Africans in Early SC8-1.4: Explain the significance of enslavedand free Africans in the developingculture & economy of the South andSouth Carolina, including the growth ofthe slave trade and resulting populationimbalance between African and Europeansettlers; African contributions toagricultural development; and resistanceto slavery, including the Stono Rebellion& subsequent laws to control slaves.
Plantation System• SC’s economy wasbased largely on theplantation system• Most crops were verylabor intensive• Indentured servants inVA were the first todo this type of labor inthe colonies• By the time of SC’ssettlement new settlersno longer took thesecontracts
• Plantation owners tried to use the natives as alabor force, but they easily escaped & themales were not accustomed to cultivating theland like their female counterparts
Slave Trade• English settlers from Barbados brought thefirst African slaves to SC• More slaves were acquired through the“Middle Passage”- define
Slave Trade• Slaves brought their knowledge of landcultivation, tending cattle, & cultivatingrice from Africa• They also knew how to harvest the thickforest near the plantations, which were usedfor trade• Development of cash crops & theplantation system caused the increase of theslave trade in SC• Large scale importation of slaves to SCbegan in the 1630’s
Slave Culture• Slaves brought their culture directly fromWest Africa(language, dance, woodcarving, folkmedicine, & basket weaving)• They sang call & response songs as theyworked Video (8:12)• They used drums to keep the pace whileworking the fields & to communicate withother slaves on nearby plantations (until theywere banned after the Stono Rebellion)
Slave Culture• Yams (or sweet potatoes) became the staplediet for southern slaves
Gullah• Gullah was the spoken language & sharedculture of Africans that developed in theSea Islands off the coast of SC andGeorgia.• Gullah language is the mixture of manyspoken languages combined with newlycreated words• Gullah is unique to the coastal regionbecause of the area’s geographicalseclusion & the large concentration ofAfricans thereGullah StoryVideo
Worry over slave population• 1698, the Assembly began to haveconcerns about the number of slaves• The demand for more slaves to keep SC’s economybooming created an imbalance in the population• Slaves outnumbered whites in most areas• This raised concern over the ability to control theslave population
Stono Rebellion- A slave revolt near CharlesTown, increased this concern• A small group of slaves wanted to escape toSt Augustine, FL. where the Spanish hadtold them they would be free• Broke into a store on the Stono River &killed two white settlers• Used their drums to call more slaves to jointhem• By day’s end, many settlers & slaves hadbeen killed
Result of Stono Rebellion• Slave Codes (originally from Barbados)were strengthen [Negro Act of 1740]• Prohbited slaves from:• Gathering without white supervision• Learning to read or write• Carry guns or weapons• Harsher punishments to disobedient slaves• & fined cruel slave owners for slave abuse Mostly ment to control minute by minute of slavelife EX: Slaves were not allowed to dress “above theconditions of a slave”.
South Carolina Slaves• SC had fewer free Africans than most othercolonies• State legislature allowed owners to free, ormanumit, their slaves for good cause in theearly 1700’s• In owners last will & testaments for faithfulservice• Or their mistresses and their children• ***this was rare though because slaves were sovaluable
South Carolina Slaves• Some slaves bought their freedom bymaking money on the side using specialtalents• Free blacks were required by law toleave SC within 6 months or be re-enslaved and sold on the auction block• Free blacks lived in urban areas where theycould make a living using their talents• After the American Revolution restrictionson the rights of owners to free their slaveswere further legislated