Progressive reform858


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Progressive reform858

  1. 1. Progressive Reform 8.5-8—Compare the Progressive movement in South Carolina with the national Progressive movement, including the impact on temperance; women’s suffrage; labor laws; and educational, agricultural, health, and governmental reform.
  2. 2. SC’s Progressive Prerogative • In SC, some believed that disenfranchising African Americans was a progressive reform of government • This group believed African Americans were not intelligent enough to make sound political decisions • Major progressive issues in SC were: – Child labor – Fair treatment for workers – Temperance – Women’s suffrage – Education • Progressive South Carolinians did not want to align themselves with the national movement or party • They preferred to work within the Democratic Party to make changes in SC • Problems in mills prompted both Northern & Southern progressives to propose reforms
  3. 3. Muckrakers • The muckrakers provided detailed, accurate journalis tic accounts of the political and economic corruption and social hardships caused by the power of big business in a rapidly industrializing United States • SC’s Columbia newspaper, The State, supported child labor reform with articles that described the problems of the workers • Helped progressives pass labor laws for a minimum work age of 10, and later, 12 years old
  4. 4. Health & Literacy Reforms • Disease & illiteracy spread through the mill villages • Only 1/3 of SC children went to school for 4 months or less of a year • SC Education reforms included: – Compulsory attendance law – Increased funding – Establishment of adult school programs by the state • Local communities oversaw these reforms • Most mill workers did not always support these reforms (Why?) – Needed the extra income their children made – Resented being told their children had to go to school, be inoculated against diseases, or told their children couldn’t work • State hospital built on the outskirts of Columbia for tuberculosis (founded by church women ) • Women’s leagues raised money to build libraries in communities throughout the state (separate facilities for blacks & whites)
  5. 5. Land Grants • US government offered to assist African American farmers, but the state wouldn’t authorize the purchase of land • Claflin College (African American college) did offer land & support • Clemson & SC State attempted to offer new farming techniques& encouraged diversification of crops (Why was this important?) • Sharecropping & crop lien system tied most farmers to the cash crop cotton Claflin College for African Americans
  6. 6. Prohibition/ Temperance • Most of the nation believed the prohibition or temperance in the use of alcohol would curb crime & improve family life • SC (socially conservative) was slow to pass temperance legislation b/c of Tillman’s control over the government • Socially conservative farmers supported prohibition, voting the referendum in favor of prohibition • Even though the bill passed, Tillman substituted the State Dispensary system so that the state would control the distribution of alcohol • By the late 20th century, 20+ out of 43 counties voted to be “dry” • 1915, SC passed prohibition law • 1918, US amended the US Constitution to outlaw the sale & distribution of alcohol • Rise of the Moonshiners
  7. 7. Women on Reforms • Took active roles in promoting reforms & improvement of their communities • Gained little for securing the right to vote • (White) Women’s clubs promoted prohibition, fostered civic responsibility, & pushed for education reforms • African American women’s clubs promoted better health & education in their communities
  8. 8. National Women’s Suffrage Movement • Initial idea - change local voting laws @ the state level • Equal Rights Association in SC got little support • SC women benefited when the movement took a national approach • WW1 suffragettes engaged in: – Marching – Picketing – Being arrested • Not successful till political leaders (President Wilson) recognized women’s contributions in the war effort • 19th Amendment gave them the right to vote • SC did not ratify the amendment till 1967; SC women were able to vote b/c of ratification by other states (how many states need to ratify before an amendment is a law?)
  9. 9. Government Reform • Based on the expansion of democracy & limitation of power of: – Corrupt political bosses – Support for a secret ballot – Primary elections-direct election of Senators by voters, not party bosses – Income tax • Other “reforms” in SC –designed to limit the voting power of mill workers • Several state governors supported a fair tax system, including an income tax to provide needed services to the people • 16th Amendment established the federal income tax
  10. 10. Governor Robert Cooper –supported raising state taxes to use on public education –supported a law that increased the amount of time students were to spend in school to 7 months per year
  11. 11. Governor Richard Manning – Helped establish a fair tax system that enforced income taxes for ALL South Carolinians – Established schools – Improved administration of hospitals – Paved SC’s roads (how is this progress?)
  12. 12. The End • Despite both Governor’s efforts, graduation rates from high school in SC were extremely low due to the limited number of schools in the state • WW1 (The Great War) brought an end to the Progressive Era, but not an end to the problems it tried to address