Great depression 8 6.4


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Great depression 8 6.4

  1. 1. 8.6-4—Explain the effects of the Great Depression and the lasting impact of the New Deal on people and programs in South Carolina, including James F. Byrnes and Mary McLeod Bethune, the Rural Electrification Act, the general textile strike of 1934, the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Works Progress Administration, the Public Works Administration, the Social Security Act, and the Santee Cooper electricity project.
  2. 2. The Great Depression Begins • The crash of the stock market in October 29, 1929 marked the beginning of the Great Depression • Stock market crash was not the cause of the Great Depression though • SC had already been in a depression for many years before the crash • After the crash, conditions in SC did continue to deteriorate
  3. 3. Depression Impact on SC • Banks continued to fail • Some textile mills closed • More farmers lost their land to foreclosures • The railroad went bankrupt • One quarter if South Carolinians were unemployed
  4. 4. Depression Impact on SC • People had no money to spend in local stores • Marriage & birth rates dropped • Young men wondered from town to town looking for work • Churches & charitable organizations couldn’t keep up with the demand for food & shelter any longer • People looked to the government for help
  5. 5. Roosevelt’s Promise • Roosevelt elected president in Nov 1932 on his promise of a “New Deal for the American people” • Sought advise from South Carolinians: James F. Byrnes & Mary McLeod Bethune. • First “hundred days” in office; started an aggressive program to bring relief, recovery, & reform to the country • Used radio “fireside chats”- Americans have “nothing to fear but fear itself” • Program not specifically designed for SC, but had significant long-term impact
  6. 6. James F. Byrnes • Byrne selected to senate in 1930 • Helped pass the New Deal • Served as an important domestic policy advisor • Served as SC senator until 1941 when he accepted an appointment to the Supreme Court • Later served as head of the Office of War Mobilization, Secretary of State, & Governor of SC
  7. 7. Mary McLeod Bethune • Educator & civil rights leader • Founded a college • Organized the National Council of Negro Women • Served as the Director of Negro Affairs for the National Youth Administration • Influential member of the unofficial “Black Cabinet” (a group of black leaders President Roosevelt consulted)
  8. 8. The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) • Put unemployed young men to work in the nation’s parks • They lived in army camps & sent most of the $ they made back home • This $ pumped local economies again • 50,000 SC men were employed in reforestation & soil conservation projects • They built parks including: Hunting Island, Paris Mountain, Poinsett, & Myrtle Beach State Parks • Still segregated
  9. 9. The Public Work Administration (PWA) & Works Progress Administration (WPA) • Building projects that put people back to work, but also improved communities • PWA: build schools, libraries, courthouses, & US Navy aircraft carriers • WPA: built highways, airports, bridges, playgrounds, hospitals, & schools • WPA employed artists & writers to produce murals, plays, & record interviews with former slaves that preserved the historical record of African Americans in SC • Job creation programs put some people back to work, alleviated their despair & economic hardship, * pumped some money back into the economy • The New Deal did not result in economic recovery
  10. 10. Social Security Act • Designed as a reform system to prevent future depressions & provide for the elderly, orphaned, the disabled, & the unemployed • Old age benefits were important for SC b/c it did offer a program like this for the elderly • Cost was shared by the workers & their employers • The basic social welfare legislation in the US • Set the precedent for future aid to people in need • Social Security was criticized b/c of this precedent • Poverty rate for the elderly declined as a result
  11. 11. Santee Cooper Electricity Project • Largest New Deal project in SC • Promoted by Senator Byrnes • Built dams along the Santee & the Cooper Rivers • Created Lake Marion & Lake Moultrie • Hydroelectric dams: – produced power for the region – Provided jobs for builders – Industries made possible by the power provided – Improved living conditions for many in SC
  12. 12. Lake Marion Dam Ferguson cypress swamp Graves documented before they were flooded over to make the lake
  13. 13. The Rural Electrification Act • Brought power to farms & rural regions of SC • Creative power cooperatives • By 1940. 25% of farms had electricity • Farmers who still had their land were able to install milking machines & water pumps that made farming more profitable
  14. 14. National Recovery Act • Designed to address problems of overproduction & declining prices for farmers & industry • Set up codes for industries to regulate prices for consumers & standard work hours and wages for workers – did not guarantee a 40 hr work week • Did not effect the “speed up” or “stretch out” methods of mills • SC Mill workers unhappy with wages & working conditions joined a labor union & called a general strike in 1934
  15. 15. Mill Strike • Affected mills along the eastern seaboard • Violence broke out between union members & strike breakers (scabs) • In SC, deputies fired on a crowd in Honea Path (Chiquola Mill) killing 7 workers & injuring others • Roosevelt urged worker to end the strike & allow arbitration for a settlement • Strikers agreed- SC mill owners did not; keeping their mills closed even when workers were ready to return • Strike led to the collapse of the union in SC • In SC, the general textile strike intensified anti- union sentiment which continues today
  16. 16. Chiquola Mill- Honea Path, SC: After the shooting
  17. 17. •The New Deal did not end the Great Depression. •The Great Depression ended when the US became involved in helping the Allies fight Hitler’s Germany in World War II