Un Mechanisms Inside 19.06.08 1

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Un Mechanisms Inside 19.06.08 1

  1. 1. " urÇmhukvor*¾ vlUtcGifhta&;qdkif&m t"duvkyfief; ,EÅ&m;rsm; (2002) " vkyfydkifcGihfESifh vkyfief;aqmif&Gufcsufrsm; The United Nations Thematic Mechanisms 2002 An overview of their work and mandates International Secretariat, 1 Easton Street, London, WC1X 0DW, United Kingdom The Law Society, 113 Chancery Lane, London, WC2A 1PL, United Kingdom
  2. 2. pmtkyfrSwfwrf; pmtkyftrnf “uBmhukvor~ vl@tcGifhta&;qdkif&m t"duvkyfief; ,œ&m;rsm; (2002)” vkyfydkifcGifhESifh vkyfief;aqmif&Gufcsufrsm; xkwfa0onfhESpf ZGefv/ 2008 apmifa& 1000 xkwfa0jzef‹csd EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm; ulnDapmifha&Smufa&;toif; (jrefrmEdkifiH) (AAPP) PO Box 93, Mae Sot, Tak Province 63110, Thailand rsufESmzHk;ESifh twGif;tjyiftqif rdk;ausmf ({&m0wD) rsufESmzHk;yef;csD [efav; bmomjyef atmifcdkifrif; (c) atmifausmf Tpmtkyjf zpfajrmufa&;twGuf aiGa=u;t& tar&duefEiitajcpduf trsKd ;om; 'Drua&pD yHy;kd ulna&;tzG@J kd f H k kd h D (National Endowment for Democracy) rS yhy;kd ulnonf? H D
  3. 3. Th eU nit ed Na tio ns An Th em ov at ic er M vi ec ew of h an th ism e ir s 200 w 2 or ka nd ma nd ate s
  4. 4. rmwdum trSmpum; 1 ed'gef;&JŒ ed'gef; 2 ed'gef; 9 tcef; (1) tr+wckcsif;pDtay: vkyfief;pepf,Eœ&m;rsm;. udkifwG,fajz&Sif;yHktm; tusOf;csHK;oHk;oyfcsuf 21 Ð w&m;vufvGwf (odk‹) twif;t"RzefwD;aomtajctaea=umifh aysmufqHk;oGm;r_rsm;twGuf tvkyftzGJŒ 21 Ð w&m;0if&Hk;rwifwJhtr_rsm;/ tusOf;&Hk; (okd‹) Oya'rJh uGyfrsufr_rsm;qkdif&m txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f 25 Ð ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;r_qdkif&mtxl;ukd,fpm;vS,f 29 Ð bmoma&;vGwfvyfcGifheJ‹ ,Hk=unfr_vGwfvyfcGifhqkdif&m txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f 33 Ð uav;oli,frsm;tm;a&mif;csjcif;/ uav;jynfhwefqmeJ‹ uav; npfnrf; "gwfyHk/ pmay/ AD'D,dk/ &kyf&Sif qdkif&mudPrsm;twGuf txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f 36 Ð rw&m;ojzifh zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;jcif;qdkif&m vkyfief;tzJG‹ 40 Ð vlrsdK;a&;0g'/ vlrsdK;a&;t&cJGjcm;qufqHjcif;/ wdkif;wyg;om;rkef;wD;r_ cJGjcm;qufqHr+vuf&SdyHkpHrsm;eJ‹ aemufqufwJGwif;rmr_rsm;qdkif&m txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f 45 ÐvGwfvyfpGmxifjrif,lqcGifheJ‹ vGwfvyfpGmzGifh[xkwfazmfr_wkd‹ukd jr‡ihfwifumuG,fay;a&;qdkif&m txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f 46 Ð trsdK;orD;rsm;tay:t=urf;zufr_/ t=urf;zuf&jcif; ta=umif;&if;rsm;eJ‹ aemufqufwJGudPrsm;qdkif&m txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f 51 Ð a&S‹aeawG/ w&m;ol}uD;awG&J‹ vGwfvyfcGifhqkdif&m txl;udk,fpm;vS,f 55 Ð vl‹tcGifhta&;ukd tjynfht0toHk;cs+yD; tqdyfoifhyPnf;awG/ tœ&m,f&SdwJhyPnf;awGeJ‹ pGef‹ypfyPnf;awG pGef‹ypfr_eJ‹ w&m;r0ifvkyfaqmifr_rsm;&J‹ qdk;&Gm;wJh tusdK;oufa&mufr_rsm;qdkif&m txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f 58 Ð ynmoif=um;cGifh qkdif&mtxl;ukd,fpm;vS,f 60 Ð a&$‹ajymif;tajccsaexkdifolrsm;&J‹vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;qkdif&m txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f 62
  5. 5. Ð jynfhpHkvHkavmufwJh aexdkifr_tqifhtwef;qdkif&m tcGifhta&;&J‹ tcsufwcsufjzpfwJh jynfhpHkvHkavmufwJh ae&mxkdifcif;&&SdcGifhqkdif&m txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f 65 Ð tpm;taomuf &&SdykdifcGifhqkdif&m txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f 67 Ð vl‹tcGifhta&;umuG,folrsm;twGuf taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf&J‹ txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f 70 Ð a'ocHvlrsdK;pkawG&J‹ tajccHvGwfvyfcGifhawGeJ‹ vl‹tcGifhta&;tajctaeqdkif&m txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f 74 tcef; (2) tr+wckcsif;pDudk udkifwG,fjcif;r&SdwJh t"duvkyfief; pepf,Eœ&m;rsm;tay: tusOf;csHK;oHk;oyfcsuf 77 Ð ukd,fh=uRmukd,fzefwD;ydkifcGifht& vlrsdK;pktcGifhta&; toHk;csjcif;ukd pGufzufjcif;[ef‹wm;jcif;eJ‹ vl‹tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufwJh enf;vrf;wcktjzpf a=u;pm;ppfom;rsm; toHk;ðyr_qdkif&m txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f 77 Ð a'owGif; twif;tusyfae&ma&$‹ajymif;cH&olrsm;qkdif&m taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf&J‹txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f 79 Ð uav;oli,frsm;eJ‹ vufeufukdifyVdyQqdkif&m taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf&J‹txl;udk,fpm;vS,f 81 Ð tvGeftrif;qif;&JrJGawr_eJ‹ vl‹tcGifhta&;qdkif&m oD;jcm;vGwfvyfwJh u|rf;usifol 83 Ð zHG‹òzd;wdk;wufr_tcGifhta&;qdkif&m oD;jcm;vGwfvyfwJh u|rf;usifol 85 Ð jynfyaºu;jrDeJ‹ rl0g'nd‡Ed_if;ajymif;vJapa&; oufa&mufr_qdkif&m oD;jcm;vGwfvyfwJh u|rf;usifol 87 tcef; (3) vkyfydkifcGifhtopf 89 Ð tjrifhqHk;&&SdEkdifwJh pdwfykdif;eJ‹&kyfykdif;qkdif&m usef;rma&;tqifhtwef;ukd vlwdkif;tjynfht0 toHk;csEkdifcGifhqdkif&m txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f 89
  6. 6. trSmpum; 'Dpmtkyfudk a&;om;ðypk&mrSm jrefrmEdkifiHom;rsm; ae@pOfeJ@tr#/ tcsdefeJ@tr# vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufcH ae&r_awGudk wpHkw&m umuG,fEdkif&eftwGuf &nf&G,fI xkwfa0&jcif;jzpfygw,f? 'Dvdk }uHKawG@ae&wJh vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufcHaer_awGudk umuG,fzdk@&efrSm csdK;azmufcH&ol/ csdK;azmufol/ b,fvdkcsdK;azmuf cJhovJ pojzifh tcsuftvufrsm;cdkifvHkapzdk@&efrSm tvGefta&;}uD;vSygw,f? 'grSom udk,f[m b,fvdktcGifhta&; awG csdK;azmufcHae&ovJ? ppfwrf;rsm;udk b,fvdkaumuf,lrvJ? b,fol@udk wdkif=um;&rvJ? b,fvdkta&; ,lr_awG vkyfay;EdkifovJ pwmawGudk tao;pdwfod&Sdzdk@&efvnf; vdktyfvSygw,f? 'ga=umifh vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_awGudk ta&;,laqmif&Guf&mrSm EdkifiHwum&J@ pHcsdefpHnGef;rsm;/ vl@tcGifh ta&;aumfr&SifeJ@ vl@tcGifhta&;aumifpDta=umif;/ olwdk@&J@ ,œ&m;awGubmawGvJ/ olwdk@&J@vkyfydkifcGifhu bmawGvJ/ olwdk@ bmawGaqmif&GufaeovJ qdkwmawGudk od&SdEdkifzdk@twGuf vef'eftajcpdkuf tjynfjynf qdkif&m vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhtzGJ@}uD; (Amnesty International) eJ@ (The Law Society) t*FvefeJ@ a0;vf Oya'a&;&mtzGJ@}uD;wdk@ 2002 ckESpfu yl;wGJxkwfa0cJhwJh The United Nations 'Thematic Mechanisms 2002' An overview of their work and mandates qdkwJh pmtkyfudk ‘uBmhukvor~ vl@tcGifhta&;qdkif&m t"duvkyfief; ,œ&m;rsm; (2002)’ vkyfydkifcGihfESifh vkyfief;aqmif&Gufcsufrsm; trnfeJ@ bmomjyefqdkvdkufwmjzpfygw,f? bmomjyef&mrSm twwfEdkifqHk; teD;pyfqHk;eJ@ em;tvnfEdkifqHk;jzpfatmif óu;pm;xm;ygw,f? vkdtyfr_rsm; &Sd&if cGifhv$wfay;yg&ef awmif;yeftyfygw,f? ? 1
  7. 7. ed'gef;&JŒ ed'gef; vl‹tcGifhta&;r[mrif;}uD;&Hk; (OHCHR) eJ‹ywfoufwJh taxGaxGowif;tcsuftvufrsm; ukvor~ vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sifu ukvor~&J@vkyfief;aqmifwmawGudk vufawG@vkyfaqmifwJh tzJG@ wpfcktjzpf &yfwnfcJhygw,f? vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sifukd 1946 ckESpf 'DZifbmv 10 &ufrSm pwifzJG@pnf; cJh+yD;vl@tcGifhta&; umuG,fapmifha&Smufa&;/ jr‡ifhwifa&;awGe@J ywfoufvdk@ ukvor~&J@ t"du vkyfief;,œ&m; wckeJ@ EkdifiHwumtwGuf aqG;aEG;n‡dEd_if;wJhae&mwck jzpfvmcJhygw,f? 'gayr,fh aumfr&Sif&J@xda&mufpGm pGrf;aqmifEkdifr_u ESpfawG=umvmwmeJ@tr# vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufwJh toif;0ifEkdifiHawGu olwdk@udk olwdk@eJ@ olwdk@&J@r[mrdwf EkdifiHawGukd pHkprf;ppfaq;ta&;,ljcif;rS umuG,fzdk@twGuf toif;0ifjzpfaer_ukd 'dkif;vdk tvJGoHk;pm; toHk;ðyvm=uwJhtcg tuef@towfawGjzpfvmcJhygw,f? 'ghtjyif toif;0ifEkdifiHawG =um;wnf&SdwJh EkdifiHa&;tajccHoabmwlnDr_t& ta&;ay: vl@tcGifhta&; tajctaeawGukd aumfr&Sifu ta&;,laqmif&GufEkdifjcif; r&SdcJhygbl;/ 'ghtjyif vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_awGudk rjzpfcif óuwif[ef@wm;jcif; rðyEkdifyJ jzpf+yD;rSom wHk@jyefta&;,laqmif&GufEkdifpGrf;yJ &SdcJhygw,f? tJ'Dtm;enf;csufawGukd ausmfv$m;ajz&Sif; Ekdifzdk@ vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sifukd vl@tcGifhta&;aumifpDeJ@ tpm;xkd;cJhygw,f? vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&SifeJ@ rwlwmu vl@tcGifhta&;aumifpDu vl@tcGifhta&;udPawGudk ta&;}uD;wJh &nfrSef;csufawGeJ@ vkyfief;aqmif wmawGtjzpf todtrSwfðyaqmif&GufcJh+yD; tJ'g&J@ tusdK;quftjzpf ukvor~ pepftwGif;rSm ykdrdkjrifhrm;wJh &yfwnfr_wck &&SdcJhygw,f? 2006 ckESpf rwfv 15 &ufae@rSm uBmtESH@jzpfyGm;wJh vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_ awGeJ@ ywfouf+yD; ta&;,laqmif&Gufzkd@ ykdrdkxdxda&mufa&mufaqmif&GufEkdifr,fh vl@tcGifhta&;aumifpD xlaxmifa&;udk ukvor~taxGaxGnDvmcHu wcJeufrJay;cJh=uygw,f? vl‹tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sif (United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights) ESifh vl‹tcGifhta&;aumifpD Human Rights Council -um; t-urf;zsif; ðcH iHkoHk;oyf E+dif;,SOfcsuf vlŒtcGifhta&;aumfr&Sif vlŒtcGifhta&;aumifpD 1946-pD;yGm;a&;ESifhvlr_a&; aumifpD 2006 rwfv 15-taxGaxGnDvmcH zJGŒpnf;jcif; atmufrSwqifh (ECOSOC) (nDvmcHqHk;jzwfcsuf 60/251) taxGaxGnDvmcH&J@ vufatmufcHtzJG@ (ECOSOC) &J@ vufawG@ taumif tqifhtwef; txnfazmf&wJh aumfr&Sif tpnf;? ukvor~ &J@ t"duuswJhtzJG@wckjzpfzkd@ ig;ESpfapmifh=unfhcHae&wJh tajctaerSm&Sd vl@tcGifhta&;umuG,f/ jr‡ifhwif&ef vl@tcGifhta&; vkyfydkifcGifh vl@tcGifhta&;umuG,f/ jr‡ifhwif&ef csdK;azmufr_rsm; umuG,fwm;qD;&ef 2
  8. 8. tzJGŒ0ifEkdifiHrsm; ta&twGuf 53 (tm&S- 15) 47 (tm&S- 13) a&G;aumufcH&yHk vlr_a&;ESifhpD;yGm;a&;aumifpDrSwqifh taxGaxGnDvmcH a'oqdkif&mtzJG@rS v_H@aqmf/ a&G;cs,fjcif;vkyfief;pOf trnfwifoGif;jcif; wOD;csif;v#dK@0SufrJay;pepft& wdkuf&kduf a&G;aumufjcif; oufwrf; oHk;ESpf “tuef@towfr&Sd” trsm;qHk; qufwdkufoufwrf;ESpfck (Oyrm-ajcmufESpf) 1? vl@tcGifhta&;eJ@ywfouf+yD; tjrifhqHk; taetxm;rSm&Sd&rnf? 2? vl@tcGifhta&;aumifpDeJ@ yl;aygif;vkyfaqmif+yD; tajccHtcsuftvufrsm; azmfjyrxm; tjynfjynf qdkif&mtcsdefrSef jyefvnfoHk;oyfa&;tzJG@. oHk;oyfr_cH&rnf? 3? rJay;jcif;u vl@tcGifhta&;rSm yg0ifepfðryfvkyfukdifr_ESifh qENtavsmuf oH"dXmefcsr_wdk@tay: tajccH&rnf tzJG@0ifEkdifiHawGu tjynfjynfqdkif&m tcsdefrSefjyefvnf jyefvnfoHk;oyfjcif;ESifh oHk;oyfa&;tzJG@. oHk;oyfjcif;ukd yxrqHk;cH&rnf? azmfjyrxm; av#mhcs a&$Œqdkif;jcif; csdK;azmufolrsm;u taxGaxG nDvmcH&J@ oHk;yHkESpfyHk axmufcHrJt& (tqifhtwef;) av#mhcscH&rnf? pnf;a0;yJGrsm; (aumifpDtzJG@0if oHk;yHkwpfyHkaxmufcHr_t&) ta&;ay: ta&twGuf wpfESpfwpf=udrf tajctaerSm txl;tpnf;ta0;ac: Ekdifzkd@eJ@twl tenf;qHk; yHkrSeftpnf;ta0; oHk;=udrf oufwrf; &ufowWywf ajcmufywf vuf&SdtzJG@ ay:rlwnf+yD; tenf;qHk;wpfESpfq,fv ae&m *sDeDAm *sDeDAm tJef*sDtdkyg0ifr+ pD;yGm;a&;eJ@ vlr_a&;aumifpDqHk;jzwfcsuf 1996/ 31 ay: pD;yGm;a&;eJ@ vlr_a&;aumifpD qHk;jzwfcsuf tajccHwJhtjyif tJef*sDtdkrsm;u txda&mufqHk; xnhf0if yg0ifaqmif&Gufr+tajccH 1996/ 31 (21 July 1996) ulnDr_ukdaocsmapzdk@twGuf aumfr&Sifu avhvmoHk;oyf xm;wJh vufawG@usifhoHk;r_awGay:vnf;tajccHygw,f? -vufa&;rl wifjycsufrsm; tJef*sDtdk yg0if -vufa&;rl wifjycsufrsm; (tuef@towfrJh) (tuef@towfrJh) -E_wft& wifjycsufrsm; (ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk aqmif&Gufr+ -E_wft& wifjycsufrsm; qHk;jzwfrnfjzpfonf) trsdK;tpm;rsm; (trsm;qHk;ajcmufck/ wck oHk;rdepfpD) -qufpyfaeaomjzpf&yfrsm; -qufpyfaeaomjzpf&yfrsm;
  9. 9. vl@tcGifhta&;aumifpD tzJG@0if 47 EkdifiHukd ukvor~ a'oqdkif&mtkyfpkrsm;twGif;rS atmufygtwdkif; a&G;cs,f ygw,f? tmz&durS 13 EkdifiH/ tm&SrS 13 EkdifiH/ ta&S@Oa&myrS 6 EkdifiH/ vufwiftar&dueJ@ um&pfbD,HrS 8 EkdifiH/ taemufOa&myeJ@ tjcm;rS 7 EkdifiH a&G;cs,fygw,f? vl@tcGifhta&;aumifpD tzJG@0if oufwrf;ukd trsm;qHk; oufwrf;ESpf=udrf qufwdkufomta&G;cs,fcH&&ef uef@owfxm;+yD; b,ftzJG@0if EkdifiHrqdk taxGaxG nDvmcHoHk;yHkESpfyHk rJt& tzJG@0iftjzpfrS ðzwfcscH&Ekdifygw,f? vufwiftar&duESifh taemufOa&myESifh tmz&duEkdifiHrsm; tm&SEdkifiHrsm; ta&SŒOa&myEkdifiHrsm; um&pfbD,HEkdifiHrsm; tjcm;EkdifiHrsm; t,fvf*sD;&D;,m; bm&def; tZmbkdif*sef tm*sifwD;em; uae'g uifr&Gef; bif;*vm;a'h&Sf csuf&Dywfbvpfuf b&mZD;vf zifvef *sDblwD w&kwf ykdvef usL;bm; jyifopf *gbGef; tdENd, &dkar;eD;,m; tDauGa'g *smreD *gem tif'dkeD;&Sm; &yf&Sm;zuf'a&;&Sif; *GmwDrmvm e,fomvef rmvD *syef ,lu&def; rUqDukd qGpfZmvef arm&pf&S a*smf'ef yD&l; ,lEkdufwuf uif;'rf; armfa&mhukd rav;&Sm; O&ka*G; Ekdif*sD;&D;,m; ygupPwef qDeDa*g zdvpfykdif awmiftmz&du awmifukd&D;,m; wleD;&Sm; aqmf'Dtma&;As ZrfbD,m oD&dvuFm 4
  10. 10. t=urf;zsif;taeeJ@ vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_awGudk vl@tcGifhta&;aumifpDu atmufazmfjyyg tcsuftvuf awGt& xdxda&mufa&muf wHk@jyefaqmif&GufoGm;zdk@jzpfygw,f? · tzJG@0ifOD;a& avsmhenf;oGm;jcif; (53 EkdifiHrS 47 EdkifiH jzpfoGm;jcif;) · vl@tcGifhta&;rSwfwrf;awGeJ@ vl@tcGifhta&;eJ@ywfoufwJhudPawGrSm b,favmufepfðryfxm;vJ qdkwmay:rlwnf+yD; taxGaxGnDvmcH tzJG@0ifwOD;csif;pD&J@ a&G;aumufwifajrSmufr_t&/ EkdifiHwEkdifiHu vl@tcGifhta&;aumifpD tzJG@0iftjzpfta&G;cHzdk@ a&G;aumufyJGrSmyg0ifr,fqkd&if tJ'DEkdifiHu vl@tcGifhta&; udPawGrSm b,favmufepfðryf vkyfukdifr,fqdkwmjyzkd@ b,fvkdv_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufr_awG vkyfr,fqkdwm uwday;azmfjycsufwck wifjy&rSmjzpfygw,f? vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sifwkef;u tJ'Dvdka&G;aumufyJG vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;awGr&SdcJhygbl;/ tzJG@0ifEkdifiHawGjzpfzdk@ a'oqkdif&mEkdifiHtkyfpkawGu trnfpm&if;wifoGif; wmyJ&Sdygw,f (tJ'ga=umifh vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufwJhEdkifiHawGvnf; tzJG@0iftjzpf aumfr&SifrSm ae&m &cJhygw,f)/ 'ghtjyif tzJG@0ifoufwrf; uef@owfxm;wmrsdK;vJ r&SdcJhygbl;? · aumifpD&J@ emrnfaumif;eJ@ vkyf&nfukdif&nfukd xdef;odrf;xm;zdk@twGuf tzJG@0ifEkdifiHwckcku vl@tcGifh ta&;csdK;azmuf usL;vGefcJh&if aumifpDuaexkwfypfEkdifwJh vkyfykdifcGifh&&Sdxm;jcif; (Oyrm- vpfAsm;u 2003 rSm vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sif OUX jzpfvmcJh+yD; tJ'gu vpfAsm;&J@ nHhzsif;wJh vl@tcGifhta&; rSwfwrf;ukd ydkrdkxif&Sm;apcJhygw,f?) · ta&;ay: vl@tcGifhta&; tajctaeawGay: rlwnf+yD; ta&;ay:pnf;a0;yJGrsm;usif;yjcif; tygt0if wpfESpftwkdif;twmtwGif; tpnf;ta0;rsm; ykdrdkusif;yjcif; · tjynfjynfqkdif&m tcsdefrSef jyefvnfoHk;oyfjcif;vkyfief;pOfuJhokd@ apmifh=unfhavhvma&; vkyfief;pepf topfrsm; wnfaxmifyl;aygif;vkyfukdifjcif;eJ@ ,if;pepfrS uBmt0Srf;&Sd EkdifiHrsm;&J@ vl@tcGifhta&;eJ@ ywf oufwJh aqmif&GufcsufawGukd OD;wnfcsuf&Sd&Sd jyefvnfoHk;oyfEkdifjcif; wdk@jzpfygw,f? vl@tcGifhta&;eJ@ywfouf+yD; vl@tcGifhta&;aumifpD &&SdcJhwJhatmifjrifr_wckuawmh txl;vkyfxHk;vkyfenf; vkyfief;pepfawG xlaxmifEkdifcJhwmyJjzpfygw,f? txl;vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;awGu xl;jcm;wJhEkdifiH/ a'oawG&J@ vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_awGudk apmifh=unfh/ avhvmoHk;oyf/ tpD&ifcHpmawGwifjywmawGukd vkyfukdifwJh pepfwck (EkdifiHqdkif&mvkyfief;,œ&m;awGtjzpfod=u+yD;) jzpfygw,f? uBmtESH@rSmjzpfyGm;wJh vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_awG&Jh xl;jcm;wJht"dutcsufvufawGeJ@ywfouf+yD; ta&;,lvkyfaqmifwm ukdawmh aemufxyf (t"duvkyfief;qkdif&m,œ&m;rsm;) pepfwcktjzpfrSwf,lEkdifygw,f? aexdkifcGifh (tdrf,m/ ae&m) qdkif&m/ w&m;vufvGwf uGyfrsufowfjzwfr_rsm;qdkif&m/ vlenf;pkvlrsdK;pkrsm; tcGifhta&;qdkif&m/ ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;r_rS vGwfajrmufcGifhqdkif&m pojzifhwdk@udk ta&;,laqmif&GufwJh t"duvkyfief; ,œ&m; 28 ck &Sdygw,f? jrefrmEdkifiH tygt0if (qdk;&Gm;wJh vl@tcGifhta&;rSwfwrf;&SdwJh EkdifiHawGay: ta&;,laqmif&GufwJh) EdkifiHwckcsif;qdkif&m xl;jcm;wJhvkyfydkifcGifhvkyfief;pepf 13 ck &Sdygw,f? vkyfief;pepfawGukd jyefvnfoHk;oyfr_awG eJ@ tcsdK@vkyfief; pepfawGudkzsufodrf;zdk@ vkyfaqmifaewmawG&Sdaeayr,fh 'Dtxl;vkyfxHk;vkyfenf; pepfawGudk vl@tcGifhta&; aumifpDukd vJ$ajymif;ay;tyfrSmjzpfygw,f? 5
  11. 11. vl@tcGifhta&;aumifpDu vl@tcGifhta&;umuG,fa&;eJ@ wkd;jr‡ifha&; aumfrwDcJGudkvnf;yJ vufajymif; &,lrSm jzpfygw,f? aumfrwDcJGu vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sifjzpfaewkef;u vl@tcGifhta&; udP&yfawGudkavhvm/ vl enf;pk/ vlrsdK;a&;eJ@ bmoma&;t& cJGjcm;ESdrfhcsqufqHwmawG umuG,fwm;qD;zdk@eJ@ ywfouf+yD; aumfr&Sifukd wdkufwGef; t=uHðycsufawG wifoGif;wJh a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcH txl;u|rf;usifol ESpfq,fhajcmufa,mufeJ@ zJG@pnf;xm;wJh vufatmufcH tzJG@wpfckjzpfcJhygw,f? aumfrwDcJGu vlenf;pkawGeJ@ tjcm;tzdESdyfcHtkyfpkawG&J@ vl@tcGifhta&; umuG,fay;zdk@eJ@ cJGjcm;ESdrfhcs qufqHwmawG wkdufzsufzdk@ w&m;r#wpGm tkyfcsKyfa&;eJ@ vl@tcGifh ta&;awGukd em;vnfoabmaygua&;awGukd avhvmcJ+h y;D tvm;tvmaygi;f ajrmufrsm;pGmukd azmfjycJygw,f? f h aumfrwDcJGu xl;jcm;wJhvl@tcGifhta&;udPawGukdta&;,laqmif&GufwJh tvkyftzJG@ckepfck zJG@pnf; xlaxmifcJh ygw,f? tJ'gawGuawmh atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygw,f · vlenf;pkrsm; · wdkif;jynfcsif; yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&; · w&m;r#wpGm tkyfcsKyfa&; · t=urf;zufr_ qef@usifa&; · aus;u|efðyr_ acwfopfyHkpHrsm; · a'ocHvlOD;a& · qufoG,fa&; · vlr_a&; zdk&rf 6
  12. 12. vl‹tcGifhta&;aumifpD. txl;vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm; txl;vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;awGudk ,cif vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sifu pwifxlaxmifcJh+yD; vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_ awGudk apmifh=uyf=unfh&_zdk@eJ@ uBmvHk;qkdif&mvl@tcGifhta&;udPawGudk avhvmoHk;oyfzkd@OD;wnf+yD; vl@tcGifh ta&;aumifpDu qufvufvkyfaqmifygw,f? txl;vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;awGu xl;jcm;wJh vl@tcGifhta&; e,fy,f awGrSmu|rf;usifwJh OD;aqmifol wOD;csif; (txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fawG/ twGif;a&;rSL;csKyfu cef@tyfwJh ukd,fpm; vS,fawG/ oD;jcm;vGwfvyfwJh u|rf;usifol awGpojzifh) jzpfEkdifwJhtjyif yHkrSeftm;jzifh tzJG@0if ig;a,mufeJ@ zJG@pnf;xm;wJh tvkyftzJG@awGvJjzpfEkdifygw,f? wOD;csif;wifjywJhwkdifwef;csufawGudk wHk@jyefaqmif&Gufjcif;/ avhvmr_rsm;ðyvkyfjcif;/ enf;ynm yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;eJ@ ywfouf+yD; t=uHOm%frsm;ay;jcif;/ tcsuft vuf&SmazGwJhudPawGaqmif&Gufjcif;eJ@ jr‡ifhwifa&;vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;rSm yg0ifjcif;wdk@ tygt0if udP&yfaygif; rsm;pGmukd txl;vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;awGu vkyfukdifaqmif&Gufygw,f? EkdifiHqkdif&m vkyfykdifcGifheJ@ t"duvkyfief; ,œ&m;awG uJGjym;wmay:rlwnf}uD; txl;vkyfief;pepfawGudk trsdK;tpm; cJGxm;ygw,f? txl;vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;pepfawGxJrSm xl;jcm;wJh vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_awGudk apmifh=uyf=unfh&_+yD; pHkprf; ppfaq;wJh w&m;0ifu|rf;usifolawGeJ@zJG@pnf;xm;wJh tvkyftzJG@awGvJ aygif;pyfyg0ifygw,f? vuf&SdrSm tJ'Dvkd tvkyftzJG@rsdK; oHk;ck&Sdygw,f/ tJ'gawGuawmh · w&m;vufvGwf zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifr_qdkif&m tvkyftzJG@ · twif;tusyf zefwD;r_t& eJ@ twif;t"rR tajctaea=umifh aysmufqHk;oGm;r_rsm;qkdif&m tvkyftzJG@ · vlawG&J@ ukd,fh=uRm udk,fzefwD;EkdifcGifhukd pGufzuf[ef@wm;zdk@ a=u;pm; (ppfom;) awGtoHk;ðyr_ qdkif&m tvkyftzJG@ 7
  13. 13. urBmhukvor*~ vl‹tcGifhta&;qdkif&m t"duvkyfief;,Eœ&m;rsm; (2002) vkyfydkifcGifhESifh vkyfief;aqmif&Gufcsufrsm; The United Nations Thematic Mechanisms 2002 An overview of their work and mandates ed'gef; 1? t"duvkyfief;qkdif&m,Eœ&m;awGqdkwm bmawGvJ? uBmhukvor~tzJG@tpnf;}uD;&J@ t"duvkyfief;qdkif&m ,œ&m;awGukd txl;vkyfief;ukd,fpm;vS,fawG/ ukd,f pm;vS,fawG/ woD;yk~v u|rf;usifolawG 'grSr[kwf xl;jcm;wJhyHkpHeJ@ uBmhae&mtESH@tjym;rSm vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufwmawGudk apmifh=unfhzdk@ ukvor~ vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sifu zJG@pnf;ay;xm;wJh vkyfief;tzJG@ awGeJ@ zJG@pnf;xm;ygw,f? 'gawGudk xl;jcm;w,fvkd@ owfrSwfxm;wJh EdkifiHawG&J@ vl@tcGifhta&;tajctaeudk apmifh=unfhzdk@ vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sifu cef@tyfwJh EdkifiHwckcsif;qkdif&m ,œ&m;awGeJ@ uJGjym;atmif “t"du vkyfief;qdkif&m” tjzpf &nfn$ef;xm;ygw,f? 'Dpmwrf;u 2002 rwfv 18 &ufuae {+yD 26 &ufae@txd usif;ywJh 58 }udrfajrmuf vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sif tpnf;ta0;t+yD;rSmay;tyfwJh vkyfykdifcGifhawGeJ@ EdkifiHwum vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhtzJG@}uD;eJ@ t*FvefeJ@a0;vf Oya'tzJG@tpnf;&Jh vrf;n$efcsufjzpfwJh “urBmŒukvor*~ tzJGŒtpnf;&JŒ t"duvkyfief;qdkif&m ,Eœ&m;rsm; 2002” ((AI Index IOR 40/20/00) published in 2000) jyifqifjznfhpGufcsufawG&Jh aemufqufwJG tusdK;oufa&mufr_yJjzpfygw,f? 'Dpmwrf;&Jh&nf&G,fcsufu owif;tcsuftvuf wifjycsifolawGeJ@ aemufqufwJGtjzpf t"duvkyfief; ,œ&m;awGudk avhvmcsifolawGukd tm;ay;ulnDzdk@yJjzpfygw,f? 'Dpmwrf;u oD;jcm;tr_awG (tr_wckcsif; pDukd) ukdta&;,lwJh vkyfief;,œ&m; 17 ckukd t"dutm&HkpkdufwJhtjyif vuf&Sd t"duvkyfief; qdkif&m ,œ&m; 24 ck&Jh tjccH owif;tcsuftvuf awGvJyg0ifygw,f? wcsdK@vkyfief;pepfawGu wjcm;pepfawGxuf tao;pdwf ydkusovkd&Sdwmu xl;jcm;wJhtcGifhtm%m tyfESif;r_obm0a=umifh 'grSr[kwf wcsdK@vkyfief;pepfawGrSm owif; tcsuftvufenf;wma=umifhjzpfygw,f? 'Dpmwrf;u jynf@pHkwJhpmwrf;wck tjzpf OD;wnfrxm;ygbl;/ 'Dtpm; t"duvkyfief;ykdif;qkdif&m enf;pepfawG&Jh vkyfief;jrifuGif;/ txl;ojzifh tpkd;&r[kwfwJh vrf;a=umif;awGuae 'DpepfawGu&SmazG&&SdwJh owif;tcsuftvufyHkpHawGtwGuf vrf;n$eftjzpf toHk;csEdkifatmif&nf&G,fxm;yg w,f? 'Dpmwrf;ukd pepfwusyHkpHcsxm;wJhtwGuf oD;jcm;tr_awGukdta&;,lwJh vkyfief;pepfawGu yxrqHk; tcef;rSm pwifwJhae@pJGt& pm&if;tvdkufyg0ifygw,f? oD;jcm;tr_awGudkta&;,lrxm;wJh vkyfief;pepfawG ukdawmh 'kwd,tcef;eJ@ vkyfykdifcGifhvJGtyfr_&Jh tao;pdwf tcsuftvufawGudkawmh wwd,tcef;rSm ae&may; xm;ygw,f? 9
  14. 14. yxr t"duvkyief;pepfjzpfwhJ twif;tusyzefw;D r_t& 'grr[kwf twif;t"Rtajctaea=umifh aysmufq;kH f f S oGm;r_rsm;twGuf vkyfief;tzJG@ukd 1980 rSmpwifzJG@pnf;cJhygw,f? 1985 rSm tusOf;&Hk; 'grSr[kwf w&m;vuf vGwfuGyfrsufr_eJ@ n‡if;yrf;ESdyfpufr_rsm; tay:ajz&Sif;&eftwGuf vkyfief;enf;pepfrsm; zefwD;r_eJ@twl aumfr&Sif u touf&SifaecGifh/ 'grSr[kwf &kyfykdif;eJ@ pdwfykdif;qdkif&m *k%fodQmtay: +cdrf;ajcmufr_awGukd wifjy wdkifwef;Ekdifzdk@ ukvor~ =um;0if[ef@wm;r_ enf;vrf;wckukdzefwD;cJhygw,f? 1980 ckaESmif;ykdif;rSm bmoma&; tpGef;a&mufr_awGeJ@ a=u;pm;ppfom;toHk;csr_awGudk ukdifwG,fzdk@ vkyfief;pepfawGudk zefwD;cJhygw,f? 1990 ckESpfawGrSm uav;a&mif;pm;r_rsm;/ uav;jynfhwefqmeJ@ uav; npfnrf;&kyf&Sif/ Oya'rJh zrf;qD;xdef;odrf; jcif;/ vlrsdK;a&;/ twif;tusyfae&ma&$@ajymif;cH&olrsm;/ xifjrifr_eJ@ azmfxkwfr_ vGwfvyfcGifh/ trsdK;orD;rsm; tay: t=urf;zufr_/ vGwfvyf+yD; bufrvkdufaom w&m;pD&ifr_eJ@ tqdyfoifh tnpfta=u; pGef@ypfr_rsm;udk ajz&Sif;&eftwGuf vkyfykdifcGifhtopfrsm;ukd zefwD;cJhygw,f? odyfr=umao;cifuyJ vkyfykdifcGifhtyfESif;r_topf awGu pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;eJ@ ,Ofaus;r_tcGifhta&;awG&J@ t"dut&nftaoG;awGudk ajymif;a&$@aexdkifolawGeJ@ a'ocHawG&Jh tcGifhta&;awG/ tpm;tpm/ usef;rma&;eJ@ aexkdifa&;qdkif&m tcGifhta&;awGyg0ifwJh yifrpDrHudef; twGuf o,faqmifcJhygw,f? 'Dvyief;qki&m,œ&m;awGu ukvor~&Jh vl@tcGita&;jr‡iwifre@J umuG,ay;r_rm txda&mufq;kH u&d,m k f df hf hf _ f S rsm;tjzpf emrnfaumif;&ygw,f? txl;wm0efawGudk “*&kwpdkuf wdwdusus” qufvuf vkyfudkifzkd@twGuf vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sif&Jh vkyfykdifcGifh vJ$tyfr_&xm;ayrJh 'Dvl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sif qHk;jzwfcsufawG&Jh tpdwf tyki;f wcsKd @u wcgwav pum;vH;k }uD;awG us,us,jf yef@jyef@ oH;k xm;wJtwGuf vkyief;pepfawGudk awmfawmf d f h f av;us,fjyef@wJh ukd,fykdifvkyfxHk; vGyfvyfcGifhawGay;xm;&ygw,f? vkyfxHk; pepfawG&JŒa,bk,scsOf;uyfr_awGukd vdkwmxufykd+yD; ta&;}uD;yHkraygufatmifowdxm;ayrJh 'DpepfawGu EdkifiHwumuy&dowfawGtwGuf uBmh ae&mtESH@rSmjzpfwJh vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_awG (tpkd;&u vl@tcGifhta&;pmcsKyf vufrSwfxdk;xm;xm; rxdk; xm;xm;) udkvdktyfwJhae&mrSm azmfxkwfEdkifpGrf;&SdwJh toHk;0ifwJh taetxm;rSm&Sdygw,f? vl@tcGifhta&; cskdK;azmufr_awGudk azmfxkwfyl;aygif;ulnDwJh tpdk;&awGtwGuf 'Dvkyfief;pepf,œ&m;awGu xl;jcm;wJh vl@tcGifh ta&;u|rf;usifrSKawGudk xlaxmif yHhydk;ay;ygw,f? 'gayr,fh vkyief;pepfawGu azmfxwawGŒ&SwmawGe‹J f k f d wduwe;t}uay;csuawGu (tpk;&awGu) w&m;0ifxe;csKyf/ zdtm;ay;EkiwmrsKd ;awG r[kwygbl;? k f Gf H f d kd df df f 'Dvkyfief;pepfawGu woD;yk~vawGeJ@ tpkd;&r[kwfwJhtzJG@tpnf; (tJef*sDtdk) awGtwGuf vuf&Sd vl@tcGifh ta&;qdkif&m wdk;wufr_awG/ oif=um;avhvma&;eJ@ EkdifiHwum w&m;0ifpHxHk;awG&Jhwkd;wufr_eJ@ wcsdK@tae txm;rSm vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_awG ukvor~udk wifjyEdkifajcawGrSm aygif;pyfyg0ifEdkifzkd@ twGufenf;vrf; wck/ toHk;0ifwJhowif;tcsuftvuf Zpfjrpfwckay;Ekdifygw,f? txl;ojzifh vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_ukd wifjyEkdifzkd@udPrSm csdK;azmufr_eJ@ygwfoufwJh owif;tcsuftvuf tjynfhtpHkukd pkaqmif;wifjyEkdifzdk@twGuf óu;pm;tm;xkwfrSkwdkif;[mta&;ygygw,f? oD;jcm;udPawGudkudkifwG,fwJh wcsdK@vkyfief;pepfawGu owif;ykd@ Edkifzdk@ (wifjywkdif=um;Ekdifzdk@ ) twGuf&nf&G,fwJh ar;cGef;v$myHkpHwckpD yHhydk;ay;ygw,f? 'Dar;cGef; yHkpHawGudk “vl‹tcGifhta&;qdkif&m txl;aumfr&Sifem&Hk;” ((OHCHR) http://www.unhchr.ch) &J@tifwmeuf pmrsufESmrSm &Ekdifygw,f? 1? owdðyapcsiwmuawmh tu,fIoD;oef‹tr+wckukd ukvor*~upOf;pm;aqG;aEG; aew,fq&if/ f kd Oyrm apmif-h unfavhvmwJh (oabmwlncsu) pmcsKyfwck&ŒJ vkyx;Hk vkyenf;atmufrm &Saew,f h D f f f S d qk&if/ tJ'gudk t"du vkyief;,Eœ&m; wcktjzpf owfrwv‹dkr&ygbl;? d f S f 10
  15. 15. 2/ b,folawGvJ txl;udk,fpm;vS,fawG/ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyfucef@tyfwhJ ukd,fpm;vS,fawG/ u|rf;usifolawGe@J tvkyf tzJG@awGu tzJG@0ifawGu (aiGa=u;) tusdK;tjrwfr,l=ubJ wm0efxrf;&Guf=uygw,f? wcsdK@u oHwrefawG (okd@ ) tpkd;& t&mxrf;awGjzpf=uayr,fhvnf; wdkif;jynf/ EkdifiHeJ@rqdkifwJhu¾rSm vl@tcGifhta&;eJ@ygwfouf+yD; u|rf;usifr_ jr‡ifhwifvmEkdif=uolawG jzpf=uygw,f? vkyfief;tzJG@0ifawGudkawmh ukvor~ a'oqdkif&mtzJG@ig;ck pvHk;u a&G;cs,fygw,f? vkyfykdifcGifhay;tyft+yD;rSm aumfr&Sifu olwdk@udkcef@tyfygw,f? vkyfief;aqmifwmawG twGuf 0efxrf;taxmuftyHheJ@ aiGa=u;jyoem =uHKae&ayrJhvnf; *sDeDAmrSm&SdwJh aumfr&Sifem&kH;u 0efxrf; awGu olwdk@udkyHhykd;axmufyHhygw,f? vkyfief; pepfawGtwGuf vkyfykdifcGifhay;xm;wmawGu tjrJwrf;twGuf r[kwfayrJh aumfr&Sif&J@qHk;jzwfcsuft& jyeftoufoGif;vdk@&ygw,f? wa,mufukd EkdifiHt&/ vkyfieff;qdkif&mt& wcsdefrSm vkyfykdifcGifhvJ$tyfwmwckyJ vkyfydkifcGifh&Sdygw,f/ aemuf+yD; vkyfykdifcGifh&xm;olawGtaeeJ@vnf; oHk;ESpfoufwrf;ESpf=udrfom wm0efxrf;aqmifcGifh&Sdygw,f? vuf&Sd vkyfykdifcGifh&xm;olawGeJ@ ygwfoufwJh owif;tcsuftvufawGukd vl@tcGifhta&;qdkif&mr[mrif;}uD;&Hk;&J@ tifwmeufpmrsufESm (http://www.unhchr.ch/htm/menu2/7/b/tm.htm) rSm&&SdEkdifygw,f? 'Dpmwrf; u vkyfykdifcGifh&xm;ol (txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f) &J@ vdifay:rlwnf+yD; qkdif&mvkyfief;pepfawGudk “ol” “olr” tjzpfn$ef;xm;ygw,f? 3? olwdk‹bmvkyfvJ txl;oHwrefeJ@ tvkyftzJG@awG&Jh vkyfief;aqmifwmawGrSm atmufygtcsufawGyg0ifygw,f/ avhvmr+rsm; vkyfief;pepfawGu taxGaxGavhvmr_awG pl;pkdufvkyfygw,f? 'DpepfawGu b,fvl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_ ykHpHu olwdk@xrSm tusH;0ifw,fqdkwmudk pl;pkdufowfrSwfw,f/ csdK;azmufr_awG&hjJ zpfyGm;yHke@J bma=umifhjzpfw,f J qdkwm cJGjcrf;pdyfjzm+yD; EkdifiHwckcsif;qkdif&m Oya'pepfawGeJ@ EdkifiHwumpHE_ef;awG&Jh tzJG@tpnf;ykdif;qdkif&m xl;jcm;csufawGay:rSm rSwfcsufawGay;ygw,f? 'DpepfawGu vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufwmawGukd umuG,fzdk@ eJ@ csdK;azmufr_awG&Jh aemufqufwJG qdk;usdK;awGudkukpm;zdk@ a,bk,s wdkufwGef;t=uHOm%fay;wmrsdK;awGvJ vkyfygw,f? qufoG,fr+rsm;vufcHjcif; wcsdK@vkyfief;pepfawGu oD;oef@wckcsif; vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_awGukd wdkif=um;wJh qufoG,fr_awGukd vufcHEdkifygw,f? 'DpepfawGu wOD;csif;qDu/ tJef*sDtdkawGqDu/ tpkd;&awGqDu/ tpkd;&awG=um; aqmif&Guf ay;wJhtzJG@tpnf; awGqDueJ@ wjcm;ukvor~vufatmufcHtzJG@tpnf;awGeJ@ &Hk;awG (tjcm;EkdifiH okd@r[kwf vkyfief;pepf qdkif&mtxl; ukd,fpm;vS,fawGtygt0if) qDu vQH&&SdwJh wdkif=um;csufawGudk ta&;,l aqmif&GufrSm jzpfygw,f? 11
  16. 16. tpdk;&rsm;eJ‹qufoG,fjcif; wu,fvkd@ owif;tcsuftvufawGu ,Hk=unfEkdifavmufw,f/ olwdk@&JhvkyfykdifcGifhxJrSm &Sdw,fvdk@ vkyfief; pepfawGu ,lq&if ta&;ay:awmif;qdkr_yHkpHt& (okd@ ) pmt&aomf‚/ tpkd;&qDukd qufoG,f ar;jref;ygw,f? ta&;ay:tr_awG (uGyfrsufcH&awmhrSmudkpkd;&drfwmrskdK;) rSm/ oufqdkifolukdumuG,fay;zdk@ tpkd;&ukd toem;cH v$mykd@ygw,f/ aemuf+yD; tr_eJ@ygwfoufwJhowif;tcsuftvufukdvJ yHhykd;ay;ygw,f? odyftvsifrvkdwJhtr_awGeJ@ a,bl,s wdkifwef;csufawGtwGufudkawmh vkyfief;pepfawGu tpkd;&qDudk wdkifwef;csuf tao;pdwf azmfjyxm;+yD; ta=umif;jyefzkd@ awmif;qdkxm;wJh pmwapmif ykd@ygw,f? vkyfief;pepftrsm;pku tpkd;&&J@wkef@jyefr_udk ESpfygwfvnftpD&ifcHpmrSm tusOf;csHK;oHk;oyfwm avmufom vkyfEkdifcsdefrSm wcsdK@vkyfief;pepfawGuawmh tpkd;&&J@wkef@jyefr_ay:rlwnf+yD; auseyfavmufzG,f tajz&wJhtxd (Oyrm jzpfyGm;wJhjy±emtwGuf wjcm;rwlwJh csOf;uyfr_enf;vrf;awG az:xkwfwifjy+yD;) wufwufºuºu vkdufvH vkyfaqmifwmrsdK;awG vkyfygw,f? ta=umif;jyef=um;csufr&wJh tr_awGtwGuf vkyfief;pepfawGu owday;csufawG ykd@ay;ygw,f? tpkd;&qDukd ta&;ay:toem;cHwm/ pmwapmifykd@wmavmufeJ@awmh wkdif=um;csufwdkif; tajzjyefr&ygbl;? 'gu r[mrif;}uD;&Hk;&J@ t&if;tjrpfrvHkavmufr_ (okd@ ) vQH&&SdwJh owif;taxmuftxm;&Jh t&nftaoG; ay: rlwnfEkdifygw,f? aumfr&Sifukdwifjy&wJhESpfpOftpD&ifcHpm ESpfwdkif;rSm vkyfief;pepfawGu +yD;cJhwJhwpfESpfvHk; olwdk@vkyfcJhwJh vkyfief;awGudkazmfjyxm;wJh tpD&ifcHpm wapmifukd (rwfeJ@{+yDrSmusif;ywJh) aumfr&SifESpfpOftpnf;ta0;ukd wif&ygw,f? 'DtpD&ifcHpmawGu taxGaxGudPawG (vkyfykdifcGifhvJ$tyfwmawG/ tvkyfvkyfyHkawG/ tao;pdyfoHk;oyfyHkawG/ wdkufwGef;csufawG) udk aqG;aEG;wJhtjyif olwdk@vQH&&SdwJhtpD&ifcHpmawGeJ@ EkdifiHwEkdifiHcsif;pDtvkduf tpdk;&&J@ wkH@jyefyHkawGudk avhvmoHk;oyfygw,f? wcsdK@tpD&ifcHpmawGrSm ta&;ay:toem;cHr_ (okd@ ) tpkd;&qD owif;tcsuftvufykd@ wJh t=udrfa&/ tpkd;&awGu ta=umif;jyefwJh t=udrfa& pwJhpm&if;Z,m;awG yg0ifygw,f? wcsdK@vkyfief; pepfawGukd (pufwifbmuae 'DZifbmtxdusif;ywJh) ukvor~ taxGaxGnDvmcH ukdwifjyzkd@ =um;jzwf tpD&ifcHpmawG wifckdif;ygw,f? ¹cif;csufuawmh taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf&Jh uav;oli,feJ@ vufeufukdif jy±emqdkif&m txl;udk,fpm;vS,fu taxGaxGnDvmcHukd ESpfpOftpD&ifcHpm wif&ayr,fh aumfr&SifESpfpOf tpnf;ta0;ukdawmh =um;jzwftpD&ifcHpmyJwif&ygw,f? EdkifiHc&D;pOfrsm; vkyfief;pepfawGu EdkifiHawGG&J@tajctaeukdavhvmzkd@ yxrqHk;taeeJ@ vufawG@uGif;qif;ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh 'Dvdkc&D;pOfrsdK;udk tpkd;&&Jhzdwf=um;csuft&omðyvkyfEkdifygw,f? +yD;cJhwJhaumfr&Sif ({y&,f 2002) tukefrSm EdkifiHoHk;q,fh&SpfEkdifiHtpkd;&awGu b,fvkyfief;pepfrsdK;udkrqdk avhvmcsifwJhtcsdef olwdk@EdkifiHawGudk avhvm 12
  17. 17. Edkifzdk@zdwf=um;cJhygw,f? tJ'DEdkifiHawGuawmh b&mZD;/ blvfa*;&D;,m;/ uae'g/ aumfpwm&Dum/ qdkufy&yfpf/ csufuf&Dywfbvpfuf/ tufpfwdk;eD;,m;/ Oa&myor~ (=op&D;,m;/ b,fvf*sD,H/ 'def;rwf/ zifvef/ jyifopf/ *smreD/ *&dpf/ tdkif,mvef/ tDwvD/ vyfZifbmh*f/ e,fomvef/ ay:wl*D/ pydef/ qGD'if eJ@ ,lEkdufwufuif;'rf; (+Adwee@J ajrmufyi;f tdi,mvef)/ a*sm*s,m/ *GmwDrmvm/ [efa*&D/ tdupvef/ vwfA;D ,m;/ vpfoa,;eD;,m;/ d f dk k f f D k f f l armfvfwm/ rUqDukd/ aemfa0/ yD&l;/ ykdvef/ &dkar;eD;,m;/ qvdkaA;uD;,m;/ qvdkaA;eD;,m;/ qGpfZmvef eJ@ wl&uD EkdifiHawGyJjzpfygw,f? EdkifiHc&D;pOfawGu txl;ukd,fpm;vS,ftwGuf tpkd;&ukd,fpm;vS,fawG/ tJef*sDtkdawG/ um,uH&SifawG/ olwdk@&J@ aqGrsdK;om;csif;awGe@J qufoG,faqmif&Guf&muwqifh owif;tcsuftvufpkaqmif;zdk@ wu,fhtcGifh tvrf; aumif;awG yHhydk;ay;Ekdifygw,f? EdkifiHc&D;pOfawGu wu,fawmh tpdk;&qDukd wkdufwGef;csufawG tygt0if aumfr&SifudkoD;jcm;wifjywJh tpD&ifcHpmacgif;pOfawGyJjzpfygw,f? tcgtm;avsmfpGm ESpfckeJ@ ESpfcktxuf vkyfief;pepfawG (vkyfief;qdkif&m okd@ EdkifiHqdkif&m) u tpkd;&w&yfqDukd yl;aygif;ukd,fpm;ðy r_eJ@ yl;aygif;c&D;pOfawG vkyfEkdifygw,f? EkdifiHc&D;pOf tpD&ifcHpmawGrSmygwJh t=uHðywdkufwGef;csufawGu tpkd;&twGuf vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_udk &yfwef@zdk@ toHk;0ifwJhvrf;n$efcsufawGyJjzpfygw,f? okd@aomfvnf; vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sifu wdkufwGef; t=uHay;csufawGukd jznfhqnf;zkd@twGuf omrefavmufyJ tm&HkpkdufwJhtjyif vkyfief;pepftrsm;pku t&if; tjrpfcsdK@wJhvGef;wJhtwGuf olwdk@twGufEkdifiHc&D;pOft+yD; aemufqufwJG vkyfief;awGvkyfzdk@qdkwm cJ,Of; vGef;ygw,f? ESpfpOftpnf;ta0;rsm; vkyfieff;tzGJ@awG&J@OUXawG/ txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fawG/ EkdifiHqdkif&mtxl;ukd,fpm;vS,fawG/ udk,fpm;vS,fawG/ eJ@ u|rf;usifolawGu “AD,ifema=unmcsufeJ@ vkyfief;tpDtpOf (tykdif; 2/ pmykd'f 95)” t& “tvkyfawG vdkufavsmnDaxGjzpfzkd@eJ@ [efcsufnDapzkd@twGuf” ESpfpOfawG@qHkaqG;aEG;ygw,f? 'Dtpnf;ta0;awG&J@ yxrqHk; tpnf;ta0;ukd *sDeDAmrSm 1994 rSmusif;ycJhygw,f? 'Dtpnf;ta0;awGrSm aqG;aEG;wJh ta=umif;t&mawGrSm vkyfief;pepfawGeJ@ aumfr&Sif=um; vkyfief;ykdif;qdkif&mqufqHa&;/ aumfr&Sifu csrSwfwJh vkyfief;qHk;jzwfcsuf awGukd taumiftxnfazmfa&;/ vl@tcGifhta&; r[mrif;}uD;eJ@ tjcm;ukvor~ tzJG@tpnf;rsm;=um; yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;/ vkyfykdifcGifhtm%m v$Jtyfr_twGif; trsdK;orD; tcGifhta&;rsm; aygif;pyfxnfhoGif;a&;eJ@ &if;jrpfESifhtkyfcsKyfa&;ykkdif;qdkif&mudP/ &if;jrpfXmeaxmufyhHa&;0efaqmifr_eJ@ owif;toHk;csr_awGyg0ifygw,f? tjcm;vkyfaqmifcsufrsm; vkyfief;pepfawGu olwkd@vuf&SdvkyfaewJh avhvmcsufawGtwGuf oifhawmfwJh owif;tcsuftvufawGukd tpkd;&rsm;eJ@ tJef*sDtdkrsm;qDu awmif;cHwmawGukdvnf; yg0ifvkyfaqmifygw,f? 'Dvkyfief;pepfawGu nDvmcHawG wufa&mufwmrsdK;/ owif;xkwfjyefwmrsdK;eJ@ olwdk@vuf&Sdvkyfaewm ykdaumif;rGefatmifrGrf;rHwJh tjcm;vkyfaqmifcsuf rsdK;awGukdvJ vkyfaqmifygw,f? 13
  18. 18. 4? vkyfief;pepf,Eœ&m;awGukdb,fvkdqufoG,fEkdifvJ owif;tcsuftvuf wifjyzkd@twGuf (okd@ ) vkyfief;pepf ,œ&m;awGeJ@ywfouf+yD; aemufxyftcsuf tvufawGodcsif&if atmufyg oifhawmfwJhvkyfief;pepf vdyfpmtwkdif; pma&;om;ay;ydk@Ekdifygw,f? For the attention of: (oifhawmfwJhvkyfief;pepfemrnf) Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights Palais des Nations Avenue de la Paix 8-14 1211 Geneva 10 Switzerland Tel: +41 22 917 90 00 Fax: +41 22 917 9006 or 9003 E-mail: webadmin.hchr@unog.ch (remember to include in the subject box which mechanism you are addressing) tpD&ifcHpmtopfawGtygt0if qHk;jzwfcsufawG/ ukvor~tcsuftvufpmapmifawG/ owif;ykd@csifol awGukd taxmuftyHhay;Ekdifzdk@ yHkpHxkwfxm;wJh yHkpHpm&GufawGeJ@ ar;cGef;v$mawG/ aumfr&SifeJ@ vkyfief;pepf ,œ&m;awG&Jh tvkyfeJ@ ywfoufwJhowif; tcsuftvuftjynfhtpHk udktxl;aumfr&Sifem&Hk; tifwmeuf pmrsufESm (http://www.unhchr.ch) rSmawG@&SdEkdifygw,f? vwfwavmrSm 'Dtcsuftvuf awGukd &csif&if tifwmeufpmrsufESm homepage ukdoGm; “Sections” ae&mrSm “Programmes” ukdESdyf/ +yD;&if “Extra-Conventional Mechanisms” udkxyfESdyf/ aemufwcg “Thematic Mandates” udkxyfoGm;&if &&SdEkdifygw,f? qHk;jzwfcsuftrSwfpOfawGeJ@ taxmuftxm;&nfn$ef;csufawG udk “Charter- based” udk&Smzdk@oHk;Ekdifygw,f? 5? vkyfief;pepf,Eœ&m;awGudk qufoG,f (wkdif-um;) Edkifzkd‹ tedrfhqHk; owif;tcsuftvuf · b,fol@udkqufoG,faqmif&Gufzkd@vdyfrlxm;ovJ (b,fvkyfief;pepf,œ&m;vJ)/ wdkif=um;wJh csdK;azmuf r_u vlyk~dKvfukd qufoG,fzkd@vdyfrlxm;wmxuf vkyfief;pepfeJ@ykd+yD;ywfoufw,fqdkwm xif&Sm;vm Ekdifayr,fh vl@tcGifhta&; aumfr&Sifem&Hk; (OHCHR) uom qHk;jzwfcsufcsEdkifygw,f? · OD;wnfcsufawGeJ@ vkyfief;enf;vrf;awGtygt0if tzJG@tpnf; (okd@ ) qufoG,fa&;om;ol (wkdif=um;ol) eJ@ ywfoufwJh tcsuftvuf/ Oyrm owif;tcsuftvufukd b,fvkdpkaqmif; twnfðyr,fqkdwm? · vkyfief;pepfawGu wdusrSefuef+yD; r#ww,fvkd@,lqwJh owif;tcsuftvufudk ta&;,laqmif&Guf r,fhtwGuf qufoG,fwifjyyHku 'DvkdrsdK;ykHpHtwdkif;jzpfzkd@ta&;}uD;w,fqdkwm rSwfom;&ygr,f? · wu,fvkd@ wifjywdkifwef;csufu wOD;csif;tr_eJ@ywfoufae&if/ um,uH&Sif&Jhemrnf/ jzpfwJh &ufpJGeJ@ ae&m/ cskdK;azmufr_&Jh wduswJhtao;pdwf tcsuftvufawG (b,fvdkusL;vGefw,f/ bmvufeuf 14
  19. 19. awGoHk;w,f/ cýmukd,f b,ftpdwftydkif; xdcdkuf'%f&m&w,f/ 'grSr[kwf usL;vGefwmu pdwfydkif; qdkif&mt&qdk&if bmawGyg0ifw,f/ w&m;cHtwGuf b,fvdk xdckduf epfemw,f) tygt0if wkdifwef;wJh csdK;azmufr_&Jh tao;pdwfukd wifjyyg? · wu,fvdk@ wifjywdkifwef;csufu a,sbk,s tajctaeqdk&if aemufcHtajctaewck zefwD;ay;zdk@ owif;tcsuftvuf yHhykd;ay;jcif;yHkpHeJ@ pwif&ygr,f? aemufxyfrSwfom;&rJhtcsufu qufoG,fowif; ykd@csufukd vQH&&Sdr,fholu (csdK;azmufr_jzpfyGm;wJh) EkdifiHeJ@ywfouf+yD; tenf;tusOf;om odoljzpfEkdif ygw,f? tJ'ga=umifh Oyrm wifjywJhowif;tcsuftvufeJ@ ywfoufwJh w&m;0ifabmifeJ@ EkdifiHa&; tajctaeawGu wifjyxm;wJh aemufcHtajctaeeJ@ udkufnDEdkif&ygr,f? 'Dtajctaeudk xlaxmif+yD;wJh tcgrSmawmh vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_ tajctaetcsuftvufawGudk tao;pdwf jc,fr_ef;wifjy& ygr,f? &SmazGawG@&SdwmawGudk wifjywJhtxJrSm jyXmef;xm;wJhyHkpHawG twdkif;wifjyzdk@ t=uHðyygw,f/ 'ghtjyifwifjyawmif;qdkr_awGudk wwfEkdifor#tao;pdwf OyrmeJ@ wuGwifjy&ygr,f? · qufoG,fwifjyr_ ykHpHESpfckpvkH;eJ@ywfoufvkd@ taxmuftulðy tcsuftvuf rdWLawG yHhykd;ay;yg? · qufoG,fwifjycsufrSm v#dK@0Suf&rSmawGrsm;yg&if (v#dK@0Sufxm;apcsifwJhta=umif;) azmfjyay;yg? · wOD;csif;tr_awGeJ@ywfouf+yD; tr_uta&;ay:udP[kwfr[kwfazmfjyay;yg? · wu,fvdk@wifjyxm;wJhtajctaerSm tajymif;tvJawG&SdcJh&if (Oyrm w&m;vufvGwf tzrf;cHxm; &wJh wOD;wa,muf jyefvGwfvmwJhtcgrsdK;rSm) vkyfief;pepfukdowif;ydk@zkd@rarhygeJ@? vkyfief;pepfawGtwGuf aemufxyfvkdwJh owif;tcsuftvufukdawmh 'Dpmwrf;rSm tvsOf;oifhovkd azmfjyxm;ygw,f? taxGaxGvkyfykdifcGifhvJ$tyfjcif; (General Mandate) vkyief;pepfwckcsi;f pDtwGuf oD;oef@csrwwhJ qH;k jzwfcsuawGtjyif aumfr&Siu tpnf;ta0;wdi;f rSm vkyief; f S f f f k f pepftm;vHk;ukd olwkd@&JhvkyfykdifcGifhvJ$tyfwmawG t+yD;owfaqmif&Gufzkd@eJ@ oD;oef@xl;jcm;wJh t=uHðywkdufwGef; csufrsdK;awGudk taumiftxnfazmfzdk@ n$ef=um;wJh qHk;jzwfcsufrsdK;awG csrSwfygw,f? +yD;cJhwJh tpnf;ta0; awGrSm atmufygtajccHtcsufawGudkxnfhoGif;cJhygw,f? vl‹tcGita&;ESihf vkyief;pepfqi&m vkyx;Hk vkyenf;rsm; (Human rights and thematic procedures) hf f kd f f f aumfr&Siu vkyief;pepfawGukd atmufygtcsursm;tm; tpD&ifcpmawGrm xnfoi;f azmfjyzk@d awmif;cHygw,f? f f f H S h G · vkyfief;pepfawGuydk@wJh (wkdif=um;csuf) qufoG,fowif;ykd@csufawG&Jh aemufqufwJG vkyfaqmifcsuf tjzpf tpkd;&awGu yHhykd;wJhowif;tcsuftvufrsm;/ 15
  20. 20. · vQHcsOf;uyfEkdifavmufwJh jyoemrsm;tay: rSwfcsufcsr_rsm;eJ@ vkyfydkifcGifhtm%mawGukd ydkrdkxdxd a&mufa&muf aqmif&GifEkdifzdk@ cJGjcrf;pdwfjzmoHk;oyfr_rsm;&Jh&vm'f/ · vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sifem&Hk;&Jh t=uHay;0efaqmifr_eJ@ enf;ynmyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&; tpDtpOfrS wqifh tpdk;&awGu avsmufywfwJh taxmuftul awmif;cHvmEkkdifwmrsdK;twGuf t=uHOm%f urf;vSrf;r_rsm;/ · t"dutm;jzifh trsdK;orD;rsm;tay: ypfrSwfxm;wJh (okd@ ) txl;ojzifh trsdK;orD;rsm; xdckduf vG,fwJh vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_ oabmobm0eJ@ vufawG@uswJh csdK;azmufr_rsm; tay: cJGjcrf;pdwfjzmokH;oyfr_ rsm;eJ@ vdift& cJGjcm;qufqHr_tcsuftvufrsm;/ · vl@tcGifhta&;umuG,fjr‡ifhwifolrsm;&Jh owif;tcsuftvufeJ@ olwdk@vHkðcHa&;udk b,fvkd jr‡ifhwifay; EkdifrvJqdkwJhtcsuf/ · t"dutm;jzifh uav;oli,frsm;ukd ypfrSwfxm;wJh (okd@ ) txl;ojzifh uav;oli,frsm; xdckduf vG,fwJh vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_ owif;tcsuftvufeJ@ touft& cJGjcm;qufqHr_ tcsuftvufrsm;/ trsKd ;orD;rsm;tay:t-urf;zufruz,f&m;wduzsujf cif; (Elimination of violence against women) + dk S k f trsdK;orD;rsm;tay: t=urf;zufr_qdkif&m txl;udk,fpm;vS,fu ol@vkyfydkifcGifhtwdkif; xrf;aqmifEkdifzdk@ txl;ojzifh olawmif;wJh owif;tcsuftvufukd wHk@jyefay;zkd@ aumfr&Sifu tpdk;&tm;vHk;udk arWm&yfcH xm;ygw,f? 'ghtjyif vkyfief;pepf tm;vHk;eD;yg;udk olwdk@&J@vkyfykdifcGifhtm%m e,fajrxJrSm vdift& vl@tcGifh ta&; csdK;azmufr_awGeJ@ trsdK;orD;rsm;eJ@ rdef;ri,frsm;tm; vlukeful;r_udk txl;tm&Hkpdkufzdk@ aumfr&Sifu awmif;qkdxm;ygw,f? xifjrif,lqcsufeJ‹ azmfxkwfwifjycGifhqdkif&mvGwfvyfcGifhudkjr‡ifhwifjcif; (Promotion of the right to freedom of opinion and expression) aumfr&Sifu txdrf;odrf;cH yk~dKvfrsm;/ t=urf;zufcH (okd@ ) rw&m;qufqHcH&olrsm;eJ@ ywfoufwJh owif; tcsuftvufrsm; (okd@ ) xifjrif,lqcsufqdkif&m vGwfvyfcGifh/ uBmhvl@tcGifhta&; a=unmpmwrf; (1948) t& twnfðyazmfjyxm;csufrsm;/ EdkifiHa&;eJ@ vlr_tcGifhta&;qdkif&m (1966) EkdifiHwum oabmwlnDcsuf eJ@ tjcm;avsmfuefwJh vl@tcGifhta&;enf;vrf;rsm;ukd usifhoHk;olrsm;tm; cJGjcm;qufqH ESdyfuGyfjcif;rsm;ukd *&kðytm&Hkpkdufzkd@eJ@ tjcm;b,fazmfxkwfwifjycGifhqdkif&m vGwfvyfcGifh ,dk,Gif;qHk;&_H;r_ rsdK;ukdrqdk owdðyzkd@ vkyfief;pepfawGudk wdkufwGef;xm;ygw,f? t}uHay;0efaqmifr+rsm;eJ‹ enf;ynmqdkif&m yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr+rsm; (Advisory services and technical co-operation) (oifhawmfwJh b,fae&mrSmyJjzpfjzpf) wdusxl;jcm;wJh pDrHudef;awG (vl@tcGifhta&; tajctae&Jh vufawG@eJ@ 16
  21. 21. jrifomxifom&SdwJh tajymif;tvJawGudk xnfhoGif;yg0ifEkdifzkd@ tjrifwckeJ@twl vl@tcGifhta&; aumfr&Sifem &Hk;u }uD;=uyfaqmif&GufwJh t=uHay;0efaqmifr_eJ@ enf;ynmqkdif&m yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_ tpDtpOfatmufrSm todtrSwfðy aqmif&GufEkdifzkd@twGuf) twGuf wifjyawmif;cHr_awGudk olwkd@&Jh t=uHðy wdkufwGef;csufawGrSm xnfhoGif;zkd@ aumfr&Sifu vkyfief;pepfawGudk wkdufwGef;ygw,f? EkdifiHwcktwGif;aexdkifr+t& (okd‹) vlrsdK;pk/ ukd;uG,f,Hk-unfr+eJŒ bmompum;t& vlenf;pkjzpfaeolrsm; twGuf tcGifhta&;rsm; (Rights of persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities) aumfr&Sifu (EdkifiHwcktwGif;aexkdifr_t& (okd@ ) vlrsdK;pk/ ukd;uG,f,Hk=unfr_eJ@ bmompum;t& vlenf;pk jzpfaeolrsm; tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf; (1992) yg tcsuftvufrsm;t&) vlenf;pkawG&Jh tcGifhta&;awGudk umuG,fjr‡ifhwifzdk@eJ@ oifhawmfovkd taxmuftyHhay;tyfzkd@ vkyfief;pepfawGudk vkyfykdifcGifh tm%mrsm;twGif; oifhawmfavsmufywfwJh tav;xm;av;pm;r_awG qufvufay;tyfzkd@ wdkufwGef;xm;ygw,f? tpkvdkuft_yHKvkduf xGufajy;ajymif;a&$Œolrsm;/ twif;tusyfae&majymif;cH&olrsm;ESifh vl‹tcGifhta&; (Human rights and mass exoduses and displaced persons) tpkvdkuftjyHKvdkuf xGufajy;ajymif;a&$@r_rsm;eJ@ ajymif;a&$@olrsm;&Jh jy±emrsm;/ olwdk@&J@ qütavsmuf ae&yfjyefEdkifa&;twGuf apmifhqdkif;ae&r_ESifh a'owGif; twif;tusyf ae&majymif;a&$@ cH&EdkifzG,f&SdwJh (okd@ ) ajymif;a&$@cH&wJh tajctaersm;ukd (oifhawmfwJhae&mrSm) owif;tcsuftvuf &SmazGpkaqmif;zkd@eJ@ tpD&if cHpmawGrSm owif;tcsuftvufeJ@ wdkufwGef;csufawG xnfhoGif;zkd@ aumfr&Sifu vkyfief;pepfawGukd wdkufwGef; xm;ygw,f? a'owGif;twif;tusyf ae&ma&$Œajymif;cH&olrsm; (Internally displaced persons) a'owGif;twif;tusyf ae&majymif;cH&r_awGudk tm&Hkpkdufzkd@/ a'owGif; twif;tusyf ae&majymif;a&$@ cH&EdkifzG,f&SdwJh (okd@ ) ajymif;a&$@cH&wJh tajctaeawGay:u owif;tcsuftvuf &SmazGpkaqmif; aewmawG udkqufvkyfzkd@eJ@ tpD&ifcHpmawGrSm owif;tcsuftvufeJ@ wdkufwGef;csufawGxnfhoGif;zkd@ aumfr&Sifu vkyfief;pepfawGukd wdkufwGef;xm;ygw,f? ukvor*~tzJGŒtpnf;rsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;eJ‹yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif; (Co-operation with representatives of UN bodies) aumfr&Sifu tpkd;&awGudk ukvor~tzJG@tpnf;rsm;eJ@ yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufvkdolrsm;tay: yHkpH trsdK;rsdK;jzifh jcdrf;ajcmuftusyfukdifjcif; vufpm;ajctjypf'%fay;jcif;rsdK;udkrqdk a&Smif&Sm;&yfwef@zkd@ wkdufwGef; xm;wJh tjyif vkyfief;pepf ,œ&m;rsm;tygt0if ukvor~tzJG@tpnf;rsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udkvnf; ukvor~ vl@tcGifhta&;qdkif&m vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;awGtwGuf csOf;uyfr_rsm;rS wm;qD;aESmuf,Sufjcif;udk umuG,fzkd@ wdkufwGef;xm;ygw,f? vkyfief;pepf,œ&m;rsm;udkvnf; aumfr&SifudkwifwJh tpD&ifcHpmawGrSm vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_jzpfyGm;r_awGeJ@ olwdk@b,fvkdwkef@jyef udkifwG,fajz&Sif;w,fqdkwJh owif;tcsuftvufawG 17
  22. 22. xnfhoGif;wifjyzdk@ n$ef=um;xm;ygw,f? ukvor~ vl@tcGifhta&;tzJG@awGeJ@ yl;aygif;aqmif&GufcGifh &rxm;wJh tJef*sDtdk ukd,fpm;vS,fwdkif; vl@tcGifh ta&;csdK;azmufr_awGukd vl@tcGifhta&;qdkif&m r[mrif;}uD;&Hk;ukd tjrefqHk;owif;ykd@zdk@ ta&;}uD;ygw,f? uav;oli,ftcGifhta&;rsm; (Rights of the child) uav;oli,fawGtwGuftœ&,f&Sd+yD; (vrf;ay:u uav;awG/ uav;vkyftm; acgif;yHkjzwfr_/ vufeufudkif yËdyQrsm;eJ@ uav;oli,frsm;/ uav;oli,fa&mif;csr_rsm;/ uav;jynfhwefqmeJ@ uav;oli,frsm;tm; npfnrf;&kyf&Sif/ "gwfyHk/ pmtkyfrsm;wGiftoHk;csr_rsm; tygt0if) olwdk@&Jh tcGifhta&;awG tcsdK;azmufcH&wJh xl;jcm;wJhtajctaeawGay: txl;*&kðytm&Hkpdkufzkd@ aumfr&Sifu vkyfief;pepfawGudk wdkufwGef;xm;ygw,f? pGyfpJGjypfwif tjypf'%fay;jcif;rS uif;vGwfcGifh (Impunity) aumfr&Sifu olwdk@tvkyfcGiftwGif;rSmtusHkK;0ifwJh pGyfpJGjypfwiftjypf'%fay;jcif;rS uif;vGwfcGifh udP&yfrsm;ukd tav;xm; pOf;pm;zkd@ vkyfief;pepfawGudk wdkufwGef;xm;ygw,f? wzufowf twif;tusyf ta&;,laqmif&Gufr+rsm;ESifh vl‹tcGifhta&; (Human rights and unilateral coercive measures) aumfr&Sifu wzufowftwif;tusyf ta&;,laqmif&Gufr_rsm;eJ@ aemufqufwJGqdk;usdK;rsm;ukd txl; tav;xm;tm&Hkpkdufzkd@ vkyfief;pepfawGudk wdkufwGef;xm;ygw,f? "g;pmcHtjzpf ac:aqmifjcif; (Hostage – taking) aumfr&Sifu olwdk@tvkyfcGiftwGif;rSm tusKH;0ifwJh "g;pmcHtjzpfac:aqmifcH&jcif;rsm;&J@ aemufqufwJG tusdK;qufawGukd oifhawmfovkd qufvufazmfxkwfwifjyzkd@ vkyfief;pepfawGudk wdkufwGef;xm;ygw,f? t-urf;zufpepfESifh vl‹tcGifhta&; (Human Rights and Terrorism) aumfr&Sifu t=urf;zuftzJG@tpnf;rsm;&Jh v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;/ v_yf&Sm;yHkenf;vrf;rsm;/ vufawG@vkyfaqmifr_rsm;eJ@ aemufqufwJG&v'frsm;ukd oifhawmfovkd tav;xm;pOf;pm;zkd@ oufqdkifwJh vkyfief;pepfawGudk wdkufwGef; xm;ygw,f? w&m;pD&iftkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh txl;ojzifh uav;oli,fw&m;pD&ifa&; (Administration of justice, in particular juvenile justice) aumfr&Sifu uav;oli,fw&m;pD&ifa&; tygt0if/ w&m;pD&iftkyfcsKyfa&;eJ@ xda&mufwJh vl@tcGifhta&; umuG,fr_rsm;eJ@ qufpyfwJh ar;cGef;rsm;tm; qufvuftav;xm; vkyfaqmifzkd@eJ@ 'DtwGuf (t=uHay; 18
  23. 23. 0efaqmifr_eJ@ enf;ynmtaxmuftul awmif;cHr_rsm;tygt0if) wdusxda&mufwJh wdkufwGef; t=uHay;csuf rsm; yHhykd;ay;zdk@ oufqdkifwJh vkyfief;pepfawGudk wdkufwGef;xm;ygw,f? 'Drdkua&pDESifh vlrsdK;a&;0g't-um; (uGm[r+) n‡dE+dif;r_ (Incompatibility between democracy and racism) aumfr&Sifu vkyfief;pepfawG (txl;ojzifh vuf&SdvlrsdK;a&;0g'yHkpHawG/ vlrsdK;a&;t& cJGjcm;qufqHwmawG/ wkdif;wyg;om;rsm;tm;rkef;wD;r_eJ@ aemufqufwJGtjzpf tjrifusOf;ajrmif; &efvkdr_rsm;twGuf cef@tyfwJh txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f) udk vlrsdK;a&;rkefwD;r_wdk;yGm;vmr_eJ@ EdkifiHa&;t&eJ@ vl@tzGJ@tpnf;taetxm;t& (txl;ojzifh 'Drdkua&pDpepfeJ@ ravsmfuefwJh/ n‡dEd_if;r&EkdifwJh) wkdif;wyg;om;rkef;wD;r_tay:tajccHwJh vl@ tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_awGtay: qufvuftav;xm; vkyfaqmifzkd@ wdkufwGef;xm;ygw,f? roefrpGrf;rsm;twGuf vl‹tcGifhta&; (Human rights of persons with disabilities) aumfr&Sifu olwdk@tvkyfcGiftwGif;rSm tusHkK;0ifwJh roefrpGrf;rsm;twGuf vl@tcGifhta&; tajctae ukd azmfxkwfaqmif&Gufzkd@ vkyfief;pepftm;vHk;udk wdkufwGef;xm;ygw,f? vlrsdK;a&;0g'/ vlrsdK;a&;t& cJGjcm;qufqHjcif;/ wdkif;wyg;om; rkef;wD;r+eJ‹ cJGjcm;qufqHr+yHkpHrsm; (Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and All Forms of Discrimination) aumfr&Siu olw@kd vyyicitwGi;f rSm tusKH ;0ifwhJ vlrsKd ;a&;0g'/ vlrsKd ;a&;t& cJjG cm;qufqjH cif;/ wdi;f wyg;om; f k f dk f G hf k rkef;wD;r_eJ@ aemufqufwJG vlrsdK;a&;wif;rmr_rsm;tm;vHk;ukd wdkufzsufzkd@ 'gbefa=unmcsufeJ@ uBmhnDvmcH&Jh vkyfief;tpDtpOfawGudk oifhawmfovkd pOf;pm;aqG;aEG;zkd@ vkyfief;pepfawGudk wdkufwGef;xm;ygw,f? *vkdb,fvkdufaZ;&Sif; (urBmðyr+) eJ‹ vl‹tcGifhta&;&JŒtoHk;0ifr+tay: tusdK;oufa&mufr+ (Globalization and its impact on the full enjoyment of human rights) aumfr&Sifu (oifhawmf&meJ@ olwdk@vkyfykdifcGifhtwGif;rSm tusHK;0ifwJh) vl@tcGifhta&; r[mrif;}uD;&Jh *vkdb,f vdkufaZ;&Sif;eJ@ vl@tcGifhta&;&Jh toHk;0ifr_ay: tusdK;oufa&mufr_ tpD&ifcHpmukd pOf;pm;aqG;aEG;zkd@ vkyfief; pepfawGudk wdkufwGef; xm;ygw,f? vlwdkif;yg0ifaqmif&Gufr+/ nDr#r+/ vlr+a&;w&m;r#wr+eJ‹ cJGjcm;qufqHr+rðyjcif;rsm;tm; 'Drdkua&pD&J‹ ta&;ygwJh tajccHrsm;tjzpf cdkifrmapjcif; (Strengthening of popular participation, equality, social justice and non-discrimination as essential foundations of democracy) aumfr&Sifu olwdk@vkyfykdifcGifh twGif;rSmtusHkK;0ifwJh vlwdkif;yg0ifaqmif&Gufr_/ nDr#r_/ vlr_a&; w&m;r#wr_eJ@ cJGjcm;qufqHr_ rðyjcif;rsm;tm; 'Drkdua&pD&J@ta&;ygwJh tajccHtkwfjrpfrsm;tjzpf ckdifrmapzkd@twGuf taumif txnfazmfzkd@ vkyfief;pepfawGudk wdkufwGef; xm;ygw,f? 19
  24. 24. aysmufqHk;aeolrsm; (Missing persons) aumfr&Sifu vufeufudkifyËdyQrsm;eJ@qufEG,fwJh vlaysmufwkdifwef;csufjyemrsm;ukdk azmfxkwfwifjyzkd@ oufqdkifwJhvkyfief;pepftm;vHk;ukd arWm&yfcHxm;ygw,f? 20
  25. 25. tcef; (1) tr+wckcsif;pDtay: vkyfief;pepf,EW&m;rsm;. udkifwG,fajz&Sif;yHktm; tusOf;csHK;oHk;oyfcsuf w&m;vufvGwf (odk‹) twif;t"rRzefwD;aomtajctaea-umifh aysmufqHk;oGm;r+rsm;twGuf tvkyftzGJŒ WORKING GROUP ON ENFORCED OR INVOLUNTARY DISAPPEARANCES (WGEID) aumfr&SifqHk;jzwfcsuf 20 (XXXVI) t& 1980 wGifqHk;jzwfcsrSwfonf vkyfykdifcGifheJ‹ tvkyfvkyfyHkenf;vrf; (Mandate and working method) w&m;vufvGwf (okd@ ) twif;t"RzefwD;r_ tajctaea=umifh aysmufqHk;oGm;olrsm; - um,uH&Sif&J@ rdom;pk awGudk olwkd@aqGrsdK;om;csif;awG b,fa&mufvJqdkwmeJ@ bmjzpfvJqdkwm qHk;jzwfEkdifzdk@ axmufulEkdif&eftwGuf avsmufywfwJh ar;cGef;awGukd avhvmqef;ppfzkd@twGuf WGEID udk vkyfydkifcGifhawG ay;tyfxm;ygw,f? tr_wckcsif;pDtwGuf aysmufoGm;olawGb,frSmvJ/ aoovm;&Sifovm;/ twdtus pHkprf;ppfaq; udkifwG,f+yD;om;vm;qdkwm aocsmap+yD;/ oufqdkifwJh tpdk;&awGeJ@rdom;pkawG=um; (yHkrSeftm;jzifh tJeJ*sDtdk rsm;rSwqifh) qufoG,fa&;vrf;a=umif;wck xlaxmifzkd@twGuf WGEID u qufvufvkyfaqmifygw,f? WGEID u tjcm;vkyfief;wm0efrsm;eJ@vJ vkyfief;vJ$tyfvkyfukdifwmrsdK;awG txl;ojzifh w&m;vufvGwf tajctaea=umifh aysmufqHk;olrsm;umuG,fwm;qD;a&; a=unmcsuf (1992) udk EkdifiHawG taumif txnfazmf aqmif&Guf&mrSm axmufyHhulnDygw,f? WGEID u EkdifiHawGudk apmifh=unfhzkd@eJ@ a=unmcsufeJ@ wuG taumiftxnfazmf vkyfaqmifr_awGudk tjynfht0 tm&Hkpkdufr_ay;zkd@ olwdk@&Jh wm0efawGeJ@ ukdufnD atmif a=unmcsufuwqifh ay;xm;wJh vkyfykdifcGifhtm%m&xm;ygw,f? “aysmufqHk;oGm;r+rsm;” t"dy`g,fzGifhqkdcsuf (Definition of “disappeared”) “aysmufqHk;oGm;r_” udk t"d`g,fowfrSwf&mrSm WGEID u a=unmcsuf ueOD;rSmazmfjyxm;wJh ('gudk taumiftxnfazmfwmu ol@vkyfydkifcGifhtwGuf t"duuswJh) t"d`g,fzGifhqkdcsuf udk toHk;ðyygw,f? “aysmufqHk;oGm;ol” wa,muf[m tzrf;cH&ol/ ol@&JhqüeJ@qef@usif+yD; xdef;odrf;cH&ol (okd@ ) jyefay;qJGcH&ol/ (okd@ ) (u) tm%mydkifrsm; 'grSr[kwf tjcm;tqifhqifhaom tpkd;&Xmersm; (okd@ ) (c) (wkduf&dkuf 'grSr[kwf oG,f0kduf+yD;) tpkd;&ukd,fpm;/ tpkd;&cGifhðycsuft& (okd@ ) tpkd;&tultnDeJ@ pepfwus zJG@pnf;xm;wJhtzJG@ tpnf;awG 'grSr[kwf yk~dKvfwOD;csif;pDa=umifh vGwfvyfr_jiif;y,f &kyfodrf;cH&ol/ (aemufqufwJGtjzpf WGEID u twdkuftcHtzJG@tpnf;awGu owfrSwfwJh “aysmufqHk;r_rsm;” eJ@awmh ywfoufvkyfaqmifr_ r&Sdygbl;) tjzpf &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; owfrSwfcH&oljzpfygw,f? 'ghtjyif 'Dtiftm;pkawGu aysmufqHk;oGm;olwa,muf b,fa&mufaevJqdkwmudk v#dK@0Suf ay;xm;w,f (odk@ ) 21
  26. 26. olbmjzpfw,fqdkwm azmfjyzkd@jiif;y,fw,f (odk@ ) ol@&J@ vGwfvyfr_ &kyfodrf;cH&oltjzpf todtrSwfðycH&ol jzpfwJhtwGuf Oya'tumtuG,f tjyifa&mufaeoltjzpf owfrSwfcH&oljzpfygw,f? twif;tusyfzefwD;r_a=umifh “aysmufqHk;oGm;r_rsm;” ukd tjynfjynfqkdif&m &mZ0wfw&m;&Hk; (a&mr&Hk;) &J@ trdef@jyXmef;csuf 7 (1) (ps) t& vl@tokdif;t0kdif;udkqef@usifwJh &mZ0wfr_tjzpf owfrSwfygw,f? tr+wckcsif;pDudk avhvmqef;ppfjcif; (Examining individual cases) WGEID u “aysmufqHk;oGm;r_rsm;” wdkif=um;csufrsm;ukd vQH+yD; ppfaq;=um;emygw,f? 'Dvdk vQHEdkifzdk@ twGuf qufoG,fwkdif=um;r_wckudk a&;om;wifjy&rSmjzpf+yD; ay;ykd@ol b,folb,f0gqdkwmukdyg &Sif;&Sif; vif;vif; azmfjy&rSm jzpfygw,f? qufoG,fwdkif=um;csufu aysmufqHk;ol&Jhrdom;pk 'grSr[kwf rdwfaqGrsm;u ay;ykd@wmrsdK;jzpfwwfayr,fh wcgw&H tJ*sDtdk wckckrSwqifhvnf; ay;ykd@Ekdifygw,f? WGEID u woD;yk~v tr_awGudk (wkdif=um;qufoG,fcsufawGudk vQHwmuvJGvdk@ ) ukd,fwdkif pHkprf;ppfaq; =um;emwmrsdK;ukdawmh ðyvkyfrSmr[kwfygbl;? WGEID u tr_wckudkvufrcHcifrSm qufoG,fwkdif=um;csufawGukd atmufygtajccH vkdtyfcsufrsm;twdkif; jznfhpGufwifjy&rSmjzpfygw,f · aysmufqHk;ol&JhemrnftjynfhtpHkeJ@ oifhawmfwJhudk,fa&;taxmuftxm; tcsuftvufrsm; (Oyrm-trsdK;om;rSwfyHkwifeHygwf (okd@ ) "gwfyHk) · aysmufqHk;wJh&ufpJG-tzrf;cH&wJh ae@&uf/ v eJ@ ESpf/ jyefay;qJGcH&csdef (okd@ ) aemufqHk;awG@cJhcsdef? wu,fvdk@aysmufqHk;oludk ae&mwckrSm xdef;odrf;cHae&wJhtaeeJ@ aemufqHk;awG@cJh&w,fqkd&if (b,fwkef;ueJ@ b,fae&mrSmqdkwJh) cef@rSef;ajcazmfjycsufwck vkdtyfygw,f? · tzrf;cH&wJh (okd@ ) jyefay;qJGcH&wJh ae&m 'grSr[kwf aysmufqHk;oludk aemufqHk;b,frSmawG@cJhvJ? tenf;qHk;ae&ma'wckudk azmfjyay;zdk@vkdtyfygw,f? · aysmufqHk;olukd jyefay;qJGwJh (okd@ ) zrf;qD;wJh (okd@ ) vlrodwJhv#dKK@0Sufae&mrSm xdef;odrf;zkd@ óu;yrf;olrsm; aysmufqHk;ol&Jh uH=uRmeJ@ b,fa&mufaevJqdkwmudk qHk;jzwfEkdifzkd@ (okd@ ) tedrfhqHk;taeeJ@ tm;&p&m r&SdwJh (okd@ ) oHo,jzpfzG,faumif;wJh jynfwGif;ajz&Sif;csufrsm; (Oyrm &Jpcef;wck 'grSr[kwf teD;qHk; aq;&HkwckrSmom pHkprf;ppfaq;r_rsm;) udk ajymif;vJzkd@ óu;pm;csufawGudkazmfjywJh wifjycsufawGukd tqifh vkduf vkyfaqmifygw,f? wdkif=um;csufwifoGif;ol (okd@ ) tzJG@tpnf;ukd todtrSwfðyrSwfom;jcif; (awmif;qdkcsuftay: tajccH+yD; xdyfwef;v#dK@0Suftjzpf odrf;qnf;xm;rSmjzpfygw,f?) tu,fI aysmufqHk;oGm;wJh trsdK;orD;wa,mufu ukd,f0efeJ@qdk&if rdcifjzpfol tcsKyftaESmifcHumv twGif;rSm arG;zGm;vmrJhuav; b,ftcsdefarG;rvJqdkwm rdcifjzpfol&Jhtr_jzpfpOfxJrSm xnfhoGif;azmfjy&rSm jzpfygw,f? trSefwu,f tcsKyftaESmifcHumvtwGif; rdcifjzpfoluav;arG;wmukd oufaotodtrSwfðy +yD;wJhtcg uav;udk oD;jcm;tr_tjzpf owfrSwf&rSmjzpfygw,f? WGEID u owif;tcsutvufwifoi;wJtcgrm taxmuftulðytcsutvufawG (Oyrm-aysmufq; f Gf h S f kH 22
  27. 27. ol&J@"gwfyHk/ 'grSr[kwf oufaotaxmuftxm;awG) xnfhoGif;wifzdk@ wdkufwGef;ygw,f? tr+rsm;ukd udkifwG,fjcif; (Handling of cases) WGEID &J@ udkifwG,fajz&Sif;csufu ol@e,fajr{&d,mtwGif;jzpfwJh vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_tay: umuG,f wm;qD;zdk@eJ@ csdK;azmufr_jzpfyGm;wJhtcg pHkprf;ppfaq;azmfxkwfzkd@ 'DEkdifiHwcku wm0ef&Sdw,fqdkwJh pnf;rsOf; tay:tajccHygw,f? tJ'ga=umifh WGEID u e,fajrwcktwGif;rSm tpkd;&ukdwdkufcdkufaewJh yHkrSefr[kwfwJh 'grSr[kwf vufeufukdiftkyfpkawGu wifjyawmif;qdkwJh woD;yk~v “aysmufqHk;wJh” tr_awGudk ukdifwG,f ajz&Sif;rSmr[kwfygbl;? vufeufudkifyËdyQtwGif; jzpfwJhtajctaersdK;awGudkvJ udkifwG,frSmr[kwfygbl;? “aysmufqHk;r_”u b,frSmrSef;rodwJh umvwkdxdef;odrf;cH&wJh udPrsdK;r[kwfbl;qdkwm twnfðyzdk@uvJ ta&;=uD;ygw,f? 'DvdkudPrsdK;udk WGEID ukd rwifjy rwkdif=um;oifhygbl;? “aysmufqHk;r_” wdkifwef;csufu txufazmfjyyg tajccHvkdtyfcsufrsm;eJ@udkufrudkuf csifhcsdef qHk;jzwf+yD;wJh tcg tr_udkqufvufpHkprf;ppfaq;+yD; &vmwJh&v'fudk WGEID udk jyefvnfowif;ykd@ ta=umif;=um;zkd@ tm%mykdifawGudk arWm&yfcHcsufeJ@wuG WGEID u oufqdkifwJhtpkd;&qDudk tr_udk vJ$ajymif;ay;ygw,f? “aysmufqHk;r_” rSm wEkdifiHxufykdwJh EdkifiHawGu tm%mydkifawG wkduf&dkufwm0ef&SdwJh 'grSr[kwf yg0ifywf oufaewJh tr_awGrSm WGEID u “aysmufqHk;r_jzpfwJhEkdifiHu wm0ef&SdolawGqDukda&m zrf;qD;r_ 'grSr[kwf aysmufqHk;olukd jyefay;qJGac:aqmifr_rSm yg0ifywfoufaewJh tm%mykdkifawG&JhEkdifiHukda&m tr_udk vJ$ajymif; ay;tyfEkdifygw,f? ta&;ay: t,lcHqdkif&m vkyfxHk;vkyfenf; (Urgent appeals procedure) “aysmufqHk;r_” ukd wkdif=um;wJh wdkifcsufawGudk WGEID u vQH&&Sd+yD; oHk;vtwGif; jzpfyGm;wJh tr_awGudk ta&;ay:t,lcHrsm;eJ@oufqdkifwJh vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;twdkif; oufqdkif&mtpdk;&awGukd wdkuf&dkufvJ$ajymif; ay;tyfygw,f? tpkd;&rsm;qDrS ta-umif;jyef-um;csufrsm;ESifh tr+rsm;udk tao;pdwf &Sif;vif;azmfjyjcif; (Replies from governments and clarification of cases) tpdk;&qDu aysmufqHk;olb,fa&mufaew,fqdkwmeJ@ bmjzpfw,fqdkwJh uH=uRm&,fyg0ifwJh ta=umif;jyef tpD&ifcHpmukd rlv&if;jrpf (wkdif=um;wJhqD) ukdjyefv$Jajymif;ay;ygw,f? rlv&if;jrpfu tpkd;&&Jhta=umif;jyef csufudk &&Sdt+yD; ajcmufvtwGif;ta=umif;rjyef&if (okd@ ) WGEID utpkd;&&J@ owif;ykd@ta=umif;jyefcsufudk usdK;a=umif; obm0rusbl;vkd@ xifjrifqHk;jzwf&if tr_udk &Sif;vif;+yD;+yDvkd@ ,lqEkdif+yD; ESpfpOftpD&ifcHpm&Jh pm&if;Z,m; tusOf;csKyfatmufu “tpkd;&rsm;&Jh ta=umif;jyef=um; aqmif&Gufcsuft& &Sif;vif;+yD;aomtr_ rsm;” acgif;pOfatmufrSm xnfhoGif;Ekdifygw,f? rlv&if;jrpfu oifhawmfwJhtajctaeay:rSm tpkd;&&Jh owif; tcsuftvufudk qef@usifwkef@jyef&if tpkd;&udk owif;ykd@ ta=umif;=um;/ rSwfcsufay;zkd@awmif;qkd+yD; tr_ udkrydwfyJ qufzGifhxm;ygw,f? 23
  28. 28. WGEID u oufqkdifwJhtpkd;&wkdif;ukd r&Sif;vif;&ao;wJh tr_awGeJ@ywfouf+yD; tenf;qHk; wESpfwcg owday;+yD; vQH&&Sd+yD;ajcmufvtwGif; vJ$ajymif;ay;vkdufayr,fh &Sif;vif;csufr&ao;wJh ta&;ay:tr_awG tay: wESpfESpfcg owday;ygw,f? ppfwrf;ar;cGef;yHkpHv$m (Questionnaire) tr_awGwi=f um;wifjywm vG,uacsmarG@apzk@d WGEID u “aysmufq;kH oGm;r_” awGtay: owif;yk@d wki=f um; dk f l d csufawGtwGuf (ukvor~ vl@tcGifhta&;r[mrif;=uD;&Hk; tifwmeufpmrsufESm (http://www.unhchr. ch/html/menu2/7/b/disappea/explanote.htm) ay:rSm&EdkifwJh) pHðyyHkpHwck jyifqifxm;ygw,f? taxGaxG (General) aumfr&SifudkwifjywJh'DtpD&ifcHpmxJrSm WGEID u a=unmcsufudk taumiftxnfazmfwJh owif; tcsuf tvufawGeJ@ twif;tusyft&eJ@ tvdktavsmuf aysmufqHk;oGm;olrsm;tm; umuG,fzdk@ vuf&Sd EkdifiHwum &mZ0wfr_qdkif&meJ@ vl@tcGifhta&; yHkpHabmifudk avhvmppfaq;zkd@ oD;jcm;vGwfvyfwJh u|rf;usifol cef@tyf wmukd axmufcHtm;ay;wJh owif;tcsuftvufawG xnfhoGif;yHhykd;xm;ygw,f? 24
  29. 29. w&m;0if&Hk;rwifwJhtr+rsm;/ tusOf;&Hk; (okd‹) Oya'rJh uGyfrsufr+rsm;qkdif&m txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON EXTRAJUDICIAL, SUMMARY OR ARBITRARY EXECUTIONS ECOSOC qHk;jzwfcsuf 1982/ 35 t&csrSwfonf vkyfykdifcGifhvJ$tyfr+rsm;ESifh tvkyfvkyfyHkenf;pepf (Mandate and working method) txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f&J@vkyfykdifcGifhu (1948) uBmhvl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;/ (1966) tjynfjynfqdkif&m EkdifiHa&;ESifh taxGaxGvlr_tcGifhta&;rsm;qdkif&m oabmwlnDcsuf&J@ tykd'fcJG 4 / 6 / 14 / 15 eJ@ (1989) w&m;0if abmifjyify/ tusOf;&Hk;w&m;pD&ifr_eJ@ Oya'rJhw&m;pD&ifr_rsm;ukd xda&mufaom umuG,fwm;qD; r_eJ@ pHkprf;ppfaq;jcif;qkdif&m pnf;rsOf;Oya'rsm;ay:rSm t"dutm;jzifhtajccHygw,f? txl;uk,pm;vS,u woD;yk~vrsm;/ te*strsm;/ tpk;d &rsm;e@J tpk;d &awG=um; aqmif&uwtz@GJ tpnf;rsm;u d f f J f D kd G f hJ wifjyw/hJ atmufygtajccHvtyfcsursm;e@J vJ udunwtr_awGtay:rSm ta&;,laqmif&uEiygw,f? dk f k f D hJ G f dk f · ao'%ftrdef@ESifhqufpyf+yD; touf&SifaexdkifcGifhqdkif&m tcGifhta&;udk csdK;azmufr_rsm;? txl;ukd,f pm;vS,fu w&m;r#wr_r&SdwJh w&m;pD&ifr_uae trdef@cswJh ao'%ftrdef@ (okd@ ) t,lcH0ifEdkifcGifhqdkif&m tcGita&;ukcsKd ;azmufr_ (ok@d ) tr_rvw+f idr;f cGie@J tquftoG,&mazGz@dk tcGita&;csKd ;azmufrrsm;udk hf d S G hf f S hf _ 0ifa&mufpuzufEdifygw,f? txl;ukd,fpm;vS,u wu,fvd@k usL;vGefolu tr_usL;vGecserSm touf G f k f f d f 18 ESpf rjynfhao;&if (okd@ ) usyfrjynfh&if (okd@ ) pdwfazmufaeoljzpf&if (okd@ ) ukd,f0efonfjzpfae&if (okd@ ) uav;arG;+yD;ump rD;aeonfjzpfae&if vnf; tr_udk0ifa&mufpGufzufcGifh&Sdygw,f? · EkdifiHtm%mydkifrsm;/ jynfol@ppftkyfpkrsm;/ woD;yk~vrsm; (okd@ ) tpkd;&eJ@yl;aygif;aqmif&GufaewJh 'grSr[kwf tpkd;&ucGifhðyxm;wJh (rodcsifa,mifaqmif/ ajrSmufay;xm;wJh) tzJG@tpnf;awGeJ@ trnfeJ@ trsdK;tpm; raz:jyEkdifayr,fh txufazmfjycsufawGeJ@ qufEG,faeolawG&J@ owfjzwfzdk@ +cdrf;ajcmufr_eJ@ pD&ifcgeD; Oya'eJ@ravsmfnDwJhtrdef@awGtay: pkd;&HG@r_rsm; · n‡Of;yrf;ESdyfpufr_/ OayQmðyr_eJ@ tiftm;oHk;r_awGa=umifh csKyfaESmifcH&pOftwGif;aoqHk;r_rsm; (okd@ ) touftœ&m,f +cdrf;ajcmufaewJh xdef;odrf;csKyfaESmifr_rsm; · w&m;Oya'pkd;rdk;a&;tm%mykdifrsm; (odk@ ) wdkuf&dkuf 'grSr[kwf oG,f0kduf+yD; tpkd;&&J@oabmwl cGifhðycsuft& taumiftxnfazmfaqmif&Gufolrsm;&J@ tiftm;toHk;ðyr_a=umifh aoqHk;r_rsm;/ tiftm; toHk;ðyr_u t"duvkdtyfr_&,f oifhawmfr#wr_&,fwdk@&J@ tajccHvkdtyfcsufawGeJ@ rukdufnDyJ 0da&m"d jzpfwJhtcg · EkdifiHvHkðcHa&;wyfzJG@awG&J@wkdufcdkufr_awG/ jynfol@ppftzJG@awG&Jhwdkufckdufr_awG/ uGyfrsufa&;tzJG@awGeJ@ tjcm;tpdk;&ucGifhðyxm;wJh (okd@ ) tpkdk;&eJ@yl;aygif;aqmif&GufaewJh oD;oef@wyfzJG@awG&J@ wdkufckdufr_a=umifh aoqHk;r_rsm; 25
  30. 30. · vufeufukdifyËdyQrsm;twGif; vlom;qefwJh Oya'enf;vrf; abmifrsm;ukdqef@usif+yD; txl;ojzifh omrefjynfolrsm;&Jh touf&Sifaexdkifr_qkdif&m tcGifhta&;rsm; csdK;azmufcH&r_rsm; · EkdifiHwcktwGif; touftœ&m,f&Sdaeolrsm;udk xkdEkdifiHrS u,fxkwfay;jcif; (okd@ ) ajymif;a&$@ay;jcif;eJ@ ydwfqdk@xm;wJh e,fpyfrsm;rSwqifh olwdk@twGuf tœ&m,f&SdwJh EdkifiHwckrSxGufcGmzkd@ óu;pm;&if; EkdifiHa&; cdkv#HKcGifh awmif;cHolrsm;udk umuG,fay;jcif; · rsdK;jzKwfowfjzwfr_ · wkdifwef;wJh touf&SifaexkdifcGifhqkdif&m tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_awGeJ@ tJ'DtwGuf wm0ef&SdolawGudk Oya'a&S@arSmufykd@aqmifzkd@twGuf pHkprf;ppfaq;a&;twGufwm0ef&Sdr_udk csdK;azmufjcif; · touf&SifaexkdifcGifhqkdif&m tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufcH&olrsm;twGuf vHkavmufwJhavsmfa=u; axmufyHh ay;tyfzkd@ wm0ef&Sdr_udk csdK;azmufjcif; tr+wckcsif;pDudk avhvmqef;ppfjcif; (Examining individual cases) tenf;qHk; atmufygowif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk a&;om;wifjy&rSm jzpfygw,f · um,uH&Sif&J@ xl;jcm;csufrsm; tjynfhtpHk · tr_jzpfyGm;wJhae&meJ@ ae@pJGtjyif b,fvkdjzpfyGm;w,fqkdwJh tusOf;csKyfazmfjycsuf · wu,fvkd@odr,fqdk&if usL;vGefolrsm;&J@emrnfrsm;eJ@ olwkd@bmvkd@ wm0ef&Sdw,fvdk@ oHo, t0ifcH& w,fqdkwJh &Sif;vif;azmfjycsufeJ@ wu,fvkd@ usL;vGefolawGu tm%mydkifawG r[kwf&if 'Dyk~dKvfwOD;csif; (okd@ ) tzJG@awGu tpdk;&eJ@ b,fvkdqufpyfaew,fqdkwJh tao;pdwftcsuftvufawG · txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fqDukd wkdif=um;csufwifoGif;wJh tzJG@tpnf; 'grSr[kwf wOD;csif;&J@emrnfeJ@ vdyfpm tjynfhtpHk tr+rsm;ukdukdifwG,fjcif; (Handling of cases) w&m;0if&Hk;rwifyJ/ tusOf;&Hk; (okd@ ) Oya'rJhuGyfrsufr_awGtwGuf wdkif=um;wJhtr_awGudk oufqdkif&mtpdk;& rsm;xHv$Jajymif;ay;tyfygw,f? tpdk;&awGudk tr_awGeJ@ywfouf+yD; pHkprf;ppfaq;csufawG&J@wdk;wufr_awGeJ@ &v'fawG/ usL;vGefolawGudk b,fvdkppfaq;&Hk;wifta&;,lxm;w,f/ um,uH&Sif&J@ rdom;pkawGudk b,fvdk avsmfa=u;rsdK; axmufyHhay;tyfxm;w,fqdkwJh tcsufawGyg0ifwJh owif;tcsuftvufawGeJ@twl ta=umif; jyef=um;zkd@ wkdufwGef;xm;ygw,f? 26
  31. 31. ta&;ay:t,lcHqkdif&m vkyfxHk;vkyfenf; (Urgent appeals procedure) txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fu w&m;0if&Hk;rwifyJ/ tusOf;&Hk; (okd@ ) Oya'rJh uGyfrsufawmhrSm jrifomwmudk pkd;&HG@wJh tr_awGtwGuf ta&;ay:t,lcHrsm; wifoGif;Ekdifygw,f? txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fu toufqHk;&_H;r_rsm;ukd um uG,fzkd@ 0ifa&mufpGufzufEkdifygw,f? 'DtajctaeawGrSm owfjzwfzdk@ +cdrf;ajcmufr_awG/ ao'%fusrsm;udk uGyfrsufawmhr,fhtwGuf pkd;&drfr_awG/ txufrSmazmfjyxm;+yD;wJh tcsufawGtygt0if ao'%feJ@ywfouf+yD; jyÏmef;xm;wJh ekdifiHwumowfrSwfcsufawGudk csdK;azmufr_awGyg0ifygw,f? txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fu w&m;0if &Hk;rwifyJ/ tusOf;&Hk; (okd@ ) Oya'rJh uGyfrsufcH&zdk@ +cdrf;ajcmufcHae&olrsm;ukd tœ&m,f&SdaewJh EkdifiHuae u,f xkwf&Sif;vif;+yD;a=umif; owif;ykd@csufawG &&Sd+yD;wJhtcgrSmvnf; tpkd;&awGqDukd ta&;ay: t,lcHv$mawG ay;ydk@Ekdifygw,f? ta&;ay:t,lcHv$mawG vJ$ajymif;wifoGif;wJhtcg txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fu oufqdkif&mtpdk;&rsm;udk atmufyg tcsufrsm; wdkufwGef;ygw,f · +cdrf;ajcmufcH&olrsm; (okd@ ) uGyfrsufcH&EkdifwJh tœ&m,f&Sdaeolrsm;udk xda&mufwJh tumtuG,fay;a&; aocsmapzkd@ · vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_awGtwGuf vGwfvyf+yD;r#wwJh pHkprf;ppfaq;a&; tjynfht0taumif txnfazmfa&; · w&m;vufvGwf uGyfrsufr_awG usL;vGefolrsm;udk w&m;Oya't& ta&;,la&; · um,uH&SifawG&J@ tcGifhta&;awG umuG,fay;a&;eJ@ · aqmif&GufaewJhtqifhwdkif;udk txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fukd qufvufowif;ydk@ wifjya&;rsm;jzpfygw,f? tpkd;&rsm;qDrS ta-umif;jyef-um;csufrsm;eJ‹ tr+rsm;udktao;pdwf &Sif;vif;azmfjyjcif; (Replies from governments and clarification of cases) txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fu tpkd;&qDu aemufqufwJGowif;tcsuftvuf tjynfhtpHkukd (okd@ ) tr_jzpfpOf wdkif=um;csuf&J@ rlvZmpfjrpfudk awmif;cHEkdifygw,f? vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_awG/ vwfwavm jzpf+yD;om; tr_awGtwGuf bufrvdkufwJh tjynfht0pHkprf;ppfaq;r_wck qufvufvkyfaqmifzkd@/ w&m;0if &Hk;rwifyJ/ tusOf;&Hk; (okd@ ) Oya'rJhuGyfrsufr_ usL;vGefolrsm;udk w&m;Oya't& ta&;,lzkd@eJ@ um,uH&Sif&Jh rdom;pk awG&J@ tcGifhta&;awGudkumuG,fay;zkd@ tpdk;&w&yf&J@wm0ef&Sdr_udk txl;udk,fpm;vS,fu tm&Hkpkduf apmifh=unfhygw,f? 'DtajccHvkdtyfcsuftm;vHk;ukd taumiftxnfazmf jznfhqnf;+yD;rSom tr_wckudk ydwfEkdifygw,f? 27
  32. 32. ppfwrf;ar;cGef;yHkpHv$m (Questionnaire) tusOf;&Hk; (okd@ ) Oya'rJhuGyfrsufr_awGukd owif;ykd@ wkdif=um;csufawGtwGuf tr_awGwkdif=um;wifjywm vG,fulacsmarG@apzkd@ txl;udk,fpm;vS,fu (ukvor~ vl@tcGifhta&; r[mrif;=uD;&Hk; tifwmeuf pmrsuEm (ttp://www.unhcr.ch/tml/menu2/7/b/execut/exequest.htm) ay:rSm&Ediw) pHðyyHpwck fS h h h k f hJ kH jyifqifxm;ygw,f? taxGaxG (General) r=umao;cifu aumfr&Sifudkwifjyxm;wJh tpD&ifcHpmrSm txl;udk,fpm;vS,fu qufvufvkyfaqmifzkd@ vdktyfwJh “txl;tm&Hkpkdufp&m” ajcmufckudk tom;ay;az:jyxm;ygw,f? tJ'gawGuawmh · vufeufudkifyËdyQrsm;twGif; touf&SifaexkdifcGifhqdkif&m tcGifhta&;rsm;udk csdK;azmufjcif;rsm;/ · vHkðcHa&;wyfzJG@rsm;. owfjzwfr_rsm; (okd@ ) wkdufcdkufr_a=umifh aoqHk;r_rsm;/ · tpkd;&eJ@yl;aygif;vkyfaqmifwJh (okd@ ) cGifhðycsuft&vkyfaqmifwJh oD;jcm;udk,fykdifwyfzJG@rsm;eJ@ jynfol@ ppftkyfpkrsm;rS usL;vGefaom csdK;azmufjcif;rsm; · usL;vGefcHum,uH&Sifrsm;&J@ tcGifhta&;rsm;/ avsmfa=u;eJ@ jypf'%frS vGwf+idrf;uif;vGwfcGifh · uav;oli,frsm;&J@ touf&Sifaexkdifr_qkdif&m tcGifhta&;rsm;udk csdK;azmufjcif;rsm; · ukvor~vl@tcGifhta&;qkdif&mtzJG@rsm;eJ@ yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufolrsm;/ vl@tcGifhta&;umuG,f jr‡ifhwif olrsm;tay: usL;vGefaom csdK;azmufr_rsm;eJ@ · ao'%f tjypfay;jcif;qkdif&mrsm; jzpfygw,f? tpD&ifcHpmxJrSm w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&; tm%mykdifrsm;&J@ tiftm;tvGeftu|HoHk;r_rsm;eJ@ ywfoufwmawG/ oufqdkif&mEkdifiHawGrSm touftœ&m,f +cdrf;ajcmufcH&olrsm;tm; u,fxkwfae&majymif;a&$@ay;wmawG/ trsdK;orD;rsm;b0qdkif&mtcGifhta&;rsm;/ touf&SifcGifhqkdif&mtcGifhta&;awGeJ@ vdifykdif;qdkif&mtcGifhta&; awG csdK;azmufcH&wmawGeJ@ ywfoufwJh wdkufwGef;t=uHay;csufawG yg0ifygw,f? 28
  33. 33. ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;r+qdkif&mtxl;ukd,fpm;vS,f SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON TORTURE aumfr&SifqHk;jzwfcsuf 1985/ 33 t&twnfðy csrSwfonf vkyfykdifcGifhvJ$tyfr+rsm;ESifh tvkyfvkyfyHkenf;pepf (Mandate and working method) txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f&J@ vkyfykdifcGifhu (1948) uBmhvl@tcGifhta&; a=unmpmwrf;/ (1966) tjynfjynfqdkif&m EkdifiHa&;ESifh taxGaxGvlr_tcGifhta&;rsm;qdkif&m oabmwlnDcsuf&J@ tykd'fcJG 4 / 6 / 14 / 15 eJ@ (tESdyfpuf rcH&zkd@eJ@ tjcm;&ufpuf=urf;ñuwfwJh/ vlom;rqefwJh (okd@ ) ESdrfhcsqufqHr_ (okd@ ) jypf'%fay;r_rsm;rS uif;vGwf ykdifcGifhawGudk tmrcHcsufay;wJh) (1984) ESdyfpufn‡Of;yrf;r_eJ@ tjcm;&ufpuf=urf;=uKwfwJh/ vlom;rqefwJh (okd@ ) ESdrfhcsqufqHr_ (okd@ ) jypf'%fay;r_rsm;rS umuG,fwm;qD;r_qdkif&m nDvmcHay:rSm t"dutm;jzifh tajccHygw,f? ykdodomxif&Sm;wJh ESdyfpufn‡Of;yrf;wJh tr_awGtjyif atmufazmfjyyg tr_awGuvJ txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fu ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;r_rsm;tjzpfowfrSwfwJh tjcm;tr_awG&J@ erlemawGyJjzpfygw,f? &kyfykdif;qkdif&mESdyfpufr+rsm; (Physical torture including) tvif;a&mifeJ@ toHtvGeftu|HtoHk;ðy+yD;ESdyfpufr_/ xl;jcm;wJhaq;0g;rsm;oHk;+yD; ESdyfpufr_ (Oyrm-tefapwJh apomorphine eJ@ touf&SLusyfapwJh curare aq;rsm;toHk;ðyr_)/ umv&Snf tem;r,l rtdyfpufapr_/ umv&Snf tpmrau|;yJxm;r_/ umv&Snf wukd,f&nfoef@&Sifa&;rvkyfapr_/ umv&Snf aq;0g;ukocGifh ray;r_/ w&m;0iftrdef@csrSwfxm;wJh ukd,fxdvufa&muftjypf'%fay;r_/ csKyfaESmifcH&pOf t"RðyusifhcH&r_eJ@ vdifykdif;qdkif&mapmfum;cH&r_rsm;yg0ifygw,f? pdwfydkif;qdkif&m n‡if;yrf;EdSyfpufr+rsm; (Psychological or mental torture including) vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm; txD;usefapjcif;eJ@ todt=um;ykdif;qkdif&m tm&HkcHEkdifr_rsm;rS uif;a0;apjcif; (wu,fvkd@ 'DtajctaeawGrSm tcsdef=umvmwmeJ@tr# jyif;xef+yD;wcgw&H ukoajymif;vJr&EdkifawmhwJh pdwfydkif;qdkif&m c|dK@,Gif;r_/ ynma&;qdkif&meJ@ pdwfcHpm;wkef@jyeffr_qkdif&mjyoemawG jzpfay:apEkdifygw,f?)/ tcsdefeJ@ae&m twd tus cef@rSef;r&EkdifwJh tjrJwrf; ra&&mwJh (r=umc%qdkovkd ae&majymif;csKyfaESmifcH&jcif;) tajctaerSm csKyfaESmifcH&jcif;/ rdom;pkaqGrsdK;rsm;udk ESdyfpufowfjzwf&ef +cdrf;ajcmufcH&jcif;/ vHk;0 OayQmðycH&jcif;/ (wu,f owfawmhr,fhyHkpHrsdL;eJ@ ) [efaqmifuGyfrsufcH&jcif;rsm;eJ@ rdom;pkaqGrsdK;rsm; aysmufqHk;aer_wdk@jzpfygw,f? txl;udk,fpm;vS,f&J@ vkyfief;aqmif&GufcsufawGuawmhatmufygtwdkif;jzpfygw,f · vQH,Hk=unfEdkifavmufwJh owif;tcsuftvufawGudk tpdk;&rsm;/ txl;ðytzJG@tpnf;rsm;/ tpdk;& twGif; tzJG@tpnf;rsm;eJ@ tJef*sDtdkrsm;xHrSawmif;cHjcif;eJ@ vQHaqmif&Gufjcif; 29
  34. 34. · tpkd;&rsm;xH (olwdk@&J@tajctaeay:rSm ajz&Sif;aqmif&Gufay;zkd@u txl;udk,fpm;vS,f&J@ vkyfydkifcGifh xJrSm ygaewJhtwGuf) pkd;&drfa=umifh=u&olrsm;&J@ tajctaeudk &Sif;vif;azmfjyzkd@ ta&;ay: arWm&yfcH csufrsm; ydk@ay;ygw,f? · txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fu (ol@vkyfykdifcGifhtm%mxJrSmoufa&mufwJh) 'Dvkdtr_rsdK;awG jzpfyGm;r_rS um uG,fzkd@twGuf w&m;0iftkyfcsKyfa&;t& ta&;,laqmif&Gufcsuf owif;tcsuftvufawGudk tpdk;& awGqDukdvJ$ajymif;ay;ykd@ygw,f? · oufqkdifwJhtpdk;&&J@ todtrSwfðyr_ay:rlwnf+yD; uGif;qif;awG@qHkavhvmr_awG qufvkyfygw,f? tr+wckcsif;pDudk avhvmqef;ppfjcif; ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;cH&oleJ@ywfoufwJh owif;tcsuftvufawGudk tenf;qHk; atmufygowif;tcsuftvuf rsm;yg0ifwJh wdkif=um;csuftjzpf txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fqD a&;om;wifjy&rSmjzpfygw,f · (ESdyfpufcH&wJh) um,uH&Sif&Jh ukd,fa&;tcsuftvuf tjynfhtpHk · ESdyfpufr_ jzpfyGm;wJh ae@pJG (tenf;qHk; ESpfeJ@ v udk azmfjy&rSm jzpfygw,f) · um,uH&Sif tzrf;cH&wJhae&meJ@ (odr,fqdk&if) ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;r_jzpfwJh wnfae&m/ a'o · ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;wmudk vkyfaqmifwJh tzJG@tpnf;rsm;ta=umif; azmfjycsuf · toHk;ðywJh ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;wJhyHkpHeJ@ &v'ftjzpf '%f&mtemw&jzpfr_tay: tusOf;csKyfazmfjycsuf · wkdif=um;csuf tpD&ifcHpmwifwJh yk~dKvf/ tzJG@tpnf;&J@trnf (rl&if;r[kwfwJh) oifhawmfavsmufywfwJh b,ftaxmuftxm;rqkd&Jh rdWLrsm; (aq;ppfcsuf/ &JrSwfwrf; pojzifh) ESdyfpufr_udkazmfxkwfajz&Sif;&mrSm taxmuftyHhtjzpftoHk;0ifrJh tcsuftvufrsm;tjzpf yHhykd; wifjyay;&rSmjzpfygw,f? tr+rsm;ukdukdifwG,fjcif; txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fu olvQH&&SdwJh ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;jcif;qkdif&meJ@ vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufwJh tr_wckcsif;eJ@ oufqkdifwJh ,Hk=unfpdwfcs&wJh owif;tcsuftvuf tusOf;&Hk;oHk;oyfcsufawGukd oufqkdif&m tpkd;&qDukd vJ$ajymif;ay;tyfygw,f? 30
  35. 35. olu (oufqdkif&m) tpdk;&udk atmufygtwdkif; arWm&yfcHygw,f · wdkif=um;csufawGudk pHkprf;ppfaq;ay;zkd@eJ@ tJ'Du&wJh oifhawmfwJhowif;tcsuftvufawGudk ol@qDydk@ay;zdk@ · &mxl;/ XmeeJ@ tqifhukdr=unfhyJ ESdrfpufn‡if;yrf;r_twGuf tjypf&Sdolrsm;udk oifhawmfwJhta&;,lr_ awGvkyfzdk@ olwdk@udk&Hk;wifw&m;pJGqdkzkd@ · 'DvkdESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;r_rsdK; xyfray:aygufatmif umuG,fzkd@twGuf xda&mufwJh ta&;,laqmif&Gufr_ rsdK;awGvkyfzkd@ · EdkifiHwum pHE_ef;rsm;eJ@avsmfnDpGm (tESdyfpufcH) um,uH&SifeJ@ rdom;pkaqGrsdK;om;csif;rsm;udk avsmfa=u;ay;zkd@ ta&;ay:t,lcHqkdif&m vkyfxHk;vkyfenf; txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fu wOD;wa,muftzrf;cH&a=umif;eJ@ tJ'DwOD;wa,muf tESdyfpufcH&zkd@ pkd;&drf&wJh tajc tae&Sdw,fvkd@ owif;tcsuftvuf&wdkif; ta&;ay:t,lcHwifEkdifygw,f? t,lcHv$mudk ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;r_ &yfwef@zkd@/ umuG,fzkd@ wduswJh&nf&G,fcsufeJ@twl tr_ay:rSmtm&Hkpkdufzkd@ oufqkdifwJhtpkd;&qDukd ykd@ay; ygw,f? 'Dvkdtr_rsdK;awGrSm ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;r_jzpfwJh/ jzpf+yD;wJh wu,fhtaxmuftxm; rvdktyfygbl;? txl; udk,fpm;vS,fuom wOD;wa,muftrSefwu,f xdef;odrf;cH&w,f/ ESdyfpufcH&zkd@ &Sdavmufw,fqdkwJh ,Hk=unf&avmufwJh tajccHtcsuftvufawG ygvm;qdkwmukd qHk;jzwfygw,f? ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;cH&r+a-umifh aoqHk;r+rsm;udk w&m;0if&Hk;rwifyJ/ tusOf;&Hk; (okd‹) Oya'rJhuGyfrsufr+rsm;qkdif&m txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fu ukdifwG,fygw,f? tpkd;&rsm;qDrS ta-umif;jyef-um;csufrsm;eJ‹ tr+rsm;udktao;pdwf &Sif;vif;azmfjyjcif; tpdk;&rsm;qDu jyef=um;csufrsm;udk qufvufaqmif&Guf taumiftxnfazmfzkd@twGuf tcsuftvuf &if;jrpfrsm;udkazmfjyzkd@ awmif;cHygw,f? tawmif;cH&&if 'DqufoG,fta=umif;=um;csufeJ@qdkifwJh aqG;aEG; csufawGay:rSm txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fu ed*Hk;csKyfoHk;oyfr_wckðyvkyf+yD; oufqdkif&mtpkd;&awGqDukd t=uHðy awmif;qdkcsufrsm;ay;ykd@ygw,f? txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fu vufeufukdiftzJG@tpnf;rsm;uusL;vGefwJh ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;r_tygt0if vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_awGudk oifhawmfwJhae&mrSm todtrSwfðyrSwfwrf;ðyxm;ygw,f? 'gayr,fh txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fu ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;r_ wkdif=um;csufawGudk tpdk;&rsm;/ EdkifiHwumvl@tcGifhta&; pHE_ef;rsm;eJ@udkufnDwJh wm0ef&Sdol tm%mydkiftzJG@tpnf;rsm; qDukdom vJ$ajymif;ay;tyfygw,f? 31
  36. 36. ppfwrf;ar;cGef;yHkpHv$m ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;r_qdkif&mtr_awGudk owif;ykd@wkdif=um;csufawGtwGuf tr_awGwkdif=um;wifjywm vG,ful acsmarG@apzkd@ txl;udk,fpm;vS,fu (ukvor~ vl@tcGifhta&;r[mrif;=uD;&Hk; tifwmeuf pmrsufESm (http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu2/7/b/torture/torquest.htm) ay:rSm&EdkifwJh) pHðyyHkpHwck jyifqif xm;ygw,f? taxGaxG (2001) ukvor~taxGaxGnDvmcHudk wifoGif;wJh txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f&J@ =um;jzwftpD&ifcHpmxJrSm w&m;0ifeJ@ w&m;r0if vGwf+idrf;uif;vGwfcGifhrsm;ukdtqHk;owfzkd@ t=uHðywdkufwGef;csuf 12 csuf yg0ifygw,f? aumfr&SifukdwifwJh txl;udk,fpm;vS,f&J@ tpD&ifcHpmxJrSm jy±emESpfckukd wifjyxm;ygw,f? yxrwcku ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;r_eJ@ tjcm;&ufpuf=urf;=uKwfwJh/ vlom;rqefwJh (okd@ ) ESdrfhcs qufqHr_ (okd@ ) jypf'%fay;r_rsm;rSumuG,fwm;qD;r_qdkif&m (ppfyJGumvtwGif;rSmawmif &kyfodrf;/ ajymif;vJ/ tcsdefqJG/ ESdrfhcs r&EkdifwJhvl@tcGifhta&;rsm;yg0ifwJh) tcGifhta&;rsm;eJ@ 'kwd,wcku (txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f&nfrSef;wJh) ESdyfpuf n‡if;yrf;r_eJ@ tjcm;&ufpuf=urf;=uKwfwJh/ vlom;rqefwJh (okd@ ) ESdrfhcsqufqHr_ (okd@ ) jypf'%fay;r_ rsm;udk (tpdk;&rsm;eJ@ tJef*sDtkdrsm;qDrSvQH&&SdwJh pdwfcs,Hk=unf&avmufwJh owif;tcsuftvufrsm;t&) umuG,f wm;qD;zkd@ &nf&G,fwJh vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;xlaxmifr_eJ@ vufawG@toHk;ðyr_awG qef;ppfavhvma&;udk qufvkyfzkd@ jzpfygw,f? 32
  37. 37. bmoma&;vGwfvyfcGifheJ‹ ,Hk-unfr+vGwfvyfcGifhqkdif&m txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON FREEDOM OF RELIGION OR BELIEF aumfr&SifqHk;jzwfcsuf 1986/20 t&csrSwfonf vkyfykdifcGifhvJ$tyfr+rsm;ESifh tvkyfvkyfyHkenf;pepf bmoma&;vGwfvyfcGifheJ@ ,Hk=unfr_vGwfvyfcGifhqdkif&m txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f&J@ vkyfykdifcGifhu (1948) uBmh vl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;/ eJ@ (1966) tjynfjynfqdkif&m EkdifiHa&;ESifh taxGaxG vlr_tcGifhta&;rsm; qdkif&m oabmwlnDcsufay:rSm t"dutm;jzifh tajccHygw,f? uBmtESH@rSmjzpfyGm;wJh jy±emrsm;/ tpkd;& rsm;&J@ ta&;,laqmif&Gufr_rsm;eJ@ (1981) bmoma&;eJ@ ,Hk=unfouf0ifr_udktajccHwJh ESdrfhcsqufqHr_eJ@ bmoma&;t& tpGef;a&mufwJh yHkpHtm;vHk;ukd z,f&Sm;&Sif;vif;a&; a=unmcsuftay: 0da&m"djzpfr_rsm;udk txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fu pHkprf;ppfaq;+yD; 'Dtajctaersm;twGuf ðyjyifta&;,lr_rsm;udk wdkufwGef;t=uHðy ygw,f? bmoma&;eJ@ ,Hk=unfouf0ifr_udktajccHwJh ESdrfhcsqufqHr_eJ@ bmoma&;t& tpGef;a&mufwJh csdK;azmufwJh yHkpHckepfrsdK;udk txl;udk,fpm;vS,fu trsdK;tpm;cJGjcm;owfrSwfay;ygw,f? tJ'gawGuawmh bmoma&;eJ‹ ,H-k unfrqi&mudprsm;ay: ESrcszEyrrvkya&; pnf;rsO;rsm;udk csKd ;azmufjcif;rsm; + kd f P d hf d dS f + f f Oya'vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;awG/ rl0g'awG/ ESdrfhcscJGjcm;wJh vufawG@vkyfaqmifr_awGeJ@ (u) bmoma&;eJ@ ,Hk=unf ouf0ifr_t& xl;jcm;wJhvl@tzJG@tpnf;awG (txl;ojzifh tJ'Dvl@tzJG@tpnf;awGu vlenf;pk (okd@ ) w&m;0if jyXmef;xm;wJh bmoma&; (okd@ ) w&m;0iftodtrSwfðy xm;wJhbmoma&;udk rukd;uG,fwJhvlenf;pkeJ@ (c) xHk;wrf;pOfvm/ bmoma&;t&eJ@ ,Hk=unfr_tay: tajccHwJh trsdK;orD;rsm;tay: qef@usifr_tay: qef@usif wJh v_yf&Sm;vkyfaqmifr_awG bmoma&;eJ‹ ,Hk-unfr+qdkif&mudpPrsm;ay: onf;cHa&; pnf;rsOf;rsm;udk csdK;azmufjcif;rsm; 'gawGu EkdifiHeJ@vl@tzJG@tpnf;ay: bmoma&;t& tpGef;a&mufr_awG/ txl;ojzifh bmoma&;eJ@ ,Hk=unf ouf0ifr_tay:/ tpkd;&r[kwfwJh EkdifiHa&;-bmoma&;tzJG@awGeJ@ oifhawmfqufpyfaewJh aqmif&Gufr_awG/ bmoma&;tpGef;a&muf0g'&J@ jy±emeJ@qufpyfaewJh txif&Sm;qHk; azmfjya=unmcsufawGtjyif bmoma&; wif;rmr_udk wGef;tm;ay;0g'jzef@ay;aewJh owif;u¾tygt0if ta&;,laqmif&GufcsufawG/ rl0g'awG/ vufawG@vkyfaqmifcsufawG 33
  38. 38. awG;ac:r+qdkif&m/ ,Hk-unfcsufqkdif&m bmoma&;eJ‹ ,Hk-unfouf0ifr+qdkif&m vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;udk csdK;azmufjcif;rsm; 'gawGu rl0g'awG/ Oya'vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;awG/ vufawG@udPawG/ ,Hk=unfr_qkdif&m&nfrSef;csuf pnf;rsOf;awGeJ@ xdyfwkdufjzpfaewJh ta&;,laqmif&GufcsufawGeJ@ wOD;csif;&J@ bmoma&;ukd;uG,fr_/ ,Hk=unfr_udk qufvuf xdrf;odrf;cGifheJ@ ajymif;vJcGifhqdkif&m vGwfvyfcGifhawGjzpfygw,f? wOD;csif;&J‹ bmoma&;eJ‹ ,Hk-unfr+qdkif&mudpPrsm;ay: (rnfonfhbmomudk;uG,f a-umif;) a-unmykdifcGifhudk csdK;azmufjcif;rsm; 'DxrSm wOD;csif;&J@bmoma&;eJ@ ,Hk=unfr_qdkif&mudPrsm;tay: xdef;csKyfr_awG/ 0ifa&mufpGufzufr_awG/ wm;jrpf J [ef@wm;r_awGeJ@ uef@owfr_awG yg0ifwJhrl0g'awG/ Oya'eJ@ vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;awG/ vufawG@udPawGeJ@ ta&;,l aqmif&GufcsufawG yg0ifygw,f/ bmoma&;eJ‹ywfoufwJh ydkifqdkifr+rsm;tay: cef‹cJGykdifcGifhukd csdK;azmufjcif;rsm; 'gawGu (twif;tusyftodrf;cHxm;&wJh bmoma&;qdkif&m ykdifqkdifr_twGuf avsmfa=u;yHkpHt& r[kwfyJ) bmoma&;ydkifqdkifr_twGuf pDrHaqmif&Gufr_qdkif&m vGwfvyfcGifhudk xdcdkufapwJh/ ukd;uG,f&mae&m (AvD/ bk&m;/ bk&m;&Sdcdk;ausmif;/ 0wfðyausmif;qDudk twm;tqD;awG/ ydwfyifcH&wmawG/ aemufvdkufukd;uG,fol ta&twGufuef@owfcH&wmawG) oGm;EkdifcGifhukdjiif;y,fcH&wmawG/ udk;uG,f&m ae&mudk tcGeftaumuf taumufcH&wmeJ@ 0wfðyudk;uG,f&mtaqmuftOD;awG/ ocõsKif;awG/ bmoma&;ausmif;awG zsufqD;cH&wm awGtjyif (bmoma&;tvkyfawGtygt0if) bmoma&;qdkif&m ydkifqdkifr_awGudk odrf;,lwmawGyg0ifwJh rl0g'awG/ vufawG@udPawGeJ@ ta&;,laqmif&GufcsufawGjzpfygw,f? (bmoma&;acgif;aqmifawGeJ‹ opPm&SdolawG)&J‹ &kyfykdif;qkdif&m *k%foduQmeJ‹ usef;rma&;tay: csdK;azmufjcif;rsm; 'gawGu +cdrf;ajcmufr_awG/ (u|efðyr_/ t"Rðyusifhr_/ zrf;qD;r_eJ@ xdrf;odrf;xm;r_/ twif;tusyf tajctae a=umifh aysmufqHk;oGm;r_awG/ ao'%ftjypfay;r_awG/ uGyfrsufjcif;eJ@ owfjzwfwmawGtygt0if) rw&m; qufqHcH&wmawGtwGuf rl0g'awG/ vufawG@udPawGeJ@ ta&;,laqmif&GufcsufawG trsdK;orD;rsm;tay: csdK;azmufr+rsm; 'gutxufazmfjyyg csdK;azmufr_trsdK;tpm;ajcmufck&J@ trsdK;orD;rsm;eJ@qdkifwJh wdusxl;jcm;wJh avsmufxm; csufawGudk &nfn$ef;ygw,f? 34
  39. 39. tr+wckcsif;pDudk avhvmqef;ppfjcif; tedrfhqHk;tajccHvdktyfcsufawGu atmufazmfjyygawGeJ@udkufnD&rSmjzpfygw,f · wdkif=um;wifjycH um,uH&Sifrsm;&J@ (trnf/ ae&yfpojzifh) azmfjycsuf · wdkif=um;wifjycH usL;vGefolrsm;&J@ (trnf/ ae&yfpojzifh) azmfjycsuf · wdkif=um;wifjyr_ ðyvkkyfwJhtzJG@tpnf;awG/ woD;yk~vawG&J@ (trnf/ ae&yfpojzifh) azmfjycsuf · csdK;azmufr_ jzpfyGm;cJhwJh jy±em&J@ aemufqufwJGtajctaersm;tay: tao;pdwf &Sif;vif;azmfjy csufawG yg0ifygw,f? taxGaxG txl;udk,fpm;vS,fu aumfr&SifudkwifjywJh +yD;cJhwJhvuf&SdtpD&ifcHpmtjyif (pydefEkdifiHr'&pfòrd@rSm 2001 ckESpfu usif;ycJhwJh) bmoma&;eJ@ ,Hk=unfr_qdkif&m vGwfvyfcGifh/ onf;cHr_eJ@ cJGjcm;ESdrfhcsjcif;rðywJh qufqHa&; pojzifheJ@ qufEG,fwJh ausmif;ynma&;qdkif&m EkdifiHwumtwdkifyifcHnDvmcH&J@ aemufqHk;taxmuftxm; tcsuftvufudkvnf; yHhykd;ay;ygw,f? tpD&ifcHpmxJrSm bmoma&;eJ@ ,Hk=unfr_qdkif&m vGwfvyfcGifh/ bmoma&;t&eJ@ xHk;wrf;pOfvmt&ay:rlwnfwJh trsdK;orD;rsm; tajctaetay: avhvmoif=um;a&; vJyg0ifygw,f? txl;udk,fpm;vS,fu ,Ofaus;r_awG/ xHk;wrf;pOfvmawGu trsdK;orD;rsm;&J@ tcGifhta&; qdkif&mawGeJ@ wef;wl&Sdoifhw,fqkdwmudk tav;ay;xm;ygw,f? oifhawmfavsmufywfwJh ukvor~ vkyfief; ,œ&m;tm;vHk;u bmoma&;eJ@ xHk;wrf;pOfvmt& trsdK;orD;rsm;tm; epfemapr_udk wdkufzsufzkd@ tpDtpOf wckukd csrSwfoifhw,fvkd@ txl;udk,fpm;vS,fu ol@&J@wkdufwGef; t=uHðycsufxJrSm xyfrHwifjyygw,f? 35
  40. 40. uav;oli,frsm;tm;a&mif;csjcif;/ uav;jynfhwefqmeJ‹ uav; npfnrf; "gwfyHk/ pmay/ AD'D,dk/ &kyf&Sif qdkif&mudpPrsm;twGuf txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE SALE OF CHILDREN, CHILD PROSTITUTION AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY aumfr&SifqHk;jzwfcsuf 1990/68 t& csrSwfqHk;jzwfonf vkyfykdifcGifhvJ$tyfr_rsm;ESifh tvkyfvkyfyHkenf;pepf txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f&J@vkyfydkifcGifhu uav;oli,frsm;tm;a&mif;csjcif;/ uav;jynfhwefqmeJ@ uav; npfnrf; pmay/ "gwfyHk/ AD'D,dk/ &kyf&Sifrsm;&J@ jzpfyGm;yHktajccHtcsuftvufrsm;udk avhvmzkd@tjyif 'DvkdtvJGoHk;pm;r_ rsm;udk [ef@wm;zkd@twGuf wdkufwGef;t=uHðycsufrsm;ðyvkyfEkdif&ef &nf&G,fygw,f? txl;udk,fpm;vS,f&J@ vkyfydkifcGifhu uav;oli,frsm; txl;ojzifh (1989) uav;oli,frsm;tcGifhta&;qkdif&m nDvmcHeJ@ 'g&J@ (a&G;cs,fcGifh&SdwJh/ vkyfcsifrSvkyfvkyfp&mvkdwJh) oabmwlnDcsuf pmcsKyftjzpf (ar 2000 ckESpfrSm pwif csrSwf+yD; 2002 ZM0g&DrSm touf0ifwJh) uav;oli,frsm;a&mif;csjcif;/ uav;jynfhwefqmeJ@ uav;npfnrf; pmay/ "gwfyHk/ AD'D,dk/ &kyf&Sif qdkif&m tjynfjynfqdkif&m vl@tcGifhta&; vkyfief;abmiftwGif; taumiftxnf azmfygw,f? txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f&J@ vkyfief;wm0efawGu atmufygtr_awGrSm ta&;,laqmif&Gufzdk@jzpfygw,f · uav;rsm;tm;a&mif;csjcif;/ uav;jynfhwefqmeJ@ uav;npfnrf; pmay/ "gwfyHk/ AD'D,dk/ &kyf&Sif · rdbtkyfxdef;r_atmuf/ tzJG@tpnf;rsm;/ 0efaqmifr_vkyfief;rsm;/ ausmif;rSmxdef;odrf;xm;pOf pojzifh w&m;0iftkyfxdef;olrsm; vufwGif; (odk@ ) uav;oli,ftm; tkyfxdef;ol rnfolrqdk. vufwGif;&SdpOf uav;rsm;tm; vdifykdif;qkdif&m tvJGoHk;pm;ðyr_ · rnfonfh &nf&G,fcsuftwGufrqdk uav;ukeful;jcif; · txufazmfjyyg rnfonfh usL;vGefr_rsm;rSmrqdk uav;oli,frsm; tœ&,ft=uD;tus,f&Sdaer_ t"dy`m,fzGifhqdkcsufrsm; atmufygt"d`m,fzGifhqdkcsufrsm;u uav;oli,frsm;a&mif;csjcif;/ uav;jynfhwefqmeJ@ uav;npfnrf; pmay/ "gwfyHk/ AD'D,dk/ &kyf&SifudPawGtwGufcsrSwfwJh (a&G;cs,fcGifh&SdwJh/ vkyfcsifrSvkyfvkyfp&mvkdwJh) pmcsKyf/ tydk'fcJG 2 t&csrSwfxm;wmjzpfygw,f? · uav;a&mif;csr_rsm;-aiGa=u;twGufeJ@ tjcm;rnfonfh &nf&G,fcsuftwGufrqdk uav;oli,fu rnfolwOD;csif; (okd@ ) tkyfpkrsm;&J@vJ$ajymif;cH&wJh rnfonfhvkyf&yfrqkd (uav;a&mif;csjcif;uul;oef; 36
  41. 41. a&mif;0,fjcif;qdkif&m tjrwfxkwfr_&nf&G,fcsufrsm;/ &mZ0wfr_qdkif&mvkyfief;awGtwGuf/ awmif;&rf; jcif;twGuf/ vufeufukdifyËdyQrsm;twGuf/ t"Rvkyftm;twGuf/ tm;upm;twGuf/ arG;pm;jcif; twGuf/ tdrfaxmifa&;twGuf/ olwkd@&J@cýmudk,f tpdwftydkif;rsm;twGufeJ@tjcm;aom &nf&G,fcsuf rsm;twGuf toHk;cszkd@ ) yg0ifygw,f? · uav;jynfhwefqm- aiGa=u;twGufeJ@ tjcm;rnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftwGufrqdk uav;oli,ftm; vdifykdif;qkdif&m vkyfief;rsm;twGuf toHk;csr_ · uav;npfnrf; pmay/ "gwfyHk/ AD'D,dk/ &kyf&Sif-rnfonfhenf;vrf;t& wifqufr_rsm;rqdk uav;oli,f yg0ifywfoufaewJh trSefwu,f (okd@ ) [efjy vdifydkif;qdkif&m &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; vkyfaqmifr_rsm; (odk@ ) t"dutaeeJ@ vdifydkif;qdkif&mEd_;qGzdk@ &nf&G,fcsufrsm;twGuf uav;oli,f&J@ vdifykdif;qdkif&m tpdwf tydkif;awGudkazmfjywJh rnfonfhwifqufjyojcif;rsm;rqdk tr+wckcsif;pDudk avhvmqef;ppfjcif; qufoG,faqmif&Gufcsuf (wdkifwef;zdk@twGuf) twGuf atmufygowif;tcsuftvufawG yg0if&rSm jzpfygw,f? · a,bl,s owif;tcsuftvuf? vlb,fESpfa,muf yg0ifw,f/ a,muFsm;av; i,fi,fvm;/ vlydsKaygufvm;/ rdef;uav;i,fi,fvm;/ tysdKaygufvm;/ tr_jzpfyGm;cJhwJh wdkif;jynf&J@emrnfeJ@ usL;vGefcH um,uH&SifawG bmvlrsdK;vJqdkwJh tcsufawG · oufqdkifolrsm;&J@ ukdk,fa&;taxmuftxm;? emrnftjynfhtpHk/ vdif/ arG;oU&mZf/ touf/ vlrsdK;/ (tqifajyr,fqdk&if) vlrsdK;pkaemufcH tcsuftvuf · wkdif=um;wJh csdK;azmufr_? ae@pJG/ ae&m/ tcsdefeJ@ tr_oGm;tr_vm/ yg0ifusL;vGefolta&twGuf/ usL;vGefcHum,uH&Sifu usL;vGefolukdodrod/ usL;vGefolbmvlrsdL;vJ/ tr_twGufwm0ef&Sdw,fvdk@,lq&olrsm; (tpkd;&eJ@ ywfoufol/ tpkd;&eJ@rywfoufol)? tr_twGufrsufjrifoufaoawG&Sdw,fqkd&if olwdk@emrnfawG/ touf/ usL;vGefcHum,uH&SifeJ@b,fvkdywfoufvJqdkwm&,feJ@ qufoG,fzkd@vdyfpmyg xnfhoGif; azmfjy ay;&rSmjzpfygw,f/ olwdk@u emrnfrazmfjyapcsifbl;qdk&if olwdk@uaqGrsdK;om;csif;awGvm;/ jzwfoGm; jzwfvmawGvm; pojzifh qdkwmawGawmh azmfjyay;yg? · um,uH&iu/ ol@rom;pku (ok@d ) ol@u,pm;aqmif&uay;olrnforqdu aqmif&ucwhJ tqifawG? Sf d kd f G f l k G f hJ h wdkif=um;csufudk oufqkdif&modk@ wifjy+yD;jyDvm; (okd@ ) rwif&ao;bl;vm;/ wifjy+yD;&if b,fwkef;uvJ/ b,foluwifwmvJ/ b,ftm%mydkifqD (odk@ ) b,fvkyfydkifcGifh&SdwJh tzJG@tpnf;ukdwifwmvJ/ tjcm; tqifhawG aqmif&Gufr_&Sdr&Sd/ tm%mykdifawGuaqmif&Gufxm;wJhtqifhawG/ tm%mydkifawG pHkprf; 37
  42. 42. ppfaq;r_awG vkyfxm;rxm;/ vkyfxm;&if b,fvkdpHkprf;ppfaq;a&;trsdK;tpm;qdkwmeJ@ 'DpHkprf; ppfaq;r_ awG&J@wdk;wufr_eJ@ tajctaeudk azmfjyay;yg? · wdkif=um;csufwifjyol&Jh udk,fa&;taxmuftxm;? emrnf/ tqifhtwef; (woD;yk~v/ tzJG@tpnf;/ tJef*sDtdk/ tpdk;& pojzifh) qufoG,fEkdifwJh zkef;eHygwf 'grSr[kwf vdyfpm? tr+rsm;udkudkifwG,fjcif; txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fu tpkd;&awGudkjzpfcJhwJhtr_awG/ uav;awG&J@tcGifhta&;udk umuG,fay;Ekdifzkd@ tpdwf tydkif;wcktjzpf ta&;,laqmif&Gufr_eJ@ wm;jrpfydwfyifr_awGvkdtyfwJh tajctaeawGtay: tm&Hkpkdufapzkd@ &nf&G,fcsufeJ@twl oufqkdif&mtpkd;&qDukd pmawGay;ykd@ygw,f? wdkif=um;csufawGtwGuf aqmif&Gufxm;wJh pHkprf;ppfaq;r_ tao;pdwftcsuftvufawGukd wifjyyHhykd;ay;zkd@ txl;udk,fpm;vS,fu oufqdkif&mtpkd;& awGudk wdkufwGef;ygw,f? wu,fvdk@ txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fu ta=umif;jyefaqmif&GufcsufawGu auseyf tm;&p&mr&Sdbl;vkd@ ,lq&if olu usL;vGefcHum,uH&SifqDu 'grSr[kwf tjcm;&if;jrpfawGu wqifh aemufxyf owif;tcsuftvufawG&SmazGpkaqmif;ygw,f? ta&;ay:t,lcHqkdif&m vkyfxHk;vkyfenf; txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fu ta&;ay:t,lcHawGtay:rSm txl;ojzifh umuG,fwm;qD;zdk@ ta=umif;jycsufeJ@twl ta&;,laqmif&GufEkdif+yD; 'Dt,lcHawGudk oufqkdif&mtpkd;&&Jh oufqkdif&m 0ef=uD;XmeawGqDukd wdkuf&dkuf ay;ykd@Ekdifygw,f? txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fu wdkif=um;csufyg usL;vGefcH um,uH&SifawGeJ@ olwdk@&J@aqGrsdK;om;csif; awGqDutjyif tjcm;owif;&if;jrpfrsm;qDu ckdifrmwJh owif;tcsuftvufawG&SmazGEdkifygw,f? ppfwrf;ar;cGef;yHkpHv$m txl;udk,fpm;vS,fqDukd owif;tcsuftvufwifjywdkifwef;csifolawGtoHk;ðyEkdifzdk@ owif;tcsuftvuf yHkpHwckudk txl;udk,fpm;vS,f&J@ aumfr&SifqDwifwJh tpD&ifcHpm (UN document reference E/CN. 4/2002/88) rSm&Edkifygw,f? taxGaxG +yD;cJhwJhtpD&ifcHpmawGrSm uav;awGudk umuG,fay;&mrSm ta&;ygw,fvkd@,Hk=unf&wJh enf;vrf;awG (w&m;Oya'pepf/ ynma&;/ owif;u¾eJ@ rdom;pkpojzifh) &J@tcef;u¾awGudk txl;udk,fpm;vS,fu trsdK;tpm;cJG+yD;qef;ppfxm;ygw,f? txl;udk,fpm;vS,f&J@ tpD&ifcHpmawGu w&m;Oya'pepf/ owif;u¾/ ynma&;/ vlukeful;r_/ tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_eJ@ yk~dKvfa&;tajctaeawGyg0ifwJh t"dutaetxm;udk tm&Hkpkdufxm;ygw,f? (2002) rSm aumfr&SifudkwifwJhtpD&ifcHpmxJrSm txl;udk,fpm;vS,fu uav;rsm; tay: vdifykdif;qdkif&mtjrwfxkwfr_eJ@ HIV/AIDS ywfoufqufEG,fr_awGudk pOf;pm;oHk;oyfxm;+yD; 38
  43. 43. (uav;oli,feJ@ t&G,fa&muf+yD;ol ESpfOD;pvHk; jynfhwefqmvkyfief;eJ@ywfouf&if ) uav;oli,frsm;u t&G,fa&muf+yD; olrsm;xufydk+yD; (&kyfykdif;qkdif&m tm;enf;csuft&eJ@ udk,fhukdukd,f b,fvdkumuG,f&rvJ qdkwJhA[kokweJ@ tawG@tñuH acgif;yg;r_awGa=umifh) Akdif;&yfpful;pufzkd@ tœ&m,fydkrsm;w,f qdkwmawG@&Sd xm;ygw,f? 39

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