Unit 3 part 1- the first civilization- sumer


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Covers Sumer- the first civilization. Details early farming, government, societal hierarchy, technologies, arts, written language, embedded relevant YouTube videos.
I used images from google search images.

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Unit 3 part 1- the first civilization- sumer

  1. 1. Civilization music video- 3:54)
  2. 2. Big Ideas: The Sumerians developed the first civilization in Mesopotamia. The Sumerians made many advances that helped their society develop. 1. The Sumerians created the world’s first advanced society 1. The Sumerians invented the world’s first writing system. 2. Religion played a major role in Sumerian society. 2. Advances and inventions changed Sumerian lives. 3. Many types of art developed in Sumer.
  3. 3. Mesopotamia: The Fertile Crescent Textbook pages 58-59 1. Why did the first civilizations all develop in river valleys? 2. Where were the four earliest river valley civilizations located? -color code your map.
  4. 4. Sumer- “The Cradle of Civilization” 3,000BC
  5. 5. The City-States of Sumer Sumer City-States (1:59) Each city-state had a large Urban center with rural countryside surrounding it. Each had its own military that protected their rural lands. Fought each other to gain more farmland Kings (called lugal) ruled each city- state Built large armies
  6. 6. Characteristics of a City-State Rural farmland was divided into square or rectangle plots *plots were crisscrossed by early irrigation systems (canals & channels) *farmers used plows, seed-drills, and stone hoes to grow crops *Gardens and fruit orchards *Trade: Carts pulled by donkeys & boats in the canals moved goods into the urban center of the city-state.
  7. 7. Characteristics of a City-State The Urban city was surrounded by walls • Soldiers stationed by towers and gates • Wide paved boulevards crossed main sections, lined by 2-story houses for wealthy, made of brick • Narrow twisting alleys surrounded by small flat roofed huts for farmers & craftsmen
  8. 8. Rise of the First Empire • Akkadians built north of Sumer & spoke a different language • Lived peacefully next to Sumer until the Akkadian king Sargon decided to extend his territory along the Euphrates River. • Sargon- first ruler to have a permanent army • Conquered all of Mesopotamia resulting in the world’s first empire (Persian Gulf to Mediterranean Sea) **Textbook page 61: Sargon’s Story
  9. 9. Sumerian City-State Ur Ur regains control of its land and takes over all of Mesopotamia- Political stability is restored to the region *Textbook pages 62-63
  10. 10. Sumerian Religion • Polytheism: the worship of many gods • Each city-state considered one god to be its protector
  11. 11. Enlil: God of Air
  12. 12. Enki: God of Wisdom
  13. 13. Inanna: Goddess of Love & War
  14. 14. Uta: God of the Sun
  15. 15. Sin or Nanna: God of the Moon
  16. 16. Sumerian Ziggurat • Assyrian word “zigguratu” means height • Largest structure in city-dedicated to a patron god of the city (religious temples) • Resembled pyramid- made of brick • Built to look like a mountain because Sumerians believed the gods preferred to live there
  17. 17. Priests of the Ziggurat Temples • Preformed religious ceremonies at the temple • Helped people gain favor with the gods • Interpreted wishes made by the gods • Made offerings to the gods at the temples
  18. 18. Sumerian Social Order Title Description king Believed the gods gave them the right to rule priests Gave up working & lived of the offerings of the people- given large tracts of land to rent out to farmers for financial support Skilled craftspeople Crafters with specific skills that are in high need merchants People who buy & sell goods to the public Traders *huge impact on Sumer Travel to far away placed to trade gold, silver, cooper, lumber, & precious stones Farmers Grow crops- working class Laborers People who do manual labor-ex. Build bricks and structures- working class Slaves People bought and sold to me laborers for the wealthy- lowest social class
  19. 19. Men & Women in Sumer Men • Held political positions • Made laws • EducatedWomen • Took care of the home & children • Some wealthy women got an education • Some educated women became priestesses in the temples
  20. 20. Invention of Writing • Cuneiform- world’s first system of writing • Pictographs- picture symbols • Scribe- writer • Epics- long poems that tell the stories of heroes Video (7:20)
  21. 21. The Legend of Gilgamesh • Textbook pages 70-71 • One of Uruk’s early Kings • known as Gilgamesh • City-states of Ur and Uruk fought for a thousand years trying to dominate each other • Gilgamesh became a Legendary in figure Sumerian literature
  22. 22. Technical Advances First civilization to develop: • The wheel • Vehicles with wheels- carts & wagons • Potter’s wheel • Plow-pulled by oxen (increased farm production) • Clock-used falling water to measure time • Sewers under streets • Bronze tools & weapons • “Bronze Age” • Makeup • Glass jewelry
  23. 23. Sumerian Math • System based on the number 60 • Divided a circle into 360 degrees • Divided a year into 12 months (factor or 60) • Calculated the areas of rectangles and triangles
  24. 24. Sumerian Science • Tablets with names of thousands of plants, animals, and minerals • Used ingredients from these to make healing drugs • Ex: milk, turtle shells, figs, and salt • Cataloged treatments according to symptoms and body parts
  25. 25. Sumerian Art *Textbook page 68-69: The Arts Cylinder Seal
  26. 26. Sumerian Art
  27. 27. Sumerian Art
  28. 28. Sumerian Jewelry
  29. 29. Sumerian Music Oldest written melody c. 1400 BC (5:42)
  30. 30. Organizer #1 The Rise of Sumer Government Religion Society • Originally organized into city-states • Large empire created by Sargon • First permanent army • Polytheistic • Each city had a god as protector • Gods have enormous power • Priests interpret wishes of gods • Everyone must serve and worship gods • Kings • Priests • Skilled crafters • Merchants • Traders • Farmers • Laborers • slaves
  31. 31. Advancement/ Effect Organizer writing wheel plow • Improved record keeping • Allowed works on law, math, & grammar to be written • Made literature possible • Improved transportation • Improved pottery-making • Increased efficiency and farm production • Created new use for large animals • Let to surplus of food