Political changes8 7.3

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  • 1. Political Changes 8-7.3: Explain the changing politics in S.C., including the shift from the Democratic Party role of Strom Thurmond, in the Republican party, the increasing political participation of African Americans & women, & the passage of the Education Improvement Act (EIA).
  • 2. Democratic SC • In the mid-20th century, political parties shifted in SC as a result of the evolving position of the Democratic Party on issues of race & other issues if interest to conserve Southerners. • Why was SC & the South solidly Democratic prior to the emergence of the modern civil rights movements?
  • 3. Quick Rewind • Lowcountry planters supported Federalist Party in early years of republic • National Federalist waned- SC equalized • SC became predominantly Democratic- Republican, then Democratic • Pre-Civil War Republican Party emerged • Reconstruction period –radical Republicans attempted to reconstitute SC • SC blamed Republicans for the war and voted solidly Democratic & became part of the “solid South”
  • 4. SC & President Trust Issues • Conservative Southerners initially supported the New Deal (FDR was a Democrat) • But, quickly became suspicious of FDR’s northern black support (voters) • 1948, (post WWII) Harry Truman ordered the desegregation of the military • Truman supported the inclusion of planks in the Democratic Party platform (anti-poll tax, federal protection against lynching- aimed at rectifying the horrible conditions of blacks)
  • 5. SC & President Trust Issues • Southerners got mad about federal intrusion into “their matters” & walked out of the Democratic National Convention • Formed their own party- Dixiecrats • Named Strom Thurmond their presidential candidate (1948 election) 1:30 • He was defeated & many Dixiecrats returned to the Democratic Party • Marked the beginning of the end of the “soild south”
  • 6. The Political Switch-a-Roo • Thurmond holds record of 24 hrs & 18 min for his filibuster against the passage of a civil rights act that would provide federal protection for the right to vote (1957) *VIDEO • Democrat presidents JF Kennedy & Lyndon Johnson supported the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 & the Voting Rights Act of 1965 • Many southerners withdrew their support for the President & Democratic Party after that • Thurmond changed party affiliations to Republican (1964) • SC has voted Republican since 1964 with only one exception in 1976- Jimmy Carter from Georgia Facts of Congress: Filibuster (1:02)
  • 7. Return to the Republican Party • Other factors: – Protest against the Vietnam War (unpatriotic, affiliated with the Democratic Party) – Nixon campaign-:restore :law & order”; appealed to conservative southern who feared the backlash of black power & anti- war movements – Fundamentalist & evangelical churches organized politically as social conservatives & became a cornerstone of the growing conservative movement
  • 8. African Americans • Supported the Republican Party that gave them their freedom in Reconstruction Era • Consistently supported the Democratic Party since 1960’s b/c of its support of civil rights • Make up about 28% of the population in SC (2010 Census), giving them little impact on presidential election with the “winner-take- all” process of electoral votes to the majority • Presently, African Americans hold 38 sets in the SC legislature
  • 9. Women in Politics • Civil Rights Movement-reemergence of women’s rights movement • SC finally ratified the (1920) 19th amendment in 1969 • SC was one of ten states that failed to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment causing it to fail • SC women have had prominent roles in government including: – Served in Congress – Lieutenant Governor – Governor – Members of the state legislature; where 16 are currently serving
  • 10. Education Reform • To ensure continue economic growth, successive governors backed state funding of a minimal level of education for all the state’s children funded by a sale tax • SC business community addressed educational issues through the Education Improvement Act in the mid-1980’s • Act called for a one cent sales tax increase to be used for education • Graduation rates improved but inequality is still an issue & the Act has proved unstable
  • 11. • State had cut funding in the last several years due to lower revenues- recession • Wealthy districts are able to tap into local resources while poor districts unable to fully fund education for their children • Achievement gap- years of discrimination in educational opportunity • The Education Improvement Act (1980s) & the Educational Accountability Act (1990s) were passed to ensure that all SC children have an equal opportunity to learn • NCLB Act-standards based accountability