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Artificial Intelligence Presentation Artificial Intelligence Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Artificial Intelligence
    Shannon Baker, Laura Paviglianiti, Tim Stuart
  • What is Artificial Intelligence?
  • The intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it
    "the study and design of intelligent agents”
    No single goal of artificial intelligence
    Some say it’s putting the human mind into computers
    What is intelligence?
    The computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world
    We do not yet fully understand what intelligence consists of
  • 1941:Development of the electronic computer
    • Some trace the origin to John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry at Iowa State University
    • Required large, separate
    air-conditioned rooms
    • Required separate
    configuration of
    thousands of wires
    • Data fed into system
    By punched cards
  • First Commercial, Stored Program Computer
    Made job of entering a program easier
    Advancements in computer theory  computer science
    (and eventually
    to AI)
    Invention of a
    means of processing
    data makes AI
    possible
  • Dartmouth Conference
    John McCarthy (“father of AI”) organizes conference
    A month of brainstorming in VT
    Talent and expertise of others interested in machine intelligence
    Biggest gain:
    Field now called
    Artificial Intelligence
  • Lisp Language Developed
    McCarthy announces new development: LISP language
    Still used today
    LISt Processing –
    language of choice
    among AI developers
  • Start of DoD’sAdvanced Research Projects
    MIT receives 2.2 million dollar grant from US govt. to research Macine-Aided Cognition (AI)
    From Department of Defense
    US wants to stay ahead of Soviet Union
  • MicroworldProgram, SHRDLU Created
    SHRDLU part of microworlds project – research & programming in small worlds
    When confined to small subject matter, computer
    programs can solve spatial &
    logic problems
  • First Expert System
    Predict the probability of a solution under set conditions
    Potential to interpret statistics, formulate rules
    Over course of 10 years, can forecast stock market, aid doctors in diagnosis, show miners promising mineral locations
    Large applications in market place
    Conditional rules & storage of information
  • PROLOG Language Revealed
    General logic programming language
    Represented as facts and rules
    Developed in France
    Remains one of most
    possible programming
    languages today
  • AI-Based Hardware Sells $425 Million to Companies
    Expert systems in particular demand
    DuPont, General Motors, Boeing rely heavily on expert systems
    Companies develop that specialize in creating software that aids in producing expert systems
  • AI Military Systems UsedEffectively in DESERT STORM
    Used in missile systems, heads-up-displays, etc.
    AI truly put
    to the test
  • AI System Beats HumanChessmaster
    AI goes home
    Public interest growing
    AI system placed against a
    human chessmaster to see
    who would win
    AI wins – shows skills &
    abilities
  • Applications of AI
    Military
    “Smart bombs”
    Guided by remote control camera systems directed to the intended target
    Unmanned drone aircraft
    Missiles fly military missions and launch weapons from a distance
    Decoding of enemy secret codes
    Rapid translation of foreign language
  • Applications of AI
    Science
    Development of new drugs
    Model clinical studies in animals and humans
    Remote controlled surgical procedures
    Uses robotics and computer-based optical systems
    Can be performed half-way around the world
    Advanced weather modeling
    Doppler Radar
    Looks at trends and past models to predict weather patterns
  • Applications of AI
    Industrial
    Machine vision inspection systems
    Cameras and computers are placed on assembly lines to find defects
    Robotic systems
    Use computer automation and mechanical equipment
    Take place of humans in manufacturing of cars
  • Applications of AI
    Business
    Macros
    Computer mimics the programmer's actions
    Advanced financial systems
    Quickly analyze trends
    Allows for rapid investment decisions
    Consumer
    Personal computers
    Computer applications for Apple & IMB
    Voice and character recognition
    Entertainment
    Games, such as chess, where over 120 million moves can be recognized
  • Future of AI
    The future is really unknown
    Researchers seem to disagree on a lot of the same issues
    With the rate at which technology is improving it is logical to believe AI will continue to get more and more sophisticated
  • AI in Video Games
    Over the years AI is getting exponentially more sophisticated
    Now AI’s are able to react with an “intelligence” that simulates the computer as a human
    AI’s are able to respond to voice commands
  • Chess & AI
    Theory: if they can create a computer that can outsmart humans in this obviously strategic, thinking-based game, then it would be a major milestone on the road to the intelligent computer
  • Ethical Questions?
    -Will there come a point when computers become too intelligent?
    -Should robots have the same legal rights as humans?
    -How would we get around the question of ownership?
    -To what extent should we trust (be able to predict the behavior of) such a species?
    -What responsibilities do we owe such robots?
    -Would it be wrong to deliberately install mechanisms that gave humans an immediate physical advantage e.g. an off switch?
    -Should we allow a self-governing robot society to co-exist with ours?
  • Works Cited
    http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/node1.html
    http://library.thinkquest.org/2705/history.html
    http://www.a-i.com/
    http://www.wired.com/magazine/2011/01/storyboard-artificial-intelligence-cars/
    Poole, David; Mackworth, Alan; Goebel, Randy (1998). Computational Intelligence: A Logical Approach. New York: Oxford University Press.ISBN 0195102703.
    http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/node1.html
    http://www.cedmagic.com/history/atanasoff-berry-computer.html