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Reconstruction policy & sc851
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Reconstruction policy & sc851

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  • 1. Reconstruction Policy & SC 8.5-1—Analyze the development of Reconstruction policy and its impact in South Carolina, including the presidential and the congressional reconstruction plans, the role of black codes, and the Freedmen’s Bureau.
  • 2. Rewind Review • Civil War ended • Emancipation of slaves • Broke & decimated south • Huge life loss on both sides Abraham Lincoln (4:46)
  • 3. The Reconstruction Era • SC was broke b/c of the Civil War, but the Federal government didn’t think it was their responsibility to build the state back up economically • They left the “picking-up the pieces” to individuals and state & local governments…. Remember SC is now BROKE! • Reconstruction policies didn’t include the rebuilding of destroyed towns, factories, farms, or transpiration systems
  • 4. The Freedman’s Bureau • Overseen by the US Army • 1st line of assistance for everyone effected by the Civil War, both whites & destitute freemen • Provided food, clothing, medical care, education, and some protections from the hostile white environment • Helped freemen find jobs & established courts to protect illiterate workers • Distributed abandoned land ( lands abandoned during the war or confiscated as punishment for disloyalty to the Union) to freemen • This land was taken back from the freemen when President Johnson pardoned the white owners who were returned their property
  • 5. The Freedman’s Bureau • Most African Americans did not receive land • In lieu of getting land, the Bureau established share-cropping relationships with workerless plantation owners • This system mired African Americans and poor whites to economic dependency & poverty for generations • Share-cropping played a role in the economic recovery of SC (1:39) • Most important contribution by the Freedman’s Bureau was the establishment of over 1,000 schools in the south
  • 6. Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction • Formulated before the fighting was ever over • End the war as quickly as possible • 10% policy • Convince southern states to surrender • Required states to recognize the end of slavery • Lincoln’s Assassination did not significantly change the plan • President Johnson added that individual southern elite must request a pardon from him and ratify the 13th amendment; freeing all slaves (6:02) “Soft on the South”
  • 7. Congress & the Reconstruction Plan • Passed the plan to protect the rights of newly freed slaves & the Republican political power • While Congress was on break, SC and other southern states passed Black Codes & elected former Confederates to Congress • Congress refused to admit returning Southern officials • Increased violence against freemen and President Johnson’s opposition to the extension of the Freedmen’s Bureau & the 14th amendment significantly changed the course of Reconstruction policy • “Radical Republicans” won the majority in the election of 1865
  • 8. Congress & the Reconstruction Plan • Passed a congressional plan for Reconstruction – Military occupation of the former Confederacy – Splitting it into 5 military districts (SC was in the 2nd district) – Each district had a military governor & the army was used to enforce its provisions – Johnson was impeached by Congress (was not removed from office) – Union Army attempted to enforce the 13th, 14th, & 15th amendments
  • 9. The 13th Amendment • Ratification & assurances that they would abide by the 13th amendment was required of southern states before they could make new state governments • Resulted in emancipation of slaves and profound social changes for southern African Americans
  • 10. Southern Freedmen • Consolidated their families • Built communities • Established a network churches & autonomous institutions • Claimed equal citizenship • Got educated & found independence in their lives • African Americans left white churches to attend congregations of their own • They moved away from the Big House slave quarters to small houses on plots
  • 11. Post War Southern Whites • Little social changes in the beginning • Social classes remained the same even with the loss of economic status by the planter elite • Black Codes showed that southern whites were not willing to recognize the social and political rights newly freed slaves (10:31) • Both groups chose to keep a social distance from one another • Loss of control over the African American cause great anxiety among the whites
  • 12. Post War Southern Whites • White South Carolinians resented African Americans and feared retaliation by their former slaves • Formation of terrorist groups (Ku Klux Klan) reflected the mounting racial tension & the determination of the white population to keep the African American population in “its place” socially, politically, & economically (9:55)
  • 13. 14th Amendment • Designed to protect the political & social rights of freedmen from intimidation • Overturned the Dred Scot decision • Upheld rights of all citizens to “equal protection” before the laws & :due process” of law • Required 2/3 votes of Congress to grant amnesty to ex- Confederates before they could hold public offices • Included provisions to force states to grant political rights to freemen by reducing representation for the states that did not allow African American to vote • This provision proved to be ineffective
  • 14. 15th Amendment • Right to all males citizens to vote in the North & South • Would not be denied based on “race, creed or previous condition of servitude” • Motivated by the Republican desire to secure its political power in the south • Southern vote in the Election of 1868 (President Grant) was largely African American
  • 15. SC’s Refusal & Consequence • SC refused to ratify the 14th & 15th Amendments • As a result of Congressional Reconstruction, the military governor of Military District 2 required SC to hold a convention to write a new state constitution that would recognize the amendments Civil Rights Amendments & Jim Crow Laws (9:13)