Pyi Khaing Phyo

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Pyi Khaing Phyo

  1. 1. jynf c d k i f ò zd ; od k Œ r[k w f ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm; pmtk y f t rnf jynfcdkif+zdK; odk@r[kwf ppftm%m&Sifpepf. a'gufwdkifrsm; xk w f a 0onf h c k E S p f / v 2008 ckEp/f rwfv S tk y f a & 500/ yxrt}udrf pmtk y f ' D Zd k i f ; /tjyif t qif NDD-DRD a&;om;/ xk w f a 0/ jzef @ csd okawoeESifhrSwfwrf;wifXme 'Drdkua&pDESifhzGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;pk quf o G , f & ef v d y f p m NDD-DRD P.O Box 179 Mae Sot, Tak 63110, Thailand ndddrd07@csloxinfo.com 2
  2. 2. 'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;pk m;pk rmwdum pmrsufESm trS m pm ed ' gef ; 7 tcef ; (1)? 9 jynfaxmifp}k uH@cia&;ESihf zG@H +zdK;a&;toif;zG@J pnf;yk? kd f H 9 tcef ; (2)? 12 toif;om;opf wd;k cs@J paqmif;jcif;enf;AsL[mrsm;ESihf ynma&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ k use;f rma&;tygt0if tjcm;u¾rsm;wGif toGitrsK;d rsK;d jzifh f 0ifa&muf pGuzufvm;jcif;? f 12 -ynma&;u¾ 15 -pD;yGm;a&;u¾ 16 -tpd;k &Xmersm; 20 -twdutcHtiftm;pkrsm; k f 20 tcef ; (3)? 26 jynfwi;f vlrtzG@J tpnf;rsm;tm; toGitrsK;d rsK;d jzifh xde;f csKyfvmjcif;? G _ f 26 -jynfo@l tusKd ;awmfaqmif 28 -jrefrmEdiitwGi;f &Sd Ediiwumat*siprsm; kfH kfH fD 33 -twkta,mif vlxaxmufcyrsm;/ vlpva0;yGrsm;ESihf k H JG k l J qef@usi&wcsyrsm; f _ f JG 35 -tusiysuvmbfpm;r_rsm; hf f 44 tcef ; (4)? 47 jynfci+f zdK;toif;. Ediia&;t=urf;zufrrsm;? kd kfH _ 47 -pGr;f tm;&Sirsm; f 49 -jynfo@l ppfrsm;/ vk+H cKHa&;wyfz@JG rsm; 51 -axmufvr;f a&;ESihf owif;ay;rsm; S 55 -vlom;rqefpm t=urf;zuf&uEurrsm; G dk f S f _ 58 -bmoma&;yÉdyuQrsm; ay:ayguvmatmif f 3
  3. 3. jynf c d k i f ò zd ; od k Œ r[k w f ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm; zefw;D vkyaqmifjcif; f 63 -a&$0ga&mifawmfvea&; Sf 64 -vlra&;ESihf bmoma&;qdi&m tcrf;tem;rsm;/ v_y&m;r_rsm; _ kf fS wGif [ef@wm;aESmuf,urrsm; S f_ 68 -a':atmifqef;pk=unfEitzG@J csKyf. pnf;&k;H a&;c&D;pOftwGi;f S hf [ef@wm;aESmuf,urrsm; S f_ 70 tcef ; (5)? 78 jynfci+f zdK;toif;. tem*wf Ediia&;pDrcsursm;? kd kfH H f 78 -Ediia&;tjyiftqif kfH 78 -jynfci+f zdK;ESihf Ediiwumtajctae kd kfH 80 -trsK;d om;nDvmcH 81 4
  4. 4. 'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;pk m;pk trS m pm e0wppftpdk;&u 1990 arv taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ.&vm'fudk vpfvsL&_ ausmcdi;f cJt+yD; 1993 ckEp/f pufwbFm(15)&ufae@wif jynfci+f zdK; ac: jynfaxmifp}k uH@cif k h S G kd kd a&;ESiz@HG +zdK;a&;toif;udk pwifz@JG pnf;xlaxmifcjhJ cif; jzpfygonf? trsKd ;om;a&;toif;}uD; hf tjzpfEihf yGxwxm;aomfvnf; xdtoif;}uD;. A[dem,utzG@J / twGi;f a&;rSL;tzG@J Eihf S J k f k k S A[dtvkytr_aqmif tzG@J 0iftm;vH;k rSm tm%modr;f ppfAvcsKyrsm;jzpfa=umif; awG@&&onf? k f kd f f Sd jynfcdkif+zdK;toif;udk jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmf t"Gef@&Snf=umpGm wnfwef@ cdi+f rJa&;/ wdi;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; csp=f unfa&;/ EdiiawmftcsKyftjcmtm%mESihf e,fajrwnf k k kfH wH@ci+f ra&;/ Ediiawmfz@HG +zKd ;wd;k wufa&;ESihf at;csr;f om,maom acwfrEiiawmf}u;D ay:ayguf kd J kfH D kd f H vma&;twGuf umuG,apmifa&Smuf&ef t"dÏmefjyKv#uf zG@J pnf;xlaxmifxm;onf[k qdk f h aomfvnf; vufawG@wirl jynfci+f zKd ;toif;onf ppftm%m&Sipepf t"Ge@f &n=f umpGm wnf Gf kd f S wH@ci+f rJa&;twGuf a'guwitjzpfEiom toH;k cscc&onfukd awG@&&ayonf? kd f kd f S hf H hJ Sd jynfci+f zdK;toif;onf ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;ESihf Edii0efxrf;rsm;tygt0if kd kfH vlxvwef;pm; tv$mtoD;oD;udk rrSeuefaom enf;vrf;rsKd ;pHjk zifh twif;t=uyfor;f oGi;f k l f d zG@J pnf;xm; toif;tzG@J wpfck jzpfonf@tjyif ppftpd;k &.vky&yfrsm;udk enf;rsKd ;pHjk zifh axmufcH f 0ef; &Hay;a&;/ twdutcHEiia&;orm;rsm;udk t=urf;zufwucurrsm;tygt0if enf;rsKd ; k f kd f H kd f kd f _ pHjk zifh qef@usiwucua&;/ wd@k uom wpdurwfrwf vkyaqmifay;cJ&a=umif; awG@&&ayonf? f kd f kd f kd k f f h Sd jynfo@l 0efxrf;tm;vH;k ygwEiia&;ESihf uif;&Si;f &rnf[k twif;t=uyf vufrwf D kd f H S a&;xd;k cdi;f cJaom ppftpd;k &onf ,cktcg jynfo@l 0efxrf;trsm;pk yg0ifaeaom jynfci+f zdK; k h kd toif;tm; Ediia&;ygwwcktjzpf ajymif;vJz@JG pnf;&ef ajcvSr;f jyifv#u&onf? 2005 ckEpf kfH D f Sd S 'DZifbm(6)&ufae@wif &efue+f rKd @ wuUov&yomvrf;opf&Sd jynfci+f zKd ;A[dXmecsKyfY usi;f y G k kd f d f kd k jyKvkycaom owif;pm&Si;f vif;yGwif jynfci+f zdK;taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; AdvcsKyfaX;OD; u f hJ J G kd k f Ediia&;tajctaeESihf vlxqENtay:rlwnf+y;D jynfci+f zKd ;toif;udk Ediia&;ygwtjzpf ajymif; kfH k kd kfH D vJz@JG pnf;aumif; zG@J pnf;&rnf[k xkwaz:ajymqdconf@tjyif wdi;f &if;om;pnf;vH;k nD!wa&; f k hJ k G f ygwD (wpn). taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; (AdvrLS ;}u;D a[mif;) OD;cifarmif}u;D uvnf; jynfcif k f kd +zdK;toif;onf 2010 ckEpf taxGaxGa&G;aumufywif Ediia&;toGiaqmifaom toif; S JG G k f H f tzG@J tjzpf ul;ajymif;+y;D yg0if,O+f yKd i&eftpDtpOf&onf[k ,ckEpf azaz:0g&vtwGi;f 'Dyat S f Sd S D D *smrefowif;Xmeod@k xkwaz:ajymqdconfukd awG@&&onf? f k hJ Sd ,ckvnf; etzppftpd;k &u 4if;wd@k . zG@J pnf;yHtajccHOya'(rl=urf;)udk vmrnf@ k arvwGif jynfv;kH u|wf qENc,yjJG zifh twnfjyKrnf@ausnmcsuEihf 2010 ckEpwif taxGaxG H l fS Sf G a&G;aumufyopfjyKvkyrnf@ ausnmcsursm;udk xkwjf yefconf@ azaz:0g&v(9)&ufae@rpI JG f f hJ D S 5
  5. 5. jynf c d k i f ò zd ; od k Œ r[k w f ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm; jynfci+f zdK;toif;onf etz. zG@J pnf;yHtajccHOya'(rl=urf;)udk jynfovxwpf&yfv;kH rS kd k l l k axmufcray;=u&ef wpfjynfv;kH wGif enf;rsKd ;pHjk zifh pnf;&H;k v_y&m;v#u&onf? tqdyg Oya'udk HJ fS f Sd k qef@usiuef@uurnf@orsm;udvnf; enf;rsKd ;pHjk zifh +cdr;f ajcmuf[ef@wm;r_rsm; jyKvkyv#u&Sd f G f l k f f onfuawG@ &onf? 4if;tjyif 2010ckEpf taxGaxGa&G;aumufyY 0ifa&muf,O+f ydKif&ef t kd S JG S wGuf a'ocHjynfovxtay: =oZmanmif;aom jynfci+f zKd ;tzG@J 0ifrsm;. trnfpm&if;rsm;udk l l k kd vnf; }uKd wifjyKpkv#u&onf? f Sd 'Drua&pDEiz@HG +zdK;wd;k wufa&;tiftm;pk. okawoeESihf rSwwrf;wifXme (NDD- kd S hf f DRD) taejzifh jynfci+f zKd ;toif;. v_y&m;aqmif&urrsm;ESiywfoufonf@ rSwwrf;rSw&m kd fS G f_ hf f f rsm;udk pepfwus pkaqmif;+y;D rSwwrf;wifxm;cJonftjyif xl;jcm;csursm;udvnf; tywfpOf f h h f k jynfwi;f owif;oH;k oyfcsuf (Weekly Inside News Commentary) rsm;jzifh tcgtm;av#mf G pGm oH;k oyfaz: jycJonf? jynfci+f zKd ;toif;. twGi;f o&kyrersm;udk EdiiwumrS avhvmod&Eif h kd fSf kfH Sd kd ap&eftwGuf “The White Shirts” trnf&Sd pmwrf;wpfapmifukd 2006 ckEp/f arvwGif S t*Fvybmomjzifh xkwa0jzef@csc+hJ yD; jzpfygonf? d f f d ,ckwpf}udrwivnf; “jynfci+f zdK; od@k r[kwf ppftm%m&Sipepf.a'guwirsm;” f Gf kd f f kd f trnf&Sd pmwrf;udk jrefrmbmomjzifh a&;om;jyKpkI jzef@a0vduygonf? &nf&,csurm k f G f f S jynfci+f zdK;toif;wGif ta=umif;trsKd ;rsKd ;a=umifh yg0ifae=u&olrsm;tygt0if jrefrmjynfol kd wpf&yfv;kH taejzifh ppftm%m&Sirsm;u jynfci+f zdK;toif;tm; rnfonf@&nf&,csujf zifh f kd G f zG@J pnf;ay;xm;+yD; rnfo@kd toH;k csaeonfukd trSetwdi;f / t&dtwdi;f / odjrifoabmayguf f k S k em;vnfvm=u+y;D trSm;trSeukd a0befyi;f jcm; qH;k jzwfEiap&ef &nf&,yga=umif; rdwquf f kd kd f G f f wifjytyfygonf? okawoeESihf rSwwrf;wifXme f 'Drua&pDEihf zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufa&;tiftm;pk kd S 2008 ckEp/f rwfv (1)&uf S 6
  6. 6. 'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;pk m;pk ed ' gef ; 1990 jynfEp/f jrefrmEdiitaxGtaxGa&G;aumufywif rJtjywftowfjzifh tEdi& hS kfH JG G kf &Scaom trsKd ;om;'Drua&pDtzG@J csKyf. a&G;aumufy&vm'fukd ppftpd;k &u todtrSwf rjyKcJh d hJ kd JG ay? xd@k tjyif ppftpd;k &onf ‚if;wd@k csKyuixm;aomtm%m qufvufwnf+rap&eftwGuf f kd f J jynfovxukd enf;rsK;d pkjH zifh pnf;¶H;k odr;f oGi;f &ef jynfci+f zdK; (ac: ) jynfaxmifpk }uhcia&;ESihf l l k kd H kd f zG+H zdK;a&;toif;udk zG@J pnf;wnfaxmifconf? jynfxa&;0ef}uD;XmewGif rSwwrf;wif&mY hJ J f jynfo@l tusK;d udk o,fy;kd aqmif&u&ef vlra&;tzG@J tpnf;wpfctaejzifom rSwywifcaomf G f _ k h f kH hJ vnf; vufawG@wir_ jynfovxtm; t=urf;zuf/ +cdr;f ajcmufrrsm;a=umifh emrnfq;kd jzihf Gf l l k _ ausm=f um;vmchonf? J jynfci+f zdK;tzG@J ukd zG@J pnf;jcif;jzifh vlxvwef;pm;ESihf t&yfom;v_y&m;r_tm;vk;H ukd kd k l fS csKyfui+f y;D aemiftem*wf Armjynf.Ekiia&;udk xde;f csKyf&ef }uKd ;yrf;cJonf? jynfci+f zKd ;tzJ@G u kd dfH h kd OD;aqmif+yD; etzppftpd;k &. vrf;jyajrykaxmufca&;ESihf vlxpnf;¶k;H a&;vkyief;rsm;udk vkyf H H k f aqmifconf? wcsewnf;Yyif vlxacgi;f aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; yk*Kd~ vfa&; ykwf hJ d f k cwfrrsm;udvnf; vkyaqmifconftjyif *smr%DemZDygw. &Sy!wyfz@JG uo@kd vlru/f vl&rf; _ k f hJ h D f dk hJ kd um;tvkyrsm;udyg vkyaqmifconf?f k f hJ jynfci+f zKd ;toif;onf ppftm%m&Sipepf oufq;kd &Snapa&;twGuf jynfovx. kd f f l l k ae@pOfb0rsm;udk enf;trsK;d trsK;d jzifh xde;f csKyf&ef tm;xkw}f udK;yrf;cJonf? jrefrmjynf. h ynma&;/ pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlra&;e,fy,frsm;tay:wGivnf; ‚if;wd@k . =oZmvGr;f rd;k r_ rsm;pGm _ f &Saeonf? jrefrmhvabmiftzG@J tpnf; wpfcv;Hk udvnf; tm%m&SippfAvrsm;. pdwwi;f us d l k k f kd f f kd jyefvnfz@JG pnf;&ef }uKd ;yrf;cJonf? txl;ojzifh jrefrmEdiitwGi;f twkutcHtiftm;pkrsm;ESihf h kfH d f 'Drua&pDa&;v_y&m;olrsm;udk qef@usionfh Ediia&;t=urf;zufrtrsm;pkwif jynfci+f zdK; kd f S f kfH _ G kd toif;u ud,wiu,us yg0ifywfywfconfukd awG@&onf? TuJo@kd vlruqefqef &rf; k f kd f kd f hJ h kd f um;onf@tjyKtr_rsm;onf ,ae@ jrefrmjynfv@l tzG@J tpnf;twGi;f ysE@HS v#u&aeaom t H f dS a=umufw&m;rsm;. t"du tajccHta=umif;w&m;rsm; jzpfayonf? jrefrmppftpd;k &onf ‚if;wd@k . vufuiwwf jynfci+f zdK;tzG@J ukd tok;H jyKI jynfol kd f k dk rsm;t=um; ta=umufw&m;v$r;f rd;k aeatmif rnfo@kd yif pDrzef;wD;xm;cJaomfvnf; jrefrm H h jynfwi;f &Sd 'Drua&pDa&;v_y&m;olrsm;ESihf omrefjynforsm;onf taESmiftzG@J uif;aom vGwf G kd fS l vyfrtppftrSeukd &,l&ef qH;k jzwfc=hJ uonf? 8 av;vk;H vlxta&;awmfy}Hk u;D ESihf 2007 ckEp/f _ f k S =o*kw/f pufwifbmvrsm;twGi;f ay:ayguconf Ak'bmom &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm; OD;aqmif f hJ < cJonfh a&$0ga&mifawmfvea&;}uD;onf xif&m;onf@ oufaoom"ursm;jzpfconf? h Sf S hJ jynfci+f zdK;toif;}uD;. xdyyi;f &mxl;rsm;udvnf; ppftm%m&Sif etz ppfAvf kd f kd k kd 7
  7. 7. jynf c d k i f ò zd ; od k Œ r[k w f ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm; csKyfrsm;u &,lxm;onfukd awG@&&onf? jynfci+f zKd ;toif;onf etz ppftm%m&Sirsm;ESihf dS kd f wom;wnf; jzpfaeojzifh jynfci+f zKd ;toif;u vkyaqmifaom t=urf;zufrrsm;ESihf vl@tcGihf dk f _ ta&;csKd ;azmufrreor#onf tm%m&Sippftpd;k &rS usL;vGecsK;d azmufjcif;om jzpfayonf? _Sf f f ‘ud,tm;ud,u;kd ud,0efu,xrf;jcif;onf oef@pifrejf rwf+y;D a&&Snwnfwef@ k hf k f k hf kd f G f cdi+f rJygonf? xd@k a=umifh toif;.&HyaiGukd toif;om;wd@k . pkaygi;f vkytm;jzifh &SmazGo;Hk pGJ k Hk f rnf’[k jynfci+f zdK;toif;. tajccHpnf;rsO;f rsm;t& tajccHrY jyXmef;xm;onf? od@k &mwGif kd l vufawG@tm;jzihf ‚if;wd@k . ud,yip;D yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;wGivnf;aumif;/ toif;&HyaiG &SmazG k f dk f f f Hk ok;H pG&mYvnf;aumif;/ wdi;f jynf.b¾maiGrsm;ESihf &ky0wˆKrsm;udk &,lo;Hk pGjJ cif;/ &if;ES;D jrKyfEI J k f HS tusK;d tjrwf&mazGjcif;ESihf tqifqifaom ppftpd;k &,E ,m;wd@k . yHy;kd ulnrj_ zifom vkyuif S h h W h D h f kd aqmif&uv#u&onfukd aw@&ayonf?1 G f f dS G etzppftpd;k &u }uKd ;udixm;onfh trsKd ;om;nDomcHukd ,H=k unfaxmufca=umif; kf H jyo&ef vlpva0;yGrsm;udk jynfci+f zdK;toif;u wpfjynfv;kH Y OD;aqmifusi;f ycJonf? jynfol k l J kd h vlxtm; twif;t=uyfwufa&mufap&ef +cr;f ajcmufci;f apr_rsm;wGif wufºupmyg0ifconf? k d dk GG hJ rnfo@kd yifjzpfap jynfci+f zdK;toif;udk Ediia&;ygwwpfctoGif ajymif;vJz@JG pnf;&ef tvm; kd kfH D k tvmESiywfowfI txl;pd;k &drp&mjzpfae+yD; xdvyaqmifrreor#onf etz ppfAvcsKyf hf f k kf _Sf kd f rsm;twGuf tm%mudk qufvufcsKyuixm;Edi&ef }uKd yrf;tm;xkwjf cif;om jzpfayvdrrnf? f kd f kf hf trnfcH t&yfom;tpd;k &wpfcukd [efjyzG@J pnf;Edia&;twGuf OD;wnfaejcif;om jzpfayonf? k kf ppftpd;k & oufq;kd &Snaeor#umvywfv;Hk vltcGita&;csK;d azmufrrsm;vnf; qufvuf f hf _ jzpfay:ae+yD; jynforsm;taejzifh tzdEycb0rS vGwajrmuf&mvrf; &Svrrnf r[kway? l dS f H f d d hf f ,ckwifjyxm;aom pmwrf;wGif jynfci+f zKd ;toif; zG@J pnf;wnfaqmufy/kH toif;0if dk pkaqmif;ykH pkaqmif;enf;rsm;/ jynfci+f zKd ;ESihf EkiiwumtzG@J tpnf;rsm;.tajctae/ jynfci+f zKd ; kd dfH kd toif;. tem*gwEiia&;&yfwnfcsu/f vlpva0;yGrsm;/ ombma&; yÉdyuQrsm;ESihf t=urf; f kd f H k l J zufwucurrsm;jzpfay:vmatmif zefw;D vkyaqmifaeykrsm;udk vufvr;f rDor# wifjyxm; kd f dk f _ f H S ygonf? Tpmwrf;udkzwf&_jcif;tm;jzifh jynfolvlxktaejzifh jynfaxmifpk}uH@cdkifa&;ESifh zG@H +zKd ;a&;toif;. Zmwdo&kyreukd ud,wiu,us avhvmod&cihf &&Svrrnfjzpfayonf? fSf k f kd f kd f dS G d d hf jynfci+f zdK;toif;tm; axmufctm;ay;aejcif;onf jynfovxtm; zdEyaeaom etz kd H l l k dS f ppftpd;k &udk axmufcaejcif;omjzpfa=umif; od&vmayvdrrnf? wqufwnf;Yyif jynfovl H dS hf l xktm;vk;H Ekiia&;tod Ed;k =um;vm+y;D +ir;f csr;f a&;ESihf 'Drua&pDyef;wdiopfqo@kd wnDw!$wf dfH d kd kf D wnf; av#mufvr;f Edi=f urnf jzpfayonf?S k 8
  8. 8. 'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;pk m;pk tcef ; (1) jynf a xmif p k } uH @ cd k i f a &;ES i f h z G H @ +zd K ;a&;toif ; zG J @ pnf ; yk H ? jynfci+f zdK; (ac: ) jynfaxmifp}k uhcia&;ESiz+HG zdK;a&;toif;udk 1993 ckEp/f pufwif kd H kd f hf S bmv 15 &ufae@wif toif;tzG@J zG@J pnf;a&;qdi&mOya' Association Law (SLORC Law G kf 6/88) atmufwif ppftpk;&u uruxjyKI zG@J pnf;wnfaxmifcjhJ cif; jzpfonf? jynfxa&; G d J 0ef}uD;XmewGif rSwwrf;wif&mY jynfotusK;d udk o,fy;kd aqmif&urnf@ vlra&;tzG@J wpfck f l G f _ taejzifom rSwywifcaomfvnf; wu,fvufawG@wirl ppftm%m&Sif oufq;kd &Snapa&; h f kH hJ h Gf f twGuf w&m;0ifygwwpfctoGif zefw;D +yD; Ediia&;avmuxJo@kd 0ifa&muf&ef ajcvSr;f jyif D k kfH ae+yD jzpfonf? 2005 ckEp/f 'DZifbmv (6)&ufae@ eHeufyi;f &efue+f rKd @/ wuUov&yomvrf;&Sd S dk k kd f d f jynfci+f zKd ; A[dXmecsKywif jyKvyconfh owif;pm&Si;f vif;yGwif jynfci+f zKd ; taxGaxGtwGi;f kd k f G k f hJ J G kd a&;rSL; OD;aX;OD; (ac: ) AdvcsKyfaX;OD;u Ekiia&;tajctaeESihf vlxqENtay:rlwnf+y;D tzG@J 0if k f dfH k (22)oef;ausm&aom jynfci+f zdK;tzG@J ukd Ekiia&;ygwwpf&yftjzpf ajymif;vJz@JG pnf;aumif; f dS kd dfH D zG@J pnf;rnf[k t&dytjrGuf ajym=um;cJonf? f h wqufwnf;Yyif toif;.pkz@JG y/Hk avhusioif=um;ay;ykEihf v_y&m;r_rsm;t& etz hf HS fS ppftpd;k &onf ‚if;wd@k .tm%mwnf+rJa&;twGuf jynfci+f zdK;toif;udk Ekiia&;awmifyH kd dfH (Political Wing) wpfctaejzifh tok;cs&ef&nf&,+f yD; zG@J pnf;cJonfrm xif&m;ayonf? k H G h S S jynfci+f zdK;toif;tm; A[dem,uESifh em,utzG@J rsm;/ taxGtaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;/ dk k wGzuftwGi;f a&;rSL;/ A[ktvkyraqmifaumfrwDEihf t+rJwrf;tzG@J 0ifrsm;jzifh zG@J pnf;xm; J d f _ S onf? txl;ojzifh A[dem,utzG@J 0ifrsm;wGif wyfrawmfumuG,a&;OD;pD;csKyf/ 'kw,wyfr k f d awmfumuG,a&;OD;pD;csKy/f umuG,a&;OD;pD;csKyf (=unf;)/ umuG,a&;OD;pD;csKy(av)/ umuG,f f f f f a&;OD;pD;csKyf(a&)/ ppfr[mAsL[m avhvma&;Xme}uD;rSL;/ ppfa&;csKyf/ ppfaxmufcsKyf/ ppfO;D pD; t&m&ScsKy(=unf;)ESihf ppfwi;f rSL;rsm;tm;vk;H yg0ifonfukd awG@&&onf? A[dem,utzG@J 0ifrsm; d f kd Sd k jzpf=uonfh ppfwi;f rSL;rsm;onf oufqi&m jynfe,fEiwi;f toif;rsm;wGif em,ursm; kd kd f S hf kd 2 jzpfae=uonfukd awG@&&onf? xd@k tjyif toif;. taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;/ twGi;f a&;rSL; Sd tzG@J 0ifrsm;ESihf A[dtvkytr_aqmifaumfrwDtzG@J 0ifrsm;udvnf; ppftpd;k & 0ef}uD;rsm;/ 'k k f k 0ef}uD;rsm;ESihf zG@J pnf;xm;onfukd awG@&onf? jynfci+f zKd ;toif;udk wdi;f tqif/h c¶ditqif/h +rKd @e,ftqif/h &yfuutqif/h aus;&Gm kd k kf G f tqif[I us,us,jf yef@jyef@ zG@J pnf;xm;+yD; toif;udk txufratmufo@kd qifuqifuJ h l f S h J h vkyyicitm%mtyfEi;f xm;aom zG@J pnf;ykrsKd ;jzifh vnfywfaqmif&uonf? od@k aomfvnf; f kd f G hf S H G f jynfci+f zdK;toif;. A[kXmecsKyfrS aus;&Gmrsm;&Stoif;cGrsm;txd &mxl;}uD;rsm;udk ppfwyf dk d d J 9
  9. 9. jynf c d k i f ò zd ; od k Œ r[k w f ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm; xdyyi;f t&m&S}d uD;rsm;uom qkyuixm;onf? xd@k jyif jynfci+f zdK;toif;onf jrefrmEdiiH f kd f kd f dk kf w0Sr;f vH;k &Sd aus;&Gm&yfuuf &,u OuUXrsm;ESihf +rdK@e,f r,u OuUXrsm;udvnf; vkyyicihf G k k f kd f G tm%mrsm; ay;tyfxm;onfukd awG@&onf? xdo@kd vkyyicitm%mrsm; ay;tyfxm;jcif; k f kd f G hf onf oufqdkif&mwm0ef&Sdolrsm;udk t=urf;zufr_rsm;/ vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_rsm;ESifh vmbfay;vmbf,rrsm; ydrusL;vGevmap&ef wGe;f tm;ay;ouJo@kd jzpfaeonf? l _ k kd f h toif;.vkyief;rsm;udk ykrevy&m;aqmif&uEi&eftwGuf etztm%mydirsm; f HSf _fS G f kd f kf u &kyyi;f qdi&m taxmuftulypPn;f rsm;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;tcGitvrf;rsm;udk pDpOfaqmif&uay; f kd k f hf G f 3 onf? jynfci+f zKd ;toif;¶H;k rsm;udvnf; toif;.e,ursm;jzpfaom a'oqdi&m ppfwi;f rSL; kd k kf kd rsm;tjyif oufqi&m jynfe,f/ wdi;f wm0efcH A[dtvkytr_aqmifaumfrwDtzG@J 0if 0ef}u;D kd f k k f rsm;. yH@y;kd aqmif&urj_ zihf zG@J pnf;avh&onf? xd@k a=umifh jynfci+f zdK;toif;rsm;ESihf &H;k rsm;onf G f Sd kd ppftpd;k &. pD;yGm;a&;taxmuftyH@rsm;&&d+S yD; ykrevnfywf aqmif&uaeEdijf cif; jzpfonf? H S f G f k txufazmfjyyg zG@J pnf;ykrsm;udk =unfjh cif;tm;jzifh jynfci+f zdK;toif;onf etzppf H kd tm%m&Sirsm;u zG@J pnf;ay;xm;aom vufuiwwtzG@J wpfck taejzifomru etz tm f kd f k f h %m&Sirsm;ud,wif yg0ifaeaom tm%m&tzG@J tpnf;}u;D wpfck jzpfaeonfukd awG@Eionf? f k f dk kd f jynfci+f zdK;toif;. taxGaxGtwGi;f a&rSL;jzpfol v,f,mpduysK;d a&;ESihf qnf kd k f ajrmif;0ef}uD;Xme 0ef}uD; (AdvcsKyf)OD;aX;OD;u jynfci+f zdK;toif;. OD;wnfcsursm;onf EdiiH k f dk f kf awmf+ir0yfyjd ym;r_ wnfaqmufa&;tzG@J (e0w) (1997 ckEptxd ac:a0:ok;H pGcaom ppftpd;k & df Sf J hJ trnf). OD;wnfcsursm;ESihf tvm;wljzpfa=umif;/ toif; pwifz@JG pnf;wnfaxmif+yD; &uf f owWywftenf;i,ftwGi;f Y xkwazmfajymqdconf?4 f k hJ jynfci+f zKd ;toif;0ifrsm;tm;vH;k onf jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdiiEihf jrefrmEdiiom;wd@k dk kfHS kfH tm; opPm&S&ef/ 'd@k wm0efta&;oH;k yg;twdi;f vduemusi}hf uH&ef/ at;csr;f om,m+yD; acwfrD d k k f zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufaom Ediiawmfopf}uD;ay:xGe;f vm&ef/ r&yfrem; }udK;yrf;tm;xkw=f u&efEihf kfH S toif;}uD;.usi0wf(Code of Conducts)rsm;udk vduem&ef usr;f opPm useq=kd u&onf?5 hf k f df 'd@k wm0efta&;oH;k yg;rSm jynfaxmifpr+ydKuGa&;/ wdi;f &if;om;pnf;vH;k nD!wr_ r+ydKuGa&;ESihf k J k $ f J tcsKyftcsmtm%mwnfwci+f rJa&; wd@k jzpfonf? jynfci+f zdK;toif;onf Ediia&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ hH dk dk kfH vlra&; OD;wnfcsu(12)&yf zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufa&;udvnf; OD;wnfaqmif&u&onf? jynfci+f zdK; _ f k G f kd toif;u csrwxm;aom tqdyg OD;wnfcsu(12)&yfEihf 'd@k wm0efta&; (3)yg;wd@k rm wu,f S f k f S S vufawG@wif tESpom&tm;jzifh uif;rJ+h yD; 0g'jzef@csa&;r#om jzpfayonf? G f d od@k aomfvnf; jynfci+f zdK;toif;onf Ediia&;ygwrsm;udk wduf¶u+f cdr;f ajcmufae kd kfH D k kd aom t=urf;zufrrsm; jzpfay:vmatmif toH;k jyKEdionfh tcsu(4)&yfyg jynfo@l oabm _ kf f xm;rsm;udk csrwconf? tqdyg jynfo@l oabmxm;(4)&yfrm jynfytm;ud;k ykqe¶;kd / tqd;k jrif S f hJ k S df 0g'rsm;tm; qef@usi=f u/ Ediiawmfat;csr;f om,ma&;ESihf zG@H +zKd ;wd;k wufa&;udk aESmif,uzsuf D kfH h S f 10
  10. 10. 'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;pk m;pk qD;olrsm;tm; qef@usi=f u/ Ediiawmf.jynfwi;f a&;udk 0ifa&mufpuzuf aESmuf,uaom kfH G G f S f jynfyEkiirsm;tm; qef@usi=f u/ jynfwi;f jynfy tzsuorm;rsm;tm; bH&efotjzpf owfrwf dfH G f k l S acsre;f =u [lIjzpfonf? jynfci+f zdK;toif;.vkyief;onf tqdyg tcsu(4)csuukd udiqI _ kd f k f f k f JG ppftpd;k &tm; xdyg;vmolreor#ukd tjrpfjywfacsre;f &efyif jzpfonf? S f _ jynfci+f zKd ;toif;udk ppftm%m&Sioufq;kd &Snap&efEihf ppftpd;k &tm; qef@usivm kd f f S f olrsm;udk wducuacsre;f &ef &nf&,z@JG pnf;xm;onf@tavsmuf jynfci+f zKd ;toif;rS usL;vGef k f kd f _ G f kd aom vky&yftm;vk;H twGuf etzppftpd;k &xHwiom vH;k 0 wm0ef&ayonf? jynfci+f zdK; f Gf dS dk toif;tm; tm%mv$ajymif;ay;jcif;onf etzppftpd;k &taejzifh omreft&yfom; tpd;k & J wpf&yfukd trnfcwpfctaejzifom zG@J pnf;ay;+y;D ‚if;wd@k .tm%mudk qufvufcsKyfuixm; H k h kd f Edia&;twGuf }udK;yrf;r_wpfcyifjzpfayonf? kf k ----------------------------- 11
  11. 11. jynf c d k i f ò zd ; od k Œ r[k w f ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm; tcef ; (2) jynfcdkif+zdK;toif;. toif;om;opf wdk;csJ@pkaqmif;jcif;enf;AsL[mrsm;ESifh ynm tjcm;u a&;/ pD ; yG m ;a&;/ usef ; rma&;ES i f h tjcm; u ¾rsm;wG i f 0if a &muf p G u f z uf a er_ r sm;? jrefrmEdiiwif jynfci+f zdK;toif;0if ta&twGuonf ae@csi;f ncsi;f w[kex;kd kfH G kd f f wd;k wufrsm;jym;vmcJonf? 1996 ckEpf aESmif;ydi;f umvrsm;wGif toif;0ifaygi;f (5) oef;ausmf h S k 6 r#om &Sconf? od@k aomfvnf; 2007 ckEpwif jynfe,f/ wki;f tqifh toif;aygi;f 17 oif;/ d hJ S f G d c&kitqifh toif;aygi;f 66 oif;/ +rdK@e,ftqifh toif;aygi;f 320/ &yfuuaus;&Gm tqifh df G f toif;aygi;f 15334 oif; zG@J pnf;cJ+h yD;/ toif;0iftjzpf todtrSwjf yK+yD;ol 24 'r 5 oef;txd tqrwef wd;k wufrsm;jym;vmcJonf?7 jrefrmjynfvO;D a& pkpaygi;f (55) oef;ausmf h l k &Sonfteuf (24) oef;ausmonf jynfci+f zdK;toif;0ifrsm; jzpfvmcJonf? tb,fa=umifh d h f dk h Tod@k wd;k wufrsm;jym;vm&oenf;? jynfaxmifp}k uH@cia&;ESiz@HG +zdK;a&;toif;. zG@J pnf;ykY toif;om;pkaqmif;&mwGif kd f hf H qEN&orsm;udom pkaqmif;a=umif; azmfjyxm;onf? toif;om;rsm;udk t&G,a&muf+y;D onfh Sd l k f ouf}u;D toif;om;ESihf t&G,ra&mufao;onfh oufi,ftoif;om;[lI (2)rsK;d cGxm;onf? f J touf (10) rS touf (18)ESpt=um; &Sorsm;udk oufi,ftoif;om;rsm;/ touf (18)ESpf f d l txuf&orsm;udk ouf}u;D toif;om;rsm;tjzpf owfrwxm;onf?8 dS l S f jynfci+f zKd ;tm%mydirsm;onf toif;om;opfpaqmif;&mwGif qENtavsmuf[k kd kf k ok;H E_e;f xm;aomfvnf; wu,fvufawG@wirl toif;0ifjzpf&efqENr&Saom tpd;k &0efxrf;rsm;/ h Gf d ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;&Sirsm;yg0ifonfh jrefrmjynfovxukd toif; f f l l k 0ifrsm;jzpfvmatmif pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra&;/ ynma&;/ use;f rma&;ESihf tjcm;u¾rsm;wGif enf;rsK;d _ pkjH zifh rufv;kH ay; qGaqmifpnf;&k;H jcif;rsm; jyKvkyconf? xd@k jyif enf;trsK;d rsK;d jzifh +cdr;f ajcmuf J f hJ t=uyfuiI twif;t"rRpaqmif;jcif;rsm;vnf; jyKvyconf? Tonfrm jynfci+f zKd ;toif; kd f k k f hJ S kd . t"du toif;om;pkaqmif;a&;enf;AsL[m tppftrSersm;jzpf+yD; jrefrmhv@l tzG@J tpnf;. f t"dutcef;u¾rsm;wGif wjznf;jznf; ae&m,lvmcJonf? vlxtwGi;f Yvnf; ta=umufw h k &m;rsm;ESihf pd;k &drpwrsm; ydrw;kd yGm;vmapcJonf? fd f k kd h jynfci+f zKd ;tm%mydirsm;onf jynfovxukd enf;trsK;d rsK;d jzihf vdrvnfvnjhf zm;I kd kf l l k f S ppftpd;k &vufuiwwf jynfci+f zKd ;toif;od@k 0ifa&mufapcJonf? toif;om;opfrsm; pkaqmif; kd f k kd h &mwGif jynfovx. tdraxmifpk pm&if;Z,m;rsm;udk =unfI touf(15) ESprS (30)ESpf l l k f h f twGi;f &Sorsm;udk jynfci+f zdK;toif;0if tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ touf (30)ESihf (40)t=um; d l kd &Sorsm;udk pGr;f tm;&SitzG@J 0ifrsm; tjzpfvnf;aumif; twif;t"rR pm&if;xnfoi;f cJonf? d l f h G h 12
  12. 12. 'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;pk m;pk touf(18)ESptxuf trsK;d orD;rsm;udvnf; ppfAvcsKyuawmfrsm; OD;aqmifonfh trsK;d orD; f k kd f f 9 a&;&mtzG@J wif twif;t"rR 0ifa&mufapcJonf? xd@k jyif rdom;pktzG@J 0ifrsm; jyefvnfpppfay; G h d onf[qI &Gmol&mom; trsm;tjym;udvnf; jynfci+f zKd ;toif;0if av#mufvmrsm;udjk znfh k kd G k dk $ &ef twif;tusyf zdtm;ay;cJ=h uonf? tjcm;enf;vrf;wckrm a&G;aumufyrsm;twGuf S JG oef;acgipm&if; aumufconf[qI jynfovxukd jynfci+f zKd ;toif;od@k vdrvnfowoi;f f H k kd l l k dk f G f G 10 cJjh cif;jzpfonf? txl;ojzifh toif;od@k 0ifa&muf&ef wpfenf;wzHtm;jzifh ysuuuf (od@k )jiif;qef k f G olrsm;udk ynma&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ use;f rma&;ESihf vlra&;udprsm;wGif trsK;d rsK;d taESmuft,Suf _ P ay;+y;D tcGitvrf;rsm; enf;yg;atmif jyKvyconf? om"uwpfctaejzifh yJc;l wki;f / ausmuf hf k f hJ k d }u;D +rKd @e,f&dS vufeufuiu&ifwi;f &if;om;rsm; xde;f csKyf&me,fajrrsm;wGif v,f,mvkyief; kd f dk f jzifh toufarG;ae=uaom &Gmom;rsm;udk tm%mydirsm;u 1993 ckEpwif vufeufuioyef kf Sf G kd f l k rsm;ESihf tquftoG,vyonf[pypum twif;t"rR a&G@ajymif;cJ+h yD; ‚if;wd@k v,f,majr f kf k G f JG rsm;wGif v,f,mvkyuiciuyg wm;jrpfywyifconf? od@k aomfvnf; tm%mydirsm;u tqdk f kd f G hf kd d f hJ kf ygv,form;tcsK@d ukd ‚if;wd@k taejzifh jynfci+f zdK;toif;od@k 0ifa&mufygu qk;H &_;H oGm;cJaom kd h 11 v,f,majrrsm;udk jyefvnfvyuiciay;rnf[k pnf;&k;H qGaqmifconf? tm%mydirsm;k f kd f G hf J hJ kf taejzifh &d;k om;r_r&Sonfrm odomxif&m;vSayonf? d S S jynfci+f zdK;toif;od@k 0ifa&muf&ef zdtm;ay;r_ trsm;qH;k cH&olrsm;rSm ausmif;ol kd ausmif;om;/ vli,frsm;/ tpd;k &0efxrf;rsm;eSihf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;&Sirsm; jzpfonf? ausmif;ol f f ausmif;om;rsm;onf jynfci+f zdK;toif;od@k r0ifrae& twif;tusyf 0ifa&mufae&jcif; kd a=umifh tzG@J 0ifrsm; jzpfae=uonf? tpd;k &0efxrf;rsm;tygt0if tpd;k &twGuf tvkyvyuif f k f kd aeonfh rnforqdk jynfci+f zKd ;toif;od@k wm0efwpfctaejzihf 0ifa&muf&ef owfrwjf yXmef; l dk k S xm;onf? pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm; xlaxmifvyuivorsm;taejzihvnf; jynfci+f zKd ;toif;od@k f k f kd f kd l f dk 0ifa&mufygu tudsK;tjrwf tcGitvrf;rsm; &&Srnf[k ar#mvifxm;=uonf? xd@k a=umif@ hf d f h pD;yGm;a&;orm;rsm;onf jynfci+f zKd ;toif;od@k 0ifa&muf&ef qENr&Saomfvnf; ‚if;wk@d .vkyief; dk d f rsm; tqifajyacsmarG@apa&;ESihf ae@pOf&ioef &yfwnfa&;wd@k twGuf toif;od@k 0ifa&muf&ef Sf qH;k jzwfc=hJ uonf? jynfci+f zKd ;tzG@J 0if pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;&Sirsm;onf ‚if;wd@k . ae@pOf vkyief;cGif kd f f f rsm;wGif txl;tcGita&;rsm;taejzihf tcGeuif;vGwci&&Sjd cif;ESihf tm%mydirsm;. tquf hf f f G hf kf rjywf [ef@wm;aESmuf,urrsm;rS uif;vGw=f uonf? xd@k jyif twdutcH Ediia&;ygw0ifrsm; S f_ k f kfH D uvnf; oufqi&mygw/D tzG@J tpnf;rsm;rS E_wxuapI jynfci+f zKd ;toif;od@k 0ifa&muf&ef kd kd f f G f kd zdtm;ay;jcif;/ +cr;f ajcmuft=uyfuijf cif;/ rufv;Hk ay;jcif; pojzifh enf;vrf;trsK;d rsK;d udk toH;k jyK d kd I qGaqmifpnf;&k;H cJonf? J h jrefrmEdiiwif ppftpd;k &ESihf wdi;f &if;om;vufeufuitzG@J rsm;t=um; tqufrjywf kfH G k kd f 13
  13. 13. jynf c d k i f ò zd ; od k Œ r[k w f ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm; jzpfym;aeaom jynfwi;f ppfrsm;a=umifh jynfovxrsm;onf jrefrmppfwyf. twif;t"rR G G l l k ay:wmqJjG cif;udk r=umc% &ifqiae&onf? aus;&Gmrsm;&Sd vli,fv&,rsm;onf jynfci+f zKd ; kd f lG f kd tzG@J 0ifjzpfygu(od@k ) jynfci+f zKd ;toif;od@k 0ifa&mufygu a&S@wef;ppfrsuEmrsm;wGif ay:wmxrf; dk fS aqmif&jcif;rS vGw+f ir;f cGihf &&S=d uonf? xd@k a=umifh vli,ftrsm;pkonf jynfci+f zKd ;tzG@J 0ifjzpf&ef d kd pdwtm;xufoefc=hJ uonf? Oyrmtm;jzihf weoFm&Dwi;f / avmif;vHòk rd@e,f/ a&csr;f / awmif f kd wGi;f arSm/f jyif;awmponfh aus;&Gmrsm;wGif jrefrmppfwyf cr& (401)u ay:wmzrf;qD;pOf jynfci+f zdK;tzG@J 0if 12 OD;/ trsK;d orD; 37 OD;ESihf usetrsK;d om; 17 OD;/ pkpaygi;f 66 OD;udk zrf; kd f k qD;rdconf? xdupukd òr@d e,fjynfci+f zKd ;tzG@J 0ifrsm;u c&dijf ynfci+f zKd ;tzG@J xH wdi=f um;awmif;qdk hJ k dP kd k kd k ojzifh jynfci+f zdK;tzG@J 0iftm;vH;k ESihf trsK;d orD; 37 OD;udk jyefvway;cJonf?12 kd $ f h xd@k jyif jynfci+f zdK;tzG@J 0ifuwfjym;&Sv#if rnforqdk EdiitwGi;f vGwvyfpm c&D; kd d l kfH f G oGm;vmEdionf? toif;0ifu'fjym;udk Ekiiom;rSwywifwckuo@kd tok;H jyKEionf? rdom;pk kf kd f H f Hk hJ kd f tzG@J 0ifrsm;ESihf rdwaqGtaygi;f toif;rsm;. aetdrrsm;wGif ntdywnf;ckv#ivnf; vGwf f f f d f 13 vGwvyfvyf wnf;cdEionf? txl;ojzifh jynfci+f zKd ;toif;0ifu'fjym; udiaqmifxm;jcif; f k kd f dk kf a=umifh tusKd ;tjrwf&&Sorsm;rSm jrefrm¶d[if*smrsm; jzpfonf? jrefrm¶d[if*smrsm;taejzifh d l k k jynfci+f zdK;toif;0ifuwfjym;rsm;udk jyoEdiygu jrefrmEdiitwGi;f wGif vGyvyfpm c&D;oGm; kd kf kfH f G vmEdionf? tpPvmrfbmom0ifrsm;jzpfonfh ¶d[if*smvlrsKd ;rsm;onf jynfwi;f c&D;oGm;vm kf k G a&;wGif jrefrmEdiiom; pdppfa&;uwfjym;rsm; r&Saoma=umifh tcuftcJrsm; r=umc% awG@ kfH d }uKH &onf? xda=umifh jynfci+f zKd ;toif;0ifuwfjym; vuf0,f&jdS cif;onf ‚if;wd@k twGuf c&D;oGm; k dk vma&;udk ydrv,ul acsmarG@apcJonf?14 k kd G f h jynfci+f zdK;toif;0ifrsm;onf aus;vufa'orsm;&Sd tdr,mjcHajrrsm;udvnf; t kd f k 15 zd;k tcenf;enf;jzifh aqmufvyaexdicihf &&S=d uonf? txl;tcGita&;rsm;taejzifh jynf kf kfG hf cki+f zdK;twGi;f a&;rSL;rsm;. aetdrrsm;wGif w,fvze;f v_i;f rsm;wyfqifay;jcif;/ (um;r&Saomf d f Dk d d vnf;)wpfvv#if "gwq*gvH (60) xkway;jcif;/ EkiijH cm;c&D;pOfrsm;apvGwjf cif;/ pojzifh f D f df tzG@J 0ifr[kworsm;ESihf tcGitvrf;rsm;pGm uGmjcm;aeonfukd awG@&onf?16 +rdK@e,fjynfcif f l hf kd +zdK; tr_aqmifrsm; e,fajrpnf;&k;H a&;c&D;pOfrsm;xGu&mwGivnf; jynfe,frS pufb;D rsm;ESihf f f 17 qdiu,frsm; axmufyay;cJonf? EkiijH cm;c&D;pOfrsm;wGivnf; jynfci+f zdK;tqifqifrS t kf hH h df f kd h h vkytr_aqmiftzG@J 0ifrsm;/ toif;0ifrsm;tm; vli,fa&;&mudp&yfrsm;ESihf pyfvsO;f Iaomf f P vnf;aumif;/ EdiiwumtawG@t}uHK &&Sa&;twGuaomfvnf;aumif; jynfyEdiirsm;od@k kfH d f kfH apv$way;cJonf? 1995 ckEprS 1997 ckEptwGi;f jynfci+f zKd ;toif;rS toif;om; OD;a&(160) f h Sf Sf kd OD;udk tm&SEihf Oa&my&Sd Ekiiaygi;f (20)ausmo@kd tacguta&twGutm;jzifh (65)acguf S dfH f f f 18 yd@k aqmifapv$wconf? f hJ jynfci+f zKd ;tm%mydirsm;taejzifh toif;om;pkaqmif;&mwGif pD;yGm;a&;/ ynma&;/ dk kf 14
  14. 14. 'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;pk m;pk vlra&;e,fy,frsm;/ tpd;k &Xmersm;ESihf twdutcHtiftm;pkrsm;twGi;f enf;trsK;d rsK;d jzihf _ k f 0ifa&mufpuzufaeykrsm;udvnf; qufvufazmfjyoGm;ygrnf? G f H k ynma&; ,ae@jrefrmjynf. ynma&;pepfukd avhvm=u!frnfqv#if jynfci+f zdK;toif;. h kd kd =oZmvGr;f rd;k r_ rsm;pGm&Saeonfukd awG@&rnfjzpfonf? jrefrmEkiiwif tajccHynmtqifjh zpf d dfH G aom pmoifausmif; pkpaygi;f (40521)ausmif;ESihf tqifjh rifynmtqifjh zpfaom wuUovf k h kd ESihf aumvdyaygi;f (64)ck &Sonf? tajccHynmtqifwif q&m/ q&mraygi;f (240878)OD;ESihf f d h G ausmif;om; ausmif;olaygi;f (7783400)OD; &S+d y;D / tqifjh rihynmtqifwif q&m/ q&mraygi;f f h G (10232)OD; ESihf ausmif;om;/ ausmif;olta&twGuf (705784)OD; &Sonf?19 tpk;d &0efxrf; d rsm;jzpfonfh ausmif;q&m/ q&mrrsm;onf jynfci+f zdK;toif;od@k wm0efwpfctaejzihf r0if kd k rae& 0ifa&muf&ef owfrwjf yXmef;xm;onf? txl;ojzihf ausmif;om;vli,ftrsm;pkonf S ud,yiqENrygyJ jynfci+f zdK;toif;od@k 0ifa&muf&ef enf;trsK;d rsK;d jzihf zdtm;ay;cHc&olrsm; k f kd f kd hJ jzpfonf? ‚if;wk@d taejzihf toif;od@k 0ifa&muf&ef jiif;qefcygu ausmif;rSxwypf&ef +cdr;f hJ k f ajcmufjcif;/ pmar;yGrsm;wGif 0ifa&mufajzqdcihf rjyKjcif;/ pmar;yGatmifrwf jynfratmif J kG J S h DS 20 ray;jcif;/ pojzifh enf;trsK;d rsK;d jzifh +cdr;f ajcmuft=uyfuijf cif;rsm; jyKvkyconf? kd f hJ Oyrmtm;jzifh 2006 ckEp/f =o*kwv (3)&ufae@wif jrefrmEdiitv,fyi;f jrif;+cH S f G kfH kd tpd;k &enf;ynmaumvdyrS ausmif;ol/ ausmif;om;rsm;udk jynfci+f zKd ;toif;od@k 0ifa&muf&ef f kd tm%mydirsm;u zdtm;ay;+cdr;f ajcmufconf? c&kif jynfci+f zdK;tm%mydirsm;. trde@f t& kf hJ d kd kf [kqum tqdygaumvdyrS enf;jyq&m/ q&mrrsm;u jynfci+f zKd ;toif;0ifyprsm;udk wapmif kd k f kd Hk H v#if (200)usyEe;f jzifh ausmif;ol/ ausmif;om;rsm;udk twif;t"rRa&mif;csconf? tu,fI f_ hJ jynfci;f +zdK;toif;od@k 0ifa&muf&efjiif;qdygu pmar;yG0ifa&mufajzqdcirjyK[kvnf; +cdr;f kd k J k G hf 21 ajcmufajymqdconf? tcsK@d aom ausmif;om;rsm;.tqdt& jynfci+f zdK;toif;od@k r0if k hJ k kd a&mufv#if jynfwi;f jynfy avhvma&;c&D;rsm;/ pm=unfwuo;Hk pGcirsm;/ um,avhusicef; G h kd f J G hf hf 22 oifwef;rsm;wufa&mufjcif;/ ponftcGita&;rsm; qk;H &_;H onf[k qdonf?h hf k xd@k jyif 2006 ckEp/f =o*kwv (15) &ufpjJG zifh xkwjf yefaom ArmEdiiv;Hk qdi&m ausmif; S f kfH kf om;or*~tzG@J csKyf (EdiijH cm;a&;&maumfrwD) owif;xkwjf yefcsuwivnf; jrif;+cH+rdK@ tpd;k & kf f Gf enf;ynmaumvdyf (*swp)rS ausmif;om;rsm;udk rjzpfrae jynfci+f zKd ;toif;od@k 0ifa&muf&ef D DD dk c&kdifat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifhzGH@+zdK;a&;aumifpD (c,u)ESifh +rdK@e,fjynfcdkif+zdK;tzGJ@0ifrsm;u ausmif;q&m/ q&mrrsm;rSwqifh zdtm;aycJonf[k azmfjyxm;onf? toif;od@k 0ifa&muf&ef h vufrwrxd;k onfh ausmif;om;rsm;udk ausmif;ac:csef rSwwrf;ray;[kqI ausmif;om;rsm; S f d f kd rSm ausmif;ac:cserjynfv#if pmar;yG0ifa&mufajzqdci@f r&rnfup;kd &draoma=umifh qENr&SyJ df h J kG kd f d 15
  15. 15. jynf c d k i f ò zd ; od k Œ r[k w f ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm; rausreyfjzifh vufrwx;kd cJ&onf? S f h &Hzef&cg ausmif;ol/ ausmif;om;rsm;udk jynfci+f zdK;toif;od@k 0ifa&mufap&ef }udK H dk wifaqG;aEG; wdiyifjcif;r&SyJ tjcm;vkyief;wpfcukd ta=umif;jyum jynfci+f zdK;toif;od@k kf d f k kd oGwoi;f cJonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh rE av;+rKd @wif touf(12)ESptxuf&dS ausmif;ol/ ausmif; f G h W G f om;rsm;tm;vk;H udk Ediiom;pdppfa&;uwfjym; xkway;&eftwGu[aom ta=umif;jycsujf zifh kfH f f l yufpyd@k p"mwfyrsm;udk a'ocHtm%mydirsm;xH ay;tyf&ef q&m/ q&mrrsm;rS awmif;cHchJ f kH kf onf? ausmif;ol/ ausmif;om;rsm;u ‚if;wd@k xH jynfci+f zdK; toif;0ifu'fjym;rsm; a&mufvm kd aomtcseusrS ‚if;wd@k ."gwyrsm;udtoH;k csI jynfci+f zKd ;toif;0ifrsm;tjzpf t"rRowoi;f df f kH k dk G f G cHvu&a=umif; od=u&onf?23 kd f ausmif;om;vli,fwpfO;D csi;f pD. ynma&;qdi&m tcGitvrf;rsm;onf jynfci+f zKd ; kf hf kd toif;0ifjzpfjcif;/ rjzpfjcif;tay:wGif rlwnfae+y;D toif;om;pkaqmif;&mwGif ynma&;tcGihf tvrf;rsm;udk rufv;kH wpfctaejzifh toH;k jyKcJonf? ausmif;om;/ ausmif;olrsm;udk toif; k h 0ifrsm;tjzpf pnf;&k;H odr;f oGi;f &mwGif ynma&;ESihf c&D;oGm;vma&udprsm;Y vG,ul acsmarG@ P f ap&ef pDpOfay;rnf[k jynfci+f zdK;tm%mydirsm;u rufv;Hk rsm;ay;cJonf? txl;tcGita&; kd kf h hf wcktaejzifh jynfci+f zKd ;toif;wGif wufwufºuºG uG yg0ifaqmif&uaeonfh jynfci+f zKd ;toif; kd G f kd 0if ausmif;om;/ ausmif;olrsm;udk Edii&yfjcm;od@k ynmawmfoiftjzpf oGm;cGijhf yKrnf[k ynm kfH a&;0ef}uD;Xmeu trde@f xwjf yefconf?24 ausmif;om;/ ausmif;ol trsm;pkonf toif;0if k hJ jzpf&ef qENr&Saomfvnf; ynma&;ESihf tjcm;tcGitvrf;rsm;a=umifh toif;0ifrsm; jzpfvmcJh d hf =uonf? xd@k jyif wmcsvw+f rKd @rS jynfci+f zKd ;tzG@J 0ifwpfO;D .tqdt& toif;od@k 0ifa&mufaom D d kd k ausmif;om;/ ausmif;olrsm;onf oufqi&m bmom&yfrsm;wGif tenf;qk;H trSwf (20)cef@ kd f 25 tydaqmif; &&da=umif; od&onf? toif;vkyief;rsm;wGif tcseueI ausmif;oifcef;pmrsm; k S f df kf udk rvduEicaomfvnf; tcsewefv#if vktyfonftrSwrsm;udk jznfay;cJonf? jynfwi;f k f kd f hJ df d h f h h G c&D;oGm;vma&;udprsm;wGivnf; Ediiom;pdppfa&;u'fjym;rvdtyfyJ jynfci+f zdK; toif;0if P f kfH k dk 26 u'fjym;jzihf vGwvyfpm oGm;vmcGi&&donf? xd@k jyif xl;c|eaom toif;0ifausmif;ol/ f G hf S f ausmif;om;rsm;udk vl&nfc|efrsm;tjzpf jynfcdkif+zdK;acgif;aqmifrsm;u todtrSwfjyKI *k%jf yKqkcs;D jrSic@J onf? Tod@k jzifh tjcm;aom ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;udyg jynfci+f zdK; hf k kd toif;od@k 0ifa&mufvmatmif qGaqmifpnf;&k;H cJ=h uonf? J pD ; yG m ;a&; jynfaxmifp}k uHcia&;ESihf zG@+H zdK;a&;toif; tm%myditqifqifonf oufqi&m h kd f kf h h kd f jynfe,f/ wdi;f em,ursm;ESihf jynfe,f/ wdi;f wm0efcH A[dtvkytr_aqmifrsm;. oabmwl k k k f 16
  16. 16. 'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;pk m;pk cGijhf yKcsur&bJ rnfonfp;D yGm;a&;vkyief;udr# vkyuijf cif;rjyK&ef XmecsKyf. 1995 ckEp/f f h f k f kd S Zefe0g&v 23 &ufpyg pmtrSw-5§}u@H cia&;§95 (061) jzifvnf;aumif;/ jynfaxmifp}k u@H D JG f kd f h cdia&;ESihf zG@H +zdK;a&;toif;/ &yfuu§aus;&Gmrsm;udk pD;yGm;a&;tvk@d im rnfonfp;D yGm;a&; kf G f S h vkyief;udr# vkyuicirjyKa=umif; XmecsKyf. 1995 ckEp/f Zefe0g&v 23 &ufpyg pmtrSw- f k f kd f G hf S D JG f 5§}uH@cia&; §95 (547)jzifvnf;aumif; !$e=f um;xm;onfukd awG@&onf? kd f h od@k aomfvnf; 1995 ckEp/f Zlviv 9 &ufae@wif jyKvyonfh jynfci+f zKd ; A[dtvkyf S dk_ f G kf kd k tr_aqmiftzG@J (11§95)tpnf;ta0;rS jynfe,f§wdi;f §c&ki§+rKd @e,f jynfaxmifpk }u@H cia&; k df kd f ESihf zG@H +zdK;a&;toif;rsm;onf toif;.&HyaiGtwGuf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm; vkyuicijhf yK&ef Hk f f kd f G qk;H jzwfconf? tqdygp;D yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm; vkyaqmif&mwGivnf; pnfrsO;f / pnf;urf;rsm;ufkd hJ k f f f txl;owdjyK vkuemaqmif&uom;&ef XmecsKyf. 1995 ckEp/f Zlviv 27 &ufae@pyg pm d f G f G S d_ f JG trSwf 5§}uH@cia&;§95 (547)jzifh !$e=f um;cJonf? pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; vkyaqmif&mwGif kd f h f f vkuem&rnfh pnf;urf;csursm;rSm- d f f (u) EkiiEivrsK;d twGuf tusK;d ,kwaprnfh pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm; jyKvkyjf cif;rjyK&ef? d f H S hf l f f (c) toif;tqifqif. pnf;&k;H a&;udk xdcuaprnfh tjcm; pD;yGm;a&;tzG@J tpnf;rsm;rS aqmif h h kd f &Guaeonfh pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;wGif 0ifa&muf,O+f ydKifaqmif&ur_ rjyK&ef? f f S G f (*) toif;tqifqif. *k%oumudk !_;d EGr;f ao;odrapaom/ toif;0ifrsm;. tusipm&dwW h h f d Q f hf ysujf ym;apaom/ trsm;jynforsm;.tjrifwif rwifw,faom pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm; aqmif l G h f &Gujf cif; rjyK&ef? (Oyrm-t&ufqivyief;/ om;owfvyief;) ponfw@dk jzpfonf?27 kd f k f kf trSewu,fvufawG@wirl jynfci+f zKd ;toif;onf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm; vkyaqmif f Gf dk f f &mwGif azmfjyygtcsursm;ESihf qef@usiaeayonf? jynfci+f zKd ;toif;u jrefrmEdii. pD;yGm;a&; f f dk kfH tcef;uÀwpfck &,lxm;jcif;onf etzppftpd;k &tm; aps;uGup;D yGm;a&;pepftwGi;f &Sd f pD;yGm;a&;tiftm;rsm;udk tvG,wul xde;f csKyfEiatmif vrf;zGiay;cJonf?28 f kd f hf h jref*%jf rifur%onf jynfci+f zKd ;toif;. t"dupD;yGm;a&;vkyief;jzpfonf? 1995 k h k` D dk f ckEpqef;rSpI e0w(,ck etz). yHy;kd r_jzifh usyf 68 oef; &if;ES;D jrKyfEI “jref*%jf rif” ukr%D Sf h HS k h ` udk wnfaxmifcjhJ cif;jzpfonf? e0w (etz)u v$ay;onfh '*Hòk r@d opfajrmufyi;f yifv&wem J kd kH aps;}uD;&Sd qdicef; 382 cef; a&mif;&aiG usyf 39 oef;ESihf vpOfim;&rf;c usyf 6 aomif;cGEihf kf S J S e0w (,ck tez)u v$ay;onfh ajreDue;f aps;rSvnf; usyoef; 200 &&Sconf? xd@k a=umifh J k f d hJ jynfcdkif+zdK;toif;onf EdkifiHydkift&if;tjrpfrsm;udktoHk;ðy+yD; pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm; aqmif&uc&m wpfEptwGi;f usyaiG 36 ukaÉausmEihf qdicef;iSm;crsm;vnf; vpOfoef;csI G f hJ Sf f fS kf D 29 &&Sconf? 1995 ckEp/f pufwifbmv jynfci+f zKd ;ESpywfvnf tpnf;ta0;od@k wifoi;f aom d hJ S dk f G 17
  17. 17. jynf c d k i f ò zd ; od k Œ r[k w f ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm; tpD&ifcpmt& jynfci+f zKd ;taejzihf EdiiawmfyiypPn;f rsm;udk tok;H jyKI pD;yGm;a&;vkyuic&m H kd kfH kd f f kd f hJ 30 tjrwfaiGppaygi;f 362 oef; &&Sconf? k k d hJ xd@k jyif jrefrmhausmufrsu&wemaps;uGuEihf jrefrmhp;D yGm;a&;OD;ydivrwuftygt0if f fS kf DD pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;pGmudvnf; jynfci+f zKd ;toif;u xde;f csKyfxm;onf?31 jynfci+f zdK;toif; f k kd kd onf &efuewi;f / vdi+f rdK@e,f ajrwdi;f &yfuuf trSwf (24)&Sd ajr{&d,m{u (15.507)udk vGJ k f kd _ k G ajymif;&,lxm;+y;D ‚if;ajruGursm;udk cswywwif'gpepfjzihf a'ocHv,form;rsm;tm; tiSm; f d fd f 32 csay;cJonf? ppfui;f wdi;f / rif;uif;òr@d e,fwivnf; tqifjh rifh v,f,majrazmfxwa&;rsm; h kd k Gf k f twGuf a'ocHjynfovxk axmifaygi;f rsm;pGmudk t"rRvytm;ay; apcdi;f cJ+h yD; tEdiusir_ l l kf k k f hf rsm; ðyvkyconf? ‚if;v,f{uopf (3000) teuf armfvuwif tajcpduonfh cr& 364 f hJ kd f G k f ESihf cr& 366 wyf&if;rsm;u {u (1000) pD/ rif;uif;òrd@e,f jynfci+f zdK;toif;u {u (500) dk cGa0,l+yD; useonfh {u (500) udom a'ocHjynforsm; &&Sconf?33 J f k l d hJ etzppftpd;k &. axmufytm;ay;r_ od@k r[kwf Ediiawmfyif b¾maiGrsm;ESihf ypPn;f hH kfH kd rsm;udk toH;k jyKI vkyuiaqmif&uaeaom vkyief;rsm;pGmvnf; &Sonf? Oyrmtm;jzif- f kd f G f f d h &xm;/ vdi;f um; ponfh c&D;onfo,f,y@kd aqmifa&;vkyief;rsm;/ tiSm;um;vkyief;/ tcGeaiG k l f f f aumufcjH cif;vkyief;/ Ediiu;l vufrwrsm;xkway;jcif;vkyief;/ pduysL;d a&;ESihf igarG;jrLa&; f kfH S f f f k f vkyief;rsm;/ ajruGursm;ESiaps;qkicef;rsm;tiSm;cspm;jcif;/ bdvyfajrtdyrsm; o,f,y@kd aqmif f f hf df f l a&;vkyief;/ aomufo;Hk a&jzef@a0jcif;vkyief;/ ausmufxwvyief;/ tkwzwvyief;/ za,mif; f f k f kf fk f kf wdif a&mif;csonfvyief;/ tif;vkyief;/ ul;wd@k vyief;/ pyg;oD;pm;csjcif;vkyief;/ yJ/ESr;f 0,f,l k h kf f kf f odavSmifjzef@jzL;jcif;vkyief;/ jynfyrS armfawmfum;rsm;/ armfawmfqiu,frsm;ESihf wm,mrsm; k f kd f udk tcGeuif;vGwpmjzifh wifoi;f jcif;vkyief;/ pojzifh ajrmufrsm;pGmaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm; f fG G f f 34 jzpf=uonf? xk@d tjyif jynfaxmifp}k uH@cia&;ESihf zG@H +zdK;a&;toif;onf tEkynmvkyief;rsm;wGif kd f f vnf; wjznf;jznf;csi;f v$r;f rd;k csKyfuivmcJonf? ,cifu AdvcsKyfcif!e@f OD;aqmifaom kd f h k f $ ppfaxmufve;f a&;rsm; vkyuiconfh pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;enf;wl“ a&$pif” AD',kd &kuu;l S f kd f hJ f GD d f xkwvya&;ukr%D zG@J pnf;wnfaxmif+y;D pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;udk pwifvyuiconf? ,cif f kf ` f k f kd f hJ ppfaxmufve;f a&;tzG@J &pOfu“ apwref ”emrnfEihf AD',/kd pD'/D ADp'D aw;pD;&D;xkwvya&; S dS S GD GD f kf rsm;omru/ &ky&ixwvya&;vkyief;rsm;udyg pD;yGm;jzpf us,jf yef@pm vkyaqmifconf? f Sf k f k f f k G f hJ AdvcsKyfcif!e@f OD;aqmifonfh ppfaxmufve;f a&;rsm;udk acsre;f +yD;onfaemufyi;f umvwGif k f $ S _ h kd xdapwrefur%ukd vuf&ppftpd;k &u odr;f ,lum ,ckjynfci+f zKd ; (ac: ) jynfaxmif}u@H cia&; k k` D dS dk kd f 35 ESihf zG@H +zdK;a&;toif;u a&$pif trnfjzifh jyefvnfz@JG pnf;I vkyaqmifcjhJ cif;jzpfonf? xd@k jyif f pma&;q&mrsm;/ ¶kyf&Sifo¶kyfaqmifrsm;ESifh tjcm;tEkynmvkyfief;rsm;tay:wGifvnf; toif;0ifjzpfjcif;/ rjzpfjcif;tay:r_wnfI uef@owfcsKyfcs,rrsm; &Sconf? om"utm;jzifh f_ d hJ 18

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