
  85. 85. • Causes for War – War Hawks want Canada – Florida – Impressment – Federalists oppose – Sectional vote – Orders in Council suspended but news travels slow
  86. 86. • War of 1812 – Ads: • Britain tied up w/Nap • Home game • Canada target w/ little pop. – Dis-ad: • Small army & old/untrained • “Mr. Madison’s War”
  87. 87. • Invasion of Canada – William Hull – NY Militia• Lake Erie – Oliver Hazard Perry – Thames • Retreating British • Tecumseh • York
  88. 88. • At Sea – USS Constitution • 2 big victories – Inland lakes – Privateers – British blockade • Economy crippled • Treasury broke – Bank expired
  89. 89. • 1814 Napoleon defeated – Chesapeake • Washington • Baltimore – Francis Scott Key – Hudson • Plattsburgh • Macdonough • War too costly – Southwest Campaign • Jackson
  90. 90. – Horseshoe Bend– Treaty of Ghent • Status Quo Ante Bellum • New Orleans– Hartford Convention • Feds last hurrah • Openly traded w/ Britain • State militias • 3/5 clause • 60 day embargo • 1 term President
  91. 91. • No successive President from same state • 2/3 vote for new states • Poor timing• Era of Good Feelings – 1816 Elections • James Monroe • Little opposition – Nationalism High – BUS re-chartered 1816 • Local banks
  92. 92. • War effort hurt– Tariff of 1816 • Protective– Florida • Adams-Onis– Rush-Bagot/Convention of 1818 • Demilitarized • 49th Parallel
  93. 93. • Panic of 1819 – Westward migration – Steamships – Wildcat – Distrust of BUS • McCulloch v. MD• MO Compromise – Whitney & LA Purchase • Slavery forefront • Profitable & expanding
  94. 94. – Balanced Senate • Tallmadge Amendment – Gradual Abolition – Precedent? » LA Purchase » South too?– Compromise by Clay • MO/ME • 36’36”
  95. 95. • Foreign Policy (Monroe) – Monroe Doctrine • Great Britain • West closed • US stays out of Europe • GB motives• Election of 1824 – Caucus – One party – Crawford—Clay– Adams – Jackson
  96. 96. – Jackson wins popular – Jackson wins electoral • Plurality • House • Clay’s role • Corrupt Bargain?• Adam’s Presidency – Internal improvements – National Road – Canals • Erie
  97. 97. – National University? – Naval College?• Election of 1828 – Jackson • Democratic Republicans • Property qual. Dropped – RI 1842 • Mudslinging • Rachel – Adams • National Republicans
  98. 98. • Jackson’s Presidency – King Mob– inauguration – Spoils System • Loyalists • Beginnings of patronage• Jackson & Tariff of 1828 – Inherited – Abominations • South manuf. little • South sold worldwide • Slavery?
  99. 99. • MO fires rekindled • Denmark Vesey 1822 – SC Exposition • Calhoun • KY & VA Resolutions• “Nullies” – Tariff of 1832 – Too little – Nullified – Secession?
  100. 100. – Jackson… “Hang the first”– Clay Compromise • 1833 Tariff– Force Bill– SC repealed nullification • Nullified Force Bill
  101. 101. • Indian Removal– Trail of Tears – Five Civilized Tribes • Cherokee • Alphabet • Sequoyah • Slave owners – Worcester v. GA • Sovereign • “John Marshall has made his decision…”
  102. 102. – West to “save” them – Sauk/Fox • Blackhawk – Seminole/Osceola• Eaton Malaria – Peggy wife of John – Sec’y of War – Floride Calhoun – Rachel – Cabinet resigned
  103. 103. – Martin Van Buren – VP frontrunner• Bank War & Election of 1832 – BUS controlled economy – Answers to no one – Controlled gold/silver – Nicholas Biddle – Clay asks for re-charter 4 years early (1832)
  104. 104. – Vetoed (as many others)• Clay & National Republicans – Nomination conventions with platforms (1st ) – First third party • Anti-Mason • William Wirt • Anti-Jackson • Morphed in with Whigs
  105. 105. • Killing the Bank – Mandate – Taney – Biddle tries to create crisis – “Pet” banks – More wildcats – Specie Circular • “Hard” currency only • Led to another panic
  106. 106. • Whigs & Election of 1836 – King Andrew the First – Only issue– Jackson • South hates tariff • North hates slavery • Clay hates Jackson • West lovers American System • Anti-Masons – Favorite Sons– Wm. Henry Harrison
  107. 107. • Van Buren’s Presidency – First born in “America” – “Machine-made” • Other Dems resented – Trouble in Maine • Aroostook • Webster-Ashburton 1842 – Abolitionism in full swing
  108. 108. – Panic of 1837 • Land spec. • Wildcats • Specie Circular • Wheat crop fail • Pet banks failed – Government $$$ • Buren– laissez faire • Independent Treasury Bill– Trail of Tears 1838– Texas
  109. 109. • Election of 1840 – Tippecanoe & Tyler too! – “Log Cabin Campaign” – Martin van Buren• John Tyler – “His Accidency” – Anti-tariff, bank, internal improvements• Whig Congress – Ended Independent Treasury
  110. 110. – Passed BUS • Vetoed • Mass resignations • Expelled by Whig caucus• Texas – Mexico 1821 • Needed population • Stephen Austin • Mexico wants – 300 Roman Cath. – Mexicanized
  111. 111. • Many just ahead of US law • Many bring slaves • Mexico emancipated 1830 • Austin to Mex. City • All local rights suspended by Santa Anna – Raises army• Lone Star Republic – 1836 independence – Sam Houston Pres.
  112. 112. – Alamo • Davy Crockett/ Jim Bowie – Martyrs– San Jacinto • Forced terms • Independence • Rio Grande • Repudiated • TX Annexation? – No, recognize – Northern protest – Mexico– province in revolt
  113. 113. • Texas attracts plenty of attention – Cotton, no tariffs• Election of 1844 – Texas biggest issue – Clay– waffled – Polk– Dem—dark-horse • Pro-annexation – Texas, Oregon, Californi a – “54’40 or fight” – Liberty Party– NY!
  114. 114. – Tyler sees election as mandate • Joint resolution• Oregon – Britain losing pop. Race – Robert Gray – Lewis & Clark – Manifest Destiny – Polk cooled post-TX • War • South not excited for Oregon
  115. 115. • Oregon not excited for South or Polk• Problems with Mexico – Polk wants Calif. – Mex. Recalls ambassador post annex – Neuces  Rio Grande “no man’s land” – Slidell to buy – Zack Taylor to Rio Grande
  116. 116. – “American blood shed…” • US declared war • “Spot resolutions” • Northerners not happy – Henry David Thoreau – But, Britain ready to seize• War with Mexico – Polk hopes for quick victories – Santa Anna offers help
  117. 117. – Taylor heads south • Buena Vista – Winfield Scott • Veracruz • Together, must capture Mex. City• Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – NM & CA
  118. 118. • Effects of war – 1st invasion – 13,000 dead • Mostly disease – Experience for next war • Who did fighting?• Slavery issue rekindled – Wilmot Proviso – Southern “Slavocracy”
  119. 119. • Election of 1848 – Democrats– Lewis Cass • Popular sovereignty • No stand on slavery in territories – Whigs– Zack Taylor • Hero • Slaveholder • No stand in territories – Free Soil Party– Van Buren
  120. 120. – Amalgamation of those… • Against slavery • Pro-Wilmot • Racists not into sharing • Abolitionists • NY again!• California Dreaming – John Sutter – Growing fast – Need government bad – Taylor encourages statehood
  121. 121. – Bypass territory status – Still tied in Senate • Nothing on horizon for South • As precedent for rest of Mexican Cession• Compromise of 1850 – Clay – Taylor dead – Fugitive Slave Law • Underground RR • Harriet Tubman
  122. 122. – CA free– permanently tilted – NM & Utah– pop. Sov. – Slave trade in DC• North opposition to FSL – $5 free, $10 returned – Aid in escape? Fines and jail – Personal Liberty Laws • Denied use of jails • MA nullify – South losing face
  123. 123. • Uncle Tom’s Cabin – Harriet Beecher Stowe 1852• Election of 1852 – Democrats– Franklin Pierce • Dark-horse • Pro-slavery northerner • “the hero of many a bottle”
  124. 124. – Whigs– need another war hero • No to Fillmore • Winfield Scott • Whigs not in agreement – End of Party• Pierce Presidency – Pro-expansion – Wm. Walker– Nicaragua – Cuba– Ostend Manifesto – Gadsden Purchase • Terminus?
  125. 125. – Kansas-Nebraska Act • Northern Terminus too? • Stephen Douglas • Two territories – Pop. Sov. – Voided MO Comp. – North gave up on any enforcement of FSL – New Party• Republicans – Prevent spread – Dem becomes Southern – Rep. in South?
  126. 126. • Bleeding Kansas – NE Emigrant Aid – Beecher’s Bibles – South there was an understanding – Territorial government • Border Ruffians • Lecompton • Topeka • Pierce chooses
  127. 127. – Violence • Lawrence • Pottawatomie Creek – John Brown– Senate Problems • Charles Sumner • “The Crime Against Kansas” • Andrew Butler– Preston Brooks
  128. 128. • Election of 1856 – Democrats tainted by Kansas – James Buchanan • Doughface • Pro-popular sovereignty – Republicans • Fremont • No slavery in territories – Know-Nothing • Anti- • Milliard Fillmore
  129. 129. • Dred Scott – Roger Taney • No citizen • Property • 5th Amendment • MO Comp Unconst. • Rep. called opinion – Defiance of SC – Buch. & Taney part of “Slave Conspiracy” – Southerners incensed
  130. 130. • Illinois Senate Election 1858 – Lincoln –Douglas Debates • Freeport Doctrine • Douglas wins/loses South – Split Dems • Lincoln gets attn• Harper’s Ferry – John Brown– part II – “Secret Six”
  131. 131. • Election of 1860 – Democrats split – North wing • Douglas – South wing • John C. Breckinridge (KY) – Federal protection of slavery• Republicans – Lincoln • RRs, Homesteads, Tariff • NO EXTENSION OF SLAVERY
  132. 132. – Const. Union Party • John Bell (KY)• Secession – South Car. + 6 – Montgomery– CSA • Republican Party forced them either now or later • North won’t fight • North needs cotton – Jeff Davis – Buchanan “Lame Duck”
  133. 133. – Compromise? • Crittenden – Inaugural • Respect where existed • War in hands of South• Fort Sumter – Anderson/ Beauregard – South aggressor helps • Border states stay but – MD, MO, KY – Habeas corpus
  134. 134. – 75,000 for 90– Upper South secedes • Richmond • South blockaded– Ad South • Defensive– military superior– cotton– Dis-Ad • No factories– lousy transportation– 9 million minus 3.5– state’s rights
  135. 135. – Ad North • Factories– RR—Navy– 22 million + immigration– Dis-Ad • military top to bottom– Southern Aims • European intervention – Cotton – Warehouses full – Egypt—India – North traded grain, corn
  136. 136. – Diplomacy • Trent • CSS Alabama – 15.5 million fine– Staffing • North– 1863– subs– NYC • South– 1862– subs – “Rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight”– Finances • North– Nat’l Banking System– greenbacks, bonds, tariffs • 1st millionaires
  137. 137. • South – Bonds, graybacks, farm tax – Blockade & invasion crushed economy – Transportation suffered– Women • Jobs– farms, industry • Sewing machine • Spies • Professional nurses – Clara Barton, Dorothea Dix
  138. 138. • And the War Came – Bull Run – “picnic” – Skedaddled – South– overconfident – North– fight harder• McClellan & Peninsula – Jackson tricks – Stuart encircles – Lee defeats
  139. 139. • War at Sea – Blockade becomes more effective – Merrimac (VA) – Monitor• On to Antietam – 2nd Bull Run – Lee invades MD – McClellan restored • Plans found, bloodiest day, draw, Burnside
  140. 140. – Results • GB & France no recog. • Emancipation Proc. – “he did where he couldn’t and didn’t…” • Moral cause stronger • Off-year elections lost • South thought he was starting an insurrection • Now destroy the “Old” South
  141. 141. • African Americans – 180,000; 38,000 dead – 54th Mass • Wagner, Rob’t Shaw • Fort Pillow• On to Gettysburg – Burnside • Fredericksburg – Hooker • Chancellorsville • Stonewall Jackson
  142. 142. – Meade– Lee invades North again • Take attn off VA • Rile peace protestors • Pickett’s Charge • “High water mark” • Gettysburg Address– War in the West • Lincoln finds his general • Henry & Donelson – Keep KY & open TN
  143. 143. – Shiloh– New Orleans– Vicksburg • Loss of western supply • Day after Gettysburg– Chattanooga & Chickamauga • Cleared TN of Rebels • Grant promoted • Sherman takes West command
  144. 144. – Atlanta– Savannah • Total war • Live land • Sherman “neckties” • Destroyed supplies/morale – Desertions up • Worst for South Car.• Elections of 1864• National Union Party – Andrew Johnson
  145. 145. – Democrats • McClellan – Sheridan/Sherman seal – Soldiers furloughed – South more despondent• Grant in the East – Lee – Wilderness— Spotsylvania—Cold Harbor • The “Butcher”
  146. 146. – Petersburg– Richmond– Lee corned at Appomattox– Davis caught in GA– Lincoln • Ford’s Theatre • John Wilkes Booth
  147. 147. • Reconstruction – Economy • Banks • Transportation • Farms • Cotton– overreliance – Freedmen’s Bureau • O. O. Howard – Clothing, food, medical care, education – 1st large federal welfare – Help AA adjust to freedom
  148. 148. – President Andrew John • TN • Used for Border States • Presidential Recon – Lincoln – 10% – Wade-Davis 50% » Congress– who has the right? » Suicide– conquered » Pocket-veto
  149. 149. – Two Camps • Moderates • Radicals– Johnson Tries • Used Lincoln’s • Congress not in session • Personal petitions – Granted pardons undermining • Ratify 13th • Declare secession illegal – Many ignored him
  150. 150. – Black Codes • Servility • Contracts • Sharecroppers • No land, no vote, no jury– South Congressmen • Alex Stephens • Republicans alarmed • 12 new votes • Johnson declares Reconstruction a success
  151. 151. – Republican accomplishments • Tariff, Homestead Act, Pacific RR Act– South gains 12 seats– Congress takes over • Freedmen vetoed • Civil Rights Bill– vetoed & overruled • 14th Amendment • 10 states refuse • Off-year elections
  152. 152. – Radicals • Sumner (Senate) & Stevens (House) • Reconstruction Act – 5 districts – Tenure of Office Act – Edwin Stanton – Impeached • 15th Amendment– Election of 1868– Grant • 500,000 new voters
  153. 153. – Ku Klux Klan • Intimidate, Redeem • Enforcement Act– Redemption • Grand-father clause, literacy test, poll tax– Grant’s Admin • Corrupt • Hurts Recon • Democrats win House 1874
  154. 154. • Election of 1876 – Democrats– Tilden – Republicans– Hayes – South Car, LA, FLA – Compromise • Hayes • Troops pulled • South RR & aid • Cabinet member • Most gains erased
  155. 155. • 1890s Jim Crow• 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson• 1954 Brown v. Board• Solid South – Reagan 1980

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