Civil rights movement in sc 8 7.2


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Civil rights movement in sc 8 7.2

  1. 1. Civil Rights Movement in SC 8-7.2: Analyze the movement for civil rights in S.C., including the impact of the landmark court cases Elmore v. Rice and Briggs v. Elliot; civil rights leaders, Septima Poinsette Clark, Modjeska Monteith Simkins, and Matthew J. Perry; the S.C. school equalization effort & other resistance to school integration; peaceful efforts to integrate beginning with colleges & demonstrations in S.C. such as the Friendship Nine & the Orangeburg Massacre.
  2. 2. Recap: Treatment of African Americans • Post Reconstruction Era: – US civil rights movement continued on from colonial times – Jim Crow Laws – Voting Restrictions – Discrimination in the workplace – Limited social, political, & economic opportunities • African Americans sought recognition of their rights as outlined in the Declaration of Independence in the 13th, 14th, & 15th amendments – 20th Century organizations for equal treatment of African Americans: • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) • Congress of Racial Equality • National Association of Colored Women • National Urban League
  3. 3. Civil Rights Movement Intensifies Post WWII • “Victory abroad, victory at home” (Double V) campaign of African Americans • Influence of mass media • Martin Luther King Jr.- Peaceful approach • NAACP- Legal approach; laid ground work for change • Elmore v. Rice- white primary unconstitutional
  4. 4. Integrating Schools • Brown v. Board of Education(1954) – Clarendon County, SC started as a request for a bus to take their children to an all-black school – Parents at Scott’s Branch School felt that the “separate but equal” doctrine (Plessy v. Ferguson) required school districts to pay for gas & repairs to the used bus parents had bought to transport their children – Original case was dismissed due to a technicality • Modjeska Monteith Simkins & the NAACP: – Brought a new case against the school system: Briggs v. Elliot – State of SC agreed that separate schools for blacks was unequal, but claimed that the state had initiated a building program that would bring black schools up to par with white schools – Court ruled for the school – NAACP appealed the case to the Supreme Court • Briggs v. Ferguson was one of five cases that became part of the landmark Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas decision • Supreme Court overturned Plessy v. Ferguson • Ordered integration of schools with “all deliberate speed” NAACP Vintage Film Part III: Brown vs. Board of Education (9:11)
  5. 5. SC Resists Integration • Effort to improve black schools to be comparable to white schools to keep under the “separate but equal” doctrine • Brown ruling was met with widespread , sometimes violent, opposition & delay • Governor Byrnes encourage resistance • White Citizens Councils were established to coordinate intimidation efforts towards blacks who petitioned equal treatment & “traitor” whites who supported the effort
  6. 6. Thurman’s Southern Manifesto • SC Senator Strom Thurman authored the Southern Manifesto • Signed by all 3 Congressmen from the Deep South • Document condemned the Brown decision for upsetting the relationship of whites & blacks in the south • Encouraged resistance to desegregation – “white flight” private academies – School choice – Plans for voluntary closing of public schools • Took till early 1970’s before full- scale integration occurred in most SC schools
  7. 7. Brown Decision Prompts other Civil Rights Actions • Rosa Parks & the Montgomery Bus Boycott – Supreme Court ruled city buses could not be segregated – SC bus companies ignored this ruling • Greensboro, NC lunch counter sit-in prompted SC students to follow their example throughout the state & initiated a new tactic (Friendship Nine, Rock Hill, SC) • Grassroots demonstrations echoed th4e national movement led by Martin Luther King, Jr.
  8. 8. SC Begins to Integrate • Need for economic investment led SC to change • Mass media showed protests & violence in other southern states which did not promote investment in the south • 1963, SC slowly began & deliberately integrated public facilities • First Clemson College, then SC State, state colleges were integrated without violence • Mostly peaceful integration of public facilities in SC – Except the violence of the Orangeburg Massacre • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 & Voting Rights Act of 1965 were enforced in SC & public schools were finally desegregated
  9. 9. South Carolinians’ Involvement • Septima Clark- equal pay for teachers • Modjeska Simkims- helped with Elmore v. Rice & Briggs v. Elliot • Matthew Perry-Civil Rights Lawyer • Friendship Nine- “Jail No Bail” tactic (1960’s)-3:35 • 1968, SC State College students protested at a bowling alley in Orangeburg – police were called in to keep the peace after several days of protests – police opened fire on the students – injured dozens, killing three – Officers were acquitted; one wounded student was convicted of “riot” b/c of his activity at the bowling alley several nights before the shooting – Press & national media paid little attention to the event – Overshadowed by riots that followed the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. in April