Ccri

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Through Adams Presidency

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Ccri

  1. 1. “Native” Americans• Beringia – Eskimo – Northwest – Anasazi • Pueblos • Water conservation – Similarities • Diet – Hunt, farm, fish • Bows & arrows • No writing
  2. 2. • Vs. Europeans – Less dense – No wheels or ships – Small animals only• Ericsson• Prince Henry• Bartolomeu Dias• Vasco da Gama breaks Mediterranean monopoly 1498
  3. 3. • Portugal inches along African coast – Slaves – Religion • Cape Verde 1st plantations• Ottoman Turks – Genoa & Venice – Atlantic nations look west
  4. 4. • Spain – Moors• Columbus – Bad with the ruler – San Salvador • Bahamas – Hispaniola • La Navidad – Returns with natives – 4 trips – Columbian Exchange • Goods, ppl & ideas
  5. 5. • Treaty of Tordesillas – Portugal – Brazil only – de Gama 1498• Cabot – Northwest Passage/ cod• Cabral – Vespucci• Balboa• Magellan – West voyage not feasible
  6. 6. • Conquistadores – Cortez • Aztec – Empire, tribute, sacrific e • Spain most powerful after – Pizarro • Inca• French – Verrazano – Cartier
  7. 7. • Up to now – No settlements in America – Spanish Empire – Portugal to China – International fishing
  8. 8. • Huguenots – Challenge to Spain – St. Augustine 1st• England – John Hawkins Africa to Haiti• Factors encouraging exploration – Technological advances – Monarchs looking to enlarge, enrich – Gold, glory & the Gospel
  9. 9. • England supplants Spain – Henry VIII – Elizabeth • Reform – Drake – Roanoke Island – Armada • Spain defends Cath. • English pond
  10. 10. England Colonizes in a Big Way• Hakluyt – New trade partners – Ease unemployment • Pressure valve • 1530-1680 Pop doubled causing many to leave• Joint-stock company – VA London – VA Plymouth – Takes time for profit
  11. 11. • Jamestown – License to poach – Terrible location • Swamp, drought – Gentlemen/servants – Search for gold • 38/144 – Malnutrition, disease, Eur opean traditions of labor – Could have done better if they learned to farm – John Smith • Harsh • “The Starving Time”
  12. 12. • Powhatan Confederacy – Aid led to survival – Weapons for reinforcing• Lord de la Warr – Irish tactics • Raid, burn, steal • Natives inferior • Almost exterminated due to VA success• John Rolfe – Made VA a stable colony – Seals peace by marriage
  13. 13. • Spread of the vile weed • Society of servants and ex-servants – Scattered settlements • Sometimes sold – Constant encroaching • Extended– legally• Labor force – Stole, ran away, pregnant – Indentured – Women no marriage • Lack of labor – Freedom dues • Poor, willing – Headright • Cheap, abundant • Wealthy gentry class • 2x or 3x pay – More land, more • Most migrants to workers Chesapeake – New arrivals in 1619 • Many premature deaths • Africans & wives?
  14. 14. • House of Burgesses – Series of harsh rulers – Representative self- government • Local laws only but, it set a precedent of self- government at local level in colonies • James hates tobacco and distrusted H of B. • Charter revoked 1624, reinstated 1629
  15. 15. • Maryland – Proprietary • Lord B’more • Sanctuary – But… conflict » Majority Protestants as yeoman » Catholics as gentry – Act of Toleration 1649 • Depended on tobacco & indentured servants
  16. 16. • Polarized society post 1649 – Land, money in east – Untamed in the west – Gov. Berkeley • No elections for 15 years • Only male landowners & heads of households • Monopolized fur trade w/ Indians • Bacon’s Rebellion – Big guys & little guys, Berkeley removed – New workforce
  17. 17. • New England• Pilgrims – Separatists – Too corrupt – Holland – Mayflower Compact • Political body & legal auth • Will of majority – Squanto • Pilgrims as allies • Thanksgiving
  18. 18. • Mass. Bay Colony – Covenant • Contract for a mission – “City Upon a Hill” • Reform the Church of Eng. – King’s puppet – Families, educated, colle ge – Voting rights • Property owning males • Popular got big tracts
  19. 19. The sewer where the “Lord’s debris” collected and rotted• Connecticut – Thomas Hooker – All males – Fundamental Orders of CT.• Rhode Island – Roger Williams • Land belonged to… • Freedom of religion – Newport 1658 – Anne Hutchinson • Comm. Directly with God
  20. 20. Relations with Indians• Pequot War of 1637 – White settlement disrupted trade – Narragansett allies – Heavily criticized • Tried to Christianize • Indians knew only unity stops encroachment
  21. 21. • King Philip’s War – Encroachment • Surrounded Indian towns • Sassamon • Mohawk • Great Swamp • Sold into slavery • Debt, ruined frontier, hatred • Eunice Williams stayed • Mary Rowlandson– Redemption Rock
  22. 22. Trouble in New England• Salem – Tituba • Witchcraft • Specters – Causes • Continual disorder explained by blame – Indian attacks – Decline of Puritan s. – Ergot
  23. 23. The Other Colonies• New York – 1609 Hudson – Albany – New Netherlands – New Amsterdam • Manhattan • Patroonships • Headright – Diverse – Huguenots • Peter Stuyvesant • Duke of York– James
  24. 24. • Pennsylvania – Wm. Penn – Quaker – Proprietary – Indians • Purchase land, deal fairly, respect claims • Those having probs elsewhere – Religious toleration • “in the souls there is no sex”
  25. 25. • Carolina – Restoration as others – Barbados • Charles Town • Slaves • Staple crop – Eliza Lucas – VA influence
  26. 26. • Georgia – Oglethorpe – Buffer/Reform • Between two empires – Savannah
  27. 27. Governing the Colonies• Navigation Acts – Only English/colonial ships – Enumerated list – Make money/ competition – Salutary Neglect • Robert Walpole • Admiralty Courts
  28. 28. • Crown attacks colony’s charters – Mass Bay – Dominion of New England • Under direct crown control • Land titles invalidated • Edmund Andros • Glorious Revolution – Mass Bay restored
  29. 29. – Leisler’s Rebellion – John Coode• More Indian Wars – New York • Beaver Wars • Iroquois – European diseases – North Carolina • Tuscarora – Many enslaved – 6th Nation
  30. 30. • South Carolina – Yamassee • Abuse (slavery) • Lands • Spanish intrigue• Slavery – Portuguese • Africans practiced violence – European didn’t have too – Xtianized them instead
  31. 31. – Triangular Trade • Products & trade basis of economy • Middle Passage – Rebellion • Stono • No overturn, no winning fight for freedom• Colonial Experiences – The Great Awakening • First Shared
  32. 32. – Religious Indifference • Convert non-believer • Revive piety – Revivals • Jonathan Edwards – “Sinners… • Religious Diversity• Enlightenment – Life, liberty, property • John Locke – Right of rebellion • Peter Zenger
  33. 33. – Religion • Deism • God the Clockmaker – Ben Franklin • Poor Richard’s• The French in America – Champlain • Coureurs de bois • Black Robes – Robert de la Salle • Mississippi
  34. 34. – No suppression Indians – Like European goods • Kept Spanish away• Wars with France – King William/Queen Anne • Mostly European • Frontier towns attacked – Still need English prot. – King George’s War • Louisbourg – Colonists furious » Boston widows
  35. 35. • French/Indian War – Contested land • Ohio Valley • French forts • Gov. Dinwiddie – Washington » Surrenders » British retaliate • Nova Scotia – Albany Congress • Albany Plan for Union – Ben Franklin
  36. 36. » Win Indians » Colonists meet annually » Refused by colony & crown • Independence – not enough, too much– General Braddock • Duquesne • Colonists refused • British feel colony bear responsibility • Indians side with French– less land hungry
  37. 37. – William Pitt • Better commanders – Local recruitment • Finance thoroughly, but… – Boon to colonial economy • Focus on NA not WI – Attack Quebec – Cripple colonies – Plains of Abraham » Wolfe/Montcalm » Iroquois ally GB
  38. 38. – Treaty of Paris • Indians lose land • England east, Spain west– Colonial hangover • Colonists – Military confidence – Colonists treated poorly » No promotions » Discipline brutal » Amateurs • British concerns – Am. Trade w/ enemy – Am. Headed west
  39. 39. • Pontiac’s Rebellion – Refused to surrender lands – British raised prices – Several Br. Forts attacked – Many lives – Germ warfare• Proclamation of 1763 – Keep peace – Soldiers stationed here
  40. 40. • British problems – War debt – Colonists should help pay for empire – Pitt’s role – Standing Army (where?!?) – Quartering Act• Sugar Act – Molasses Act – Rewards for capture
  41. 41. • Stamp Act – Internal tax – James Otis • No rep in Parle • Direct rep here • Grenville virtual – Sons & Daughters • Boycott – VA Resolves • Patrick Henry • Caesar, Chas I and George
  42. 42. – Stamp Act Congress • First successful union • 9 of 13 • Rights & Grievances – Tax and represent redux – Jury w/o trial – Restrict on trade • Prevent distribution – Andrew Oliver » Effigy – Thomas Hutchinson » All resigned
  43. 43. • Boycott worked • Declaratory Act• Townsend Acts – Revenue Act of 1765 – Customs collectors paid by crown – Tax on lead, glass, paint, tea – Writs of assistance – New York Assembly
  44. 44. – Circular Letter • Sam Adams • Tax w/o consent? • VA Assembly agrees dissolved• Currently – Taxes – Houses searched – Troops stationed at the center of hotbeds
  45. 45. • Boston Massacre – March 5, 1770 – Soldiers withdrawn – Townsend repealed• Gaspée – Crown’s commission to find perpetrators – Committees of Correspondence • Cooperation to oppose
  46. 46. • Boston Tea Party – British East India Tea Co. • Smuggled tea • Tax lowered • Favoritism • Hurt current suppliers • Hurt smugglers• “Intolerable” Acts – 1. Boston Harbor – 2. Mass. Charter – 3. Trials in England
  47. 47. – 4. New Quartering Act – 5. Quebec Act • New borders – Land granted to Catholics! – No precedent – General Gage• First Continental Congress – Rights & Grievances • Hope for cooler heads in Parlement– no response
  48. 48. • Continental Association – Manage boycott – Ben Franklin » “we must hang together…” – Colonists forced to choose sides – Meet again in one year• Lexington & Concord 4/75 – Stockpiles – Paul Revere/Wm. Dawes – Sam Adams/John Hancock
  49. 49. – Boston under siege• Second Continental Congress – G. Washington C-in-C – Mass Militia named Cont. Army• Bunker Hill – 3 attempts – Pyrrhic victory – Hessians – Ports closed – Halifax
  50. 50. • Ethan Allen• Canadian Invasion – Benedict Arnold• Common Sense – Thomas Paine• Hessian’s (unpopularity)• Fawkes Day – Need European support
  51. 51. • Independence needed – Richard Henry Lee – “These colonies…” • Adams, Franklin, Jeff • SC & GA edit – All men… – Life, liberty & – Government purpose to allow – Government derives power – If government fails to allow
  52. 52. • All signers… treason • All states write their own• Battle of New York – No pursuit – Desertion – The Crisis• British ad/disad – Army – 3000 miles – Re-conquer judiciously
  53. 53. • New Jersey – Delaware – Trenton – Princeton
  54. 54. • Americans – Good officers as well as bad – Home game – Women • Nurses • Domestic • Shurtleff • Pitcher
  55. 55. • Britain cuts off New Eng – Howe – Philadelphia • Brandywine • No accomplishment – Burgoyne – Saratoga • One of the biggest • French – Repossess – Fear reconcile • Home-rule
  56. 56. • Valley Forge – Baron von Steuben• War in the West – Joseph Brandt • Iroquois Alliance – George Rogers Clark – Indians mostly neutral to leaning British• War on the Sea – John Paul Jones
  57. 57. • Bonhomme Richard – Privateers• War in the South – Charleston/ Savannah • Put Tories in charge • African- Americans • Nathaniel Greene – We fight… – Guerrilla » Marion » Sumter » Further inland
  58. 58. • Yorktown – De Grasse – Cut their losses• Treaty of Paris
  59. 59. • State Constitutions – Governors – Bi-cameral – Limit voting rights • South “at least you…” – VA had bill of rights• Republican government – Elect reps – Weak central gov’t
  60. 60. • Articles of Confederation • Foreign affairs • Maintain army • Borrow • Issue currency – Could not • Regulate trade • Draft • Tax • Laws 9/13, amend 13/13 • No exec, no judiciary
  61. 61. • One vote per • Ratification problems – Western lands – 3/1781 – Accomplishments • Won war • Foreign affairs • New states• Land policy – Ordinance of 1785 • 1st independent source of revenue
  62. 62. • 6x6 • Education • Auction • Speculators • 640 for $1 each• Ordinance of 1787 – Northwest Territory – 3 to 5 (equal) states • 60,000 – Bill of Rights – No slavery but…
  63. 63. • Problems with Money – Soldiers wages – March on PHL – Paper worthless – Dept of Finance • Robert Morris • 5% imports – Denied (gov’t too powerful?)
  64. 64. • Post war depression – Rice crop – Farms confiscated – WI closed – Britain flooded states• Shays’ Rebellion – Mass broke – Tax farmers – Confiscate land – Shays marches to courts/ arsenal – A of C not strong enough
  65. 65. • Slavery – Immediate to gradual freedom – VA manumission – “All men…” • Quok Walker • South… not human • NJ• Const. Convention – Annapolis Conf.
  66. 66. – Madison/Hamilton • Change A of C– too weak • 55 delegates– lawyers– VA Plan • Bi-cameral • Pop. proportioned • Exec chosen by legis.– NJ Plan • Uni-cameral • Plural execs
  67. 67. • Great Compromise – Roger Sherman – Bi-cameral • House, Senate • 3/5 clause • Slavery till 1808 • 9 of 13 ratify• Ratification – Federalists/anti- Federalist • Fear distance power • Bill of Rights
  68. 68. – Delaware – New Hampshire – VA • Bill to be added – NY • Federalist Papers – Failure of A of C• First Election – Washington • Adams
  69. 69. • Dept of Treasury – Hamilton• State – Jefferson• War• “Cabinet” – Advisers• Judiciary Act of 1789 – Supreme Ct. – John Jay
  70. 70. • Bill of Rights – Madison – 12-10 – No mention of who can vote• Financial problems – Hamilton • Tariff • South no – Report on Public Credit
  71. 71. – Fed debt at par • Speculators (wealthy) – Assumption • States have stake • South not happy • Washington D.C.• National Bank – Vault, loans, currency – Strict – Loose • Necessary and… • Political parties
  72. 72. • Whiskey Rebellion – Hamilton’s programs • 25% • Bartering • Serious threat • Nationalize PA militia• Frontier problems – Indians look to Eng./Sp. – Anthony Wayne • Fallen Timbers • Greenville – Ohio
  73. 73. • European problems – Revolution • Neutrality • Citizen Genet • Jefferson resigns • British impress – Jay’s Treaty • Hamilton’s role • Northwest • Pay for ships • Allow trade w/ Brit. W.I.
  74. 74. • Freed slaves? • Executive privilege – Pinckney’s Treaty • Spain • Right of Deposit • Mississippi• Washington’s Farewell – Precedent – Party system – Alliances
  75. 75. • Election of 1796 – Adams – Jefferson – 71-68 – 12th Amendment• Adam’s presidency – Problems w/ France – XYZ Affair • Shipping • Talleyrand
  76. 76. – Undeclared war • Dept of Navy– Alien & Sedition Acts • Aimed at Republicans – 14 year • Sedition Act– KY & VA resolutions • Compact • Nullification

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