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Hreib Pack 2007

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  • 1. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 1hre pack.pmd 1 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 2. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii) rSxwa0onfY Y hf k f H k f Facilitation Guide for Trainers Author Art work by Facilitation Training Agga Participants From ,ckpmtkywif vlxt=um;aphpyfaqmf f G k Chiang Mai, =ojcif;qdkonfudk trsm;oabm aygufatmif Graphic Design Sangkhla Buri, &Si;f vif;xm;,Hr#ru xdvyief;vkyf aqmifae k k k f Mae Sot, mmmlwin aomolrsm; vduemoifonftcsursm;ESihf oif,l k f h h f Mae Hong Son olrsm;.yg0ifr_udk tm;ay;aomoif=um;r_enf; vrf; ud&,mrsm;udk azmfjyxm;onf? d Published by ,ckpmtkyonf (USAID) ESihf Intern- f Human Rights Education Institute of ational Rescue Committee (IRC) - SHIELD Burma (HREIB) Project .tultnDyy;kd r_jzifh taumiftxnf hH Photo Credit azmfcJhaom vlxkpGrf;&nfjrSifhwifr_tpDtpOf. &vmfvjJ zpf onf? xdtpDtpOfwiyg0ifcaom k Gf hJ HREIB Photo Bank oifwef;om;/ oifwef;olrsm;. wuf=uGpmyg0if G avhvm/ wDxi/f }uKd ;yrf;r_rsm;a=umifh Tpmtkyukd G f ,ckuo@dk atmifjrifpm xkwa0Ediconf[k qdv#if hJ G f k f hJ k vJ rSm;rnfr[kwfay/? csif;rdkif/ rJa[mifaqmif/ web site / e-mail rJaqmuf/ pefcvbl&aotoD;oD;rS ta=umif; D Address t&mtrsKd ;rsKd ;ESiywfoufI vlxynmay;vkyief; hf k f hreburma@loxinfo.co.th rsm; vkyfudkifaeom wdkif;&if;om;vli,frsm;u www.hreib.com, www.hreib.net GPO Box (485) wDxif xm;aom oifcef;pmrsm;udk Tpmtkywif G f G Chiang Mai 50000 pkpnf;wifjyxm;ygonf? vlxt=um; aphpyfaqmf k Thailand. =oaomenf;ynmrsm;ESihf vlxyg0ifavhvmaom k ynmay;r_rsm; wdk;wufvmatmif ydkif;0ef;}udK; yrf;cJaom xdtpDtpOfwiyg0ifconfh oifwef; h k Gf hJ First Edition : 1,500 copies, enf;jyrsm;/ enf;trsKd ;rsKd ;jzifh yg0ifunay;cJaoml D h HREIB olrsm;tm;vH;k udk aus;Zl;jyKrSwwrf;wifygonf? f Allrights reserved. This work maybe reproduced, provided that no txl;ojzifh ,cktpDtpOfwif rdrEihf vufwyg0ifchJ G dS GJ commercial use is made of it and authors are acknowledged. aom udatmifaZmfaxG;/ udvatmifEihf rdurGef k k S axmwd@k ukd txl;aus;Zl;wifygonf? Funded by the 2 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 2 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 3. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf trSmpm vl@tcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)taeESihf jrefrmEdii&vxt=um; todtjrifw;kd yGm;vmatmif vkyaqmifaom hf kfH k f H dS l k f vlxt=um;aphpyfaqmf=ojcif; (Facilitation)todynmrsm;udk ae&maotoD;oD;wGif yd@k csv@_ aqmfvmcJonfrm ,ck 2007 k H h S ckEpwif (7) ESpwic+hJ yjD zpfonf? wduwuqiqiqovdk 200& ckEptwGuf vl@tcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii) a&G;cs,chJ Sf G f kd f k f kd f kd f kd f kd Sf hf kfH f aom &nf&,csuaqmifyrmvnf; jyKjyifajymif;vJrtwGi;f vlxt=um; aphpyfv@H_ aqmfjcif; (Facilitation For Change) jzpf.? G f f kfS _ k rdrw@kd jrefrmEdiiwif avhvmcJaom ynm&yfrsm;onf wvrf;oGm;ynma&;pepfomjzpfconf? arG;uxnf;ygvmcJaom d kfH G h hJ h topftqef;udk avhvmvdpw/f pl;prf;vdpwrsm;rSm xdynma&;pepfrsm;atmufwif wjznf;jznf;aysmufu,c+hJ y;D oif,orsm;. kd kd f k G G f l l wuf=uGyg0ifrr&Saomavhvmoif,rpepfYom tom;usaecJ&onfrm 0rf;enf;p&myif? ta=umif;t&mwckukd bufaygi;f pHrS _ d l_ h S k pOf;pm;a0zef jrifwwfjcif;/ usKd ;a=umif;cdivpm &_jrifwwfjcif;ponft&nftcsi;f rsm;rSmvJ Edii&dS ppftm%m&Sipepfatmufwif k f kH G h kfH f G toH;k cscir&SbJ aysmufq;kH aecJ&onf? G hf d h rdrw@kd taejzifh oif,orsm;twGuf vGwvyfvef;qef;wuf=uGaom avhvm,lywf0ef;usiukd wnfaqmufEirom d l l f f kd f S avhvmr_t&Seaumif;Edirnf[k ,H=k unfonf? avhvmr_tay:pdw0ifpm;r_&+dS y;D rdrw@kd t,ltqudk wifjyEdirom avhvmolw@kd onf df kf f d kfS 4if;wd@k wi&aom pl;prf;avhvmvdr/_ wDxizefw;D vdr/_ pOf;pm;qifjcifawG;ac:Edirrsm;udk azmfxwtoH;k csEirnf[vJ cdicirmrm G f dS k Gf k kf_ k f kd f k k f kd f ,H=k unfonf? xdo@kd v+kH cKH wuf=uvef;qef;p&maumif;aom avhvmr_ywf0ef;usiraeI ynm&yfwckuu|r;f usiaom vlxynm k G fS kd f k ay;olrsm;oufoufomr[kwbJ avhvmolrsm;. yg0ifruav;pm;cGijhf yKaom ynmay;olrsm;ay:xGe;f vmap&ef rdrw@kd }uKd ;yrf;tm; f _ kd d xkwvsu&.? f f dS ,ckpmtkyonf xd}k uKd ;yrf;tm;xkwcsuukd wwyfwtm;jznfpnf;ay;Edi&eftwGuf xGuay:vmaom toD;tyGiwckjzpf f f f h kf f hf onf? ,ckpmtkywif vlxt=um;aphpyfaqmf=ojcif;qdonfukd trsm;oabmayguatmif &Si;f vif;xm;,Hr#ru xdvyief;vkyf f G k k f k k kf aqmifaeaomolrsm; vduemoifonftcsursm;ESihf oif,orsm;. yg0ifrukd tm;ay;aom oif=um;r_enf;vrf;ud&,mrsm;udk k f h h f l l _ d azmfjyxm;onf? ,ckpmtkyonf (USAID) ESihf International Rescue Committee (IRC) - SHIELD Project .tultnDyy;kd r_jzifh f hH taumiftxnfazmfcaom vlxpr;f &nfjrSiwifrtpDtpOf. &vmfvjJ zpfonf? xdtpDtpOfwiyg0ifcaom oifwef;om;/ hJ k G hf _ k Gf hJ oifwef;olrsm;. wuf=uGpmyg0ifavhvm/ wDxi/f }udK;yrf;r_rsm;a=umifh Tpmtkyukd ,ckuo@dk atmifjrifpm xkwa0Ediconf[k G G f hJ G f k f hJ qdv#ivJ rSm;rnfr[kway/? csi;f rdi/f rJa[mifaqmif/ rJaqmuf/ pefcvbl&aotoD;oD;rS ta=umif;t&mtrsKd ;rsKd ;ESiywfoufI k f f k D hf vlxkynmay;vkyfief;rsm;vkyfudkifaeom wdkif;&if;om;vli,frsm;u wDxGifxm;aom oifcef;pmrsm;udk TpmtkyfwGif pkpnf;wifjyxm;ygonf? vlxt=um; aphpyfaqmf=oaomenf;ynmrsm;ESihf vlxyg0ifavhvmaomynmay;r_rsm; wd;k wufvm k k atmif ydi;f 0ef;}uKd ;yrf;cJaom xdtpDtpOfwiyg0ifconfh oifwef;enf;jyrsm;/ enf;trsKd ;rsKd ;jzifh yg0ifunay;cJaomolrsm;tm;vH;k udk k h k Gf hJ l D h aus;Zl;jyKrSwwrf;wifygonf? txl;ojzifh ,cktpDtpOfwif rdrEihf vufwyg0ifcaom udatmifaZmfaxG;/ udvatmifEihf f G d S GJ hJ k k S rdurGeaxmwd@k ukd txl;aus;Zl;wifygonf? f jyKjyifajymif;vJrrsm;udk vlxt=um;aphpyfaqmf=ovH@_ aqmfrenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh azmfaqmif=uygp@kd / _ k _ atmifrsKd;rif; g&uwm kd f vl@tcGita&;ynmay;Xme(jrefrmEdii) hf kfH atmufwbmv/ 2007 ckEpf kd S o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 3hre pack.pmd 3 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 4. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf tcef;(1) aphpyfaqmfMojcif; aphpyfaqmfMoay;olqwmbmvJ (11) kd aphpyfaqmfMoay;olaumif;wpfa,muf t&nftcsi;rsm; (15) f aphpyfaqmfMoay;olwm0efrsm; (17) tcef;(2) oifMum;rItaxmuftuljyKenf;vrf;rsm; oifwef;wckjyifqifykH (21) oif&k;ñTe;wrf;rsm;jyifqifykH (ADIDS) enf;vrf; (27) d f oifwef;cef;rjyifqifykH (32) oifye;toH;jyKykH (33) k f k upm;enf;rsm;toH;jyKjcif; (35) k tacstwifajymqdjk cif;(od)pum;&nfvjk cif; (40) Yk o½kyazmfwifqufjcif; (43) f tkypi,fcjJG cif; (49) f k ½kyyrsm;toH;jyKjcif; (52) f kH k AG,Eihf ½ky&iZmwfvrf;rsm; (54) D D kd S f S f 4 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 4 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 5. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf cufcaomolrsm;ESiqufqonftcg J hf H h vHavmufaomtpm;tpm&&Scihf (122) k d G owdjyK&rnftcsursm; (55) h f tjcm;enf;jzifh oefpr;olrsm;qdi&m G f k f tcGita&; (125) hf tcef;(3) vltcGita&; oifcef;pmrsm; Y hf kuonftcGita&; (128) © hf vltcGita&;t"dygÜ ,f (65) Y hf vltcGita&;t"dygÜ ,f (130) Y hf vltcGita&;ordi;aMumif; (69) Y hf k f pkaygif;vkyaqmifrI (128) f tjynfjynfqi&mvltcGita&; aMunmpmwrf; kd f Y hf twif;t"r®v,f,mNcHajr ordi;aMumif;ESitydrsm; (tajccHtqif) (74) k f hf k f h odr;qnf;cH&jcif;(133) f vltcGita&;ordi;aMumif; (83) Y hf k f vltcGita&;trsK;tpm; (87) Y hf d tcef;(4) trsKd;orD;tcGita&; oifcef;pmrsm; hf wOD;csi;ESihf tkypvutcGita&;rsm; (90) f f k kd f hf vdiujJG ym;rIEihf vdiujJG ym;rIay:tajccHí f S f vlYtcGifhta&;csKd;azmufrESifhumuG,frI (94) I cGjJ cm;onftjrifrsm; (138) h Ediiwum Ediiom;ESihf Ediia&;tcGita&;qdi&m k f H k f H k f H hf k f usm; r tcef;u@ (141) oabmwlpmcsKyf (100) vdifuGJjym;rIay:tajccHí EdiiwumpD;yGm;a&; vlra&;ESihf ,Ofaus;rItcGihf k f H I cGjJ cm;qufqrrsm; (146) H I ta&;qdi&moabmwlpmcsKyf (110) k f vdiujJG ym;rItay: cGjJ cm;qufqc&jcif; f H H vlYtcGifhta&;vkyfief;rsm;aqmif&Gufjcif; (116) tjzpftysuf (150) ynma&;wef;wlnrQrI (119) D trsK;orD;tcGita&; (153) d hf o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 5hre pack.pmd 5 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 6. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf ta&SUawmiftm&StwGif;&SdtrsKd;orD;rsm; umuG,rqi&mtcGita&;rsm; (221) f I kd f hf tcGita&;tajctae (156) hf uav;yg0ifrI (224) tdrwi;tMurf;zufrI (165) (170) (173) f G f uav;vkytm;cdi;aprIEihf uav;tvkyf (228) f k f S trsK;orD;rsm; use;rma&;qdi&m tcGita&; d f k f hf uav;b0ESihf uav;tcGita&; (233) hf (176) uav;tcGita&; (236) (237) (239) hf a&S;½d;pGypcuowfrwjf cif;tydi;(u) (179) k J kH H G f S k f uav;zGNYH zKd ;wd;wufrI (241) k a&S;½d;pGypcuowfrwjf cif;tydi;(c) (184) k J kH H G f S k f uav;yg0ifrI (243) vdiEihf vditajcjyKtjrif (187) f S f uav;ppfom; (247) (249) (250) (253) vdiujJG ym;rItay:tajccHícGjJ cm;onftjrif (189) f h DDR vkyief;pOf (255) f rwlujJG ym;rIEihf cGjJ cm;qufqrI (191) S H yg0g (193) uav;ul;oef;a&mif;0,frI (256) (258) (266) yHpcuowfrwjf cif; (195) k H G f S (273) (274) (276) (277) trsK;orD;rsm;tay:tMurf;zufrI (197) d uav;rsm;touf&SifoefcGifhESifh zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufcGifh(259) tcef;(5) uav;tcGita&; oifcef;pmrsm; hf uav;tcGita&; (200) hf uav;tcGita&; pmcsKyygtcsursm; (203) hf f f touf&iciEihf zGUNzKd ;wd;wufcihf qdi&m S f G hf S H k G k f tcGita&;rsm; (214) hf 6 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 6 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 7. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf tcef;(6) a&Tajymif;tvkyorm; oifcef;pmrsm; Y f vkyief;cGiab;uif;vHNk cKH a&; (280) (282) f f tcef;(7) usef;rma&; oifcef;pmrsm; ud,0efzsufcsjcif; (286) k f (HIV/AIDS) (289) vdiqufqjH cif;rS ul;pufEiaoma&m*grsm;tm; f kd f umuG,jf cif; (291) rdom;pkprue; (293) D H d f rsK;yGm;rIqi&m use;rma&; (300) d kd f f usef;rma&; (303) tcef;(8) obm0ywf0ef;usif oifcef;pmrsm; bom0ywf0ef;usif ( 306) (310) (313) a&umwm (315) pGeypfypön;rsm; (316) Yf f tcef;(9) Nidr;f csrf;a&; oifcef;pmrsm; pkaygif;vkyaqmifrI (322) (323) f ,Ofaus;rI (324) cGivwjf cif; (326) hf T o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 7hre pack.pmd 7 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 8. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf tMurf;zufjcif;ESihf tMurf;rzufjcif; (328) y#dyu©ukd qef;ppfavhvmjcif; (330) Mum;0ifaphpyfay;jcif; (332) Nir;csr;a&;ESihf bmomw&m; (334) d f f tcef;(10) vIy&m;rIrsm; f S upm;enf;rsm; (339) 8 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 8 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 9. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf tcef;(1) aphpyfaqmfMojcif; o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 9hre pack.pmd 9 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 10. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf 10 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 10 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 11. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf aphpyfaqmfMoay;ol (Facilitator) qdwmbmvJ? k oif,orsm;. yg0ifrukd tm;ay;cGiðhf yaom vl@tcGita&;ynmay;olwa,mufonf rdru,urrd q&m}uD; l l _ hf d dk f kd d yHprcH,&ef ta&;}uD;vSonf? vl@tcGita&;ynmay;olonf rdravhvmxm;onfh t&mrsm;udtjcm; olrsm;odatmif kH l hf d k ajymjyay;oloufoufrjzpf&yg? vl@tcGifhta&;ynmay;olwa,mufonf rdrdudk,frdrd aphpyfaqmf=o ay;ol (Facilitator) wa,muf[omcH,&rnf? k l vl@tcGita&;ynmay;olonf oif,orsm;wGif &S+d yD;om;jzpfaom tawG@tóuHEihf A[kowrsm;udk jyefvef hf l l S k S oH;k oyfwwfap&efEihf xdtcsursm;udtajccHI vl@tcGita&;ESiywfoufonfh A[kowrsm;wd;k yGm;vmap&ef twGuf S k f k hf hf k tcsi;f csi;f tjyeftvSef ajymqdaqG;aEG;apEdiatmif yHy;kd vkyaqmifay;oljzpf&rnf? xd@k a=umifh vl@tcGita&;ynmay;ol k kf h f hf onf oif,rnforsm;udk bmrSrygaom cGutvGwwcGuuo@kd rjrif&ef ta&;}uD;onf? oif,orsm;onf bmrSrod l h l f f f hJ l l rwwf/ rdromodonf wwfonf[aom tawG;tac:rsKd ;&Soonf oif,orsm;xHwif &S+d yD;om;jzpfaom ºuG,0vS d l d l l l G f onfh tawG@tóuHrsm; tod^m%frsm;udk&atmif xkwf,lEdkifrnfr[kwfyg? aphpyfaqmf=oay;ol (Facilitator) qdkwmbmvJ? aphpyfaqmf=oay;ol. t"duta&;t}uD;qH;k wm0efrm vuf&dS rdrwm0ef,xm;aom S d l tkyfpkwpk. ajz&Sif;vkyfaqmif&ef óud;yrf;aqmif&Guf aeaomjyemrsm; odk@r[kwf ta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifhywfoufI atmifjrifpGm+yD;pD;ap&eftwGuf vkyfaqmif aer_vkyfief;pOftay: xdef;odrf;vrf;a=umif;ay;jcif;jzpfonf? aph p yf a qmf = oay;ol qd k o nf r S m æ Ð trsm;xJrS wa,muftaejzifh yg0iforsm;tm;vH;ESihf tjyeftvSeem;vnfrukd wnfaqmuf&oljzpf+yD;/ l k f _ tkyfpkwckvHk;. oif=um;avhvmEdkif&ef wm0ef,lol jzpfonf? Ð ,Hk=unfr_ESifh yGifhvif;r_&Sdonfhywf0ef;usifudk zefwD;oljzpf+yD;/ xdkywf0ef;usiftwGif; tjrifrwlnDr_rsm;udk av;pm;+y;D rdr,qonftwdi;f yGivif;pGmwifjy&Jaom taetxm;rsK;d &Satmifvyaqmifunojl zpfonf? d l h k hf d kf l D Ð avhvmoif,lr_ vkyfief;pOftwGif;wGif vlwdkif;rdrdudk,fwdkifyg0ifaeovdk cHpm;ae&atmif vkyfaqmifEdkif oljzpf+yD; vlwdkif;trSefwu,fyg0ifcGifh&Sdatmif tmrcHoljzpfonf? Ð aqG;aEG;yGJ ta=umif;t&mrsm; jyifqifjcif;/ tcsdefrsm;udk avhvmjcif;/ pwifcsdefESifh +yD;qHk;csdefrsm;udkowf rSwfjcif;/ aqG;aEG;r_ta=umif;t&m rvGJacsmfatmifxdef;odrf;jcif; tp&Sdonfh oif=um;avhvmr_yHk o¾mefudk azmfaqmifay;oljzpfonf? Ð oif=um;r_taxmuftulðyypPnf;rsm; jyifqifjcif;/ aqG;aEG;yGJae&m&SmazGowfrSwfjcif;/ yg0ifrnfholrsm; udktoday;ta=umif;=um;jcif;/ vdktyfonfhjyifqifr_rsm;+yD;/ r+yD;avhvmjcif; tp&Sdonfh “House keeping” wm0efvkyfief;rsm;udk aocsmatmifvkyfaqmifoljzpfonf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 11hre pack.pmd 11 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 12. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf aph p yf a qmf = ool r sm;taejzif h a&S m if = uOf & ef r S m æ OD ; aqmif o l o nf wm0ef c H r jzpf & ? ? oif=um;avhvmr_onf wzG‹J v;kH ESihf ouf qdiygonf? “aphpyfaqmf=ool” . wm0efrm oif=um; avhvmr_ukd kf S ydkrdkxda&mufatmif aqmif&Gufay;&efomjzpfygonf? oif=um;r_ ta=umif;t&mrsm;tm;vHk;udk wOD;wnf; csKyfudkifxm;olrjzpf&yg? avhvmrnfhacgif;pOfrsm;udk a&G;cs,fqHk;jzwf&mwGif yg0ifolrsm;. ajymqdkcsuf rsm;/ vdkvm;csufrsm;udk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;&rnf jzpfygonf? “rd r d w OD ; xJ u oif = um;yd k Œ csol ” rjzpf & yg? ? aphpyfaqmf=oay;ol ud,wiuvnf; k f kd f tjcm;olrsm;enf;wl avhvmazmfavhvmzufjzpf&ygrnf? avhvm&mwGifyg0ifolw a,mufjzpf+yD; rdrwOD;csi;f . tawG‹tóuHrsm;udk tjcm;olrsm;ESihf twlwuG a0r#ay; d oljzpf&ygrnf? “txl ; u|rf ; usif o l ” jzpf & ef r vd k t yf y g? ? aqG;aEG;rnfta=umif;t&mrsm;udk jyifqifay;oljzpfaomf h vnf; ulnDaqmif&Gufay;olonf ta=umif;t&mwckcsif;tay: Y tkyfpkwGifyg0ifonfh tjcm;olrsm; xuf ydkrdkodcsifrSodygvdrfhrnf? “tm;vH k ; u tm±H k p d k u f o nf h q H k c suf ” rjzpf & yg? ? aphpyfaqmf=oolaumif;wa,mufonf tjcm;ol rsm;tm; aqG;aEG;yGtwGi;f yg0ifvmatmif aqmif&uay;onfrvI tjcm;yg0iforsm;xuf pum;avsmajym J G f S JG l h &ygrnf? “tqH k ; tjzwf a y;ol ” rjzpf & yg? ? tjcm;olrsm;ESihf tjyeftvSeaqG;aEG;ajymqd&mwGif aphpyfaqmf=o f k ay;olonf rnfonfhxifjrifcsufrsm;u rSefonf/ rSm;onf/ toHk;r0ifawmhyg ponfjzifh rqHk;jzwf&yg? “tapcH ” rjzpf & yg? ? avhvmaqG;aEG;rnfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pDpOf&mwGiunaqmif&uf olonf f l D G tpydkif;wGifOD;aqmifr_udk vkyfaqmif&aomfvnf;ol odk‹r[kwf olronf t&m&mtm;vHk;udkwm0efcHolrjzpf &yg? wOD;wa,mufxu tr_uo±dursm;tm;vH;k udk pkyor;f qnf;&ol od‹k r[kwf pDrcef‹crtao; pdwukd J d f k f kH d H JG _ f tcsdefjynfhvkyfaqmif&olrjzpf&yg? 12 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 12 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 13. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf aph p yf a qmf = oay;ol a umif ; wa,muf j zpf z d k ‹ bmawG v d k t yf o vJ ? yk*~vdut&nftcsif;rsm;tay:tajccHaom wOD;csif;pGrf;&nfESifh vkyfief;tay:ZJGvHk@vtjynfhjzifh vkyfaqmif vdaom t"dXmefpw&rw‹kd onf aphpyfaqmf=oolaumif;. t&nftaoG;rsm;wcsK@d jzpfygonf/? od‹k &mwGif todynm k d f dS _ jynf0r_Eihf vkyief;tawG‹tóuHw‹kd rmvnf; aphpyfaqmf=oolaumif;.t&nftaoG;udk ydrjkd rifrm;apaomtcsursm;jzpf h S f S k h f ygonf? vl w OD ; csif ; pD . cH p m;csuf r sm;tay: pmemem;vnf c H p m;Ed k i f r _ p G r f ; &nf ? ,H=k unfrEihf tjyeftvSeav;pm;r_ &Sonfywf0ef;usiukd zefw;D Edi&efEihf xde;f odr;f xm;Edif _ S f d h f kf S k &eftwGuf aqG;aEG;onfhacgif;pOfrsm;tay: vltrsm;urnfodk@ xifjrif,lqonf/ tjcm;olrsm; tay: rnfodk@wkef@jyefonfwdk@udk avhvmtuJcwf pmemem;vnfcHpm;ay;Edkif&ef txl;vdktyf onf? vltrsm;tjym;onfow‹kd . pdwroufromjzpfrrsm;/ pdwxcurrsm;ESihf agojzpf l f _ f d kd f _ r_rsm;udk xkwfazmfjyoavhr&Sd=uyJ aqG;aEG;r_rsm;twGif;rSvnf;aumif;/ wcgw&Htkyfpk twGif;rSvnf;aumif; wdwfqdwfpGm aemufqkwfoGm;wwfygonf? xdk@twGuf tjcm; olrsm;rnfo‹kd cpm;aeonfukd od&cpm;Edijf cif;/ tajctaew&yfukd rnfo‹kd we‹f jyef&rnfukd H dS H k k em;vnfjcif;wd‹k onf aphpyfaqmf=oolaumif;wa,muf. ta&;}uD;aom t&nftcsi;f jzpfygonf? tk y f p k . cH p m;csuf r sm;tay: pmemem;vnf c H p m;Ed k i f r _ p G r f ; &nf ? rnfonftypwirqdk tkypwckv;kH udponf tpdwtydi;f wckcsi;f xuf ydrta&;ygyg h k f k Gf f k P f k k kd onf? wOD;xHrwOD; a0r#u;l pufEionfh cHpm;r_rsm;jzpfaom rvdvm;r_/ aerxdxiromjzpfr/_ S kd f k kd f pdwfqdk;r_/ ysif;&dr_/ pdwfjyif;jyr_/ oHo,jzpfr_ESifh wcgw&Hpdwfrwnfjidrfr_wdk‹onf tkyfpkwckvHk;xHokd@ ul;pufEdkifygonf? tkyfpktwGif;jzpfay:ajymif;vJaer_rsm;udk &SmazGtuJcwfwwfjcif;ESifh wkef‹jyefwwfjcif;wdk‹onf u|rf;usifaomaphpyfaqmf=oay;olxHwGif r&Sdrjzpfvdktyfygonf// em;axmif E d k i f p G r f ; &S d j cif ; ? tkyfpkwckvHk;.cHpm;csufrsm;ESifh tkyfpkwGif;&Sd wOD;csif;.cHpm;csufrsm;udk od&SdcHpm;Edkifonfh enf;vrf;wckrSm pl;pduem;axmifwwfjcif;yifjzpfygonf/ pum;vH;k wckcsi;f pD. t"dym,foufa&mufrrsm;/ ajymqdow‹kd . toHaetoH k f ` _ k l xm;rsm;udkavhvmI t"dy`m,fudkòcHiHkazmfxkwfEdkif&rnfjzpfonf? xdk‹twGuf aphpyfaqmf=oolonf tkyfpkwckvHk;ESifh ,SOfv#ifpum;tenf;qHk; ajymoljzpf&ayrnf? wcgw&HwGif aphpyfaqmf=ool.oHk;oyfr_rSm tjcm;olrsm;.ajym=um; csufrsm;udk jyefvnfajymjyjcif;/ twdkcsKyfaygif;pkay;jcif;wdk@jzpf&rnf? enf ; em? wcgw&HwGif ulnDaqmif&Gufolonf tkyfpkwckvHk;. aumif;usKd;twGuf oufawmifhoufom r&SdvSonfh ðyrlaqmif&urrsm;/ em;0ifrcsKvonfh ajymqdrrsm;udk ðyvkyajymqd&wwfygonf? ,if;od‹k ajymqdðk yrl&mwGif odrarG‹pm G f_ d S k_ f k hf G jzif*±kwpduðf yrl&ef ta&;}uD;ygonf? txl;ojzifh vl‹tcGita&;bmom&yfEihf ywfoufIaqG;aEG;aepOf yg0iforsm; h k hf S l twGif; jyif;xefaomcHpm; csufrsm;ESifh qdk;&Gm;aomtjzpfqdk;rsm;udk jyefvnftrSwf&apr_rsm;jzpfay:apwwfygonf/ aphpyfaqmf=oolrsm;taejzifh pdwvy&m;zG,tajctae rsm;óuHawGŒ&ifqi&ygu rdrvyief;tay: wcgw&H cdicirmrm f _fS f kd f d kf k f kd f &yfwnf&ef vdktyfouJhodk‹ xdkolrsm;tay: av;av;pm;pm; ðyr_aqmif&GufEdkifrnfh enf;emrsm;vdktyfygonf? tjyef t vS e f y l ; aygif ; vk y f a qmif r _ t ay: ,H k = unf j cif ; ? tjyeftvSefyl;aygif;vkyfaqmifoif=um;r_onf wcgw&HwGif pdwfysufzG,f&mjzpf+yD; jynfhpHkvkHavmufr_r&Sd[k xif&ygonf// xdtcgrsK;d wGif aphpyfaqmf=oolonf ulnaqmif&uay;onfyptpm; t±d;k pJaeaom a&S;±d;k pJoif=um;r_ k D G f h kH H G G yHkpHjzpfonfh q&mwOD;wnf;a&S›aqmifoif=um;r_yHkpHodk‹ ajymif;vJvdkpdwfrsm; ay:vmwwfygonf? odk‹&mwGif aphpyf aqmf=ool. tjyeftvSey;l aygi;f vkyaqmifoif=um;r_tay: cdicirmrmvufcH ,H=k unfxm;ygu xdo@kd q&mwOD;wnf;u f f k f kd f k o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 13hre pack.pmd 13 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 14. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf OD;aqmifoif=um;vdrukd wGe;f vSeqef‹usiapEdiygonf? wzufrvnf; aphpyfaqmf=oolonf tkypwi;f &Sd tjcm;olrsm;. k _ f f kf S fk G aphpyfaqmf=or_rsm;udvnf; zdwac: vuf cH&efvtyfygonf? k f kd tcsd e f t ay: od & S d c H p m;r_ ? aphpyfaqmf=oolonf tcseEiygwoufI “qÏrtm±H”udk arG;jrLxm;oifonf? rnfonftcsewif aqG; d f S hf f k h h d f G aEG;r_ukd tqH;k owfrnf/ rnfonftcsewif acgi;f pOfajymif;&rnf/ pum;&Sn&nvsm;vsm; ajymwwfoukd rnfonfh h d f G f S f l tcsdefwGif pum;jzwf&rnf/ rnfonfhtcgwGif owfrSwfcsdefxufausmfvGefI aqG;aEG;cdkif;qdkrnf/ rnfonfhtcgwGif wdwfqdwf+idrfoufr_udk tcsdef=um=umqGJxm;oifhonfponfjzifh tcsdefESifhywfoufI od&Sdem;vnf&efvdktyfygonf? ajymif ; vG , f j yif v G , f & S d r _ ? aphpyfaqmf=oolonf tpDtpOfrsm;udk pDpOfvkyfaqmif&rnfjzpfouJhodk‹ tpDtpOfrsm;udkvnf; vdktyfygu tajctaeESifhvdkufavsmnDaxGpGm ajymif;vJvdkr_&Sd&rnfjzpfonf? wcgw&HaqG;aEG;&mwGif yg0ifaeaomolrsm;onf aqG;aEG;onfhta=umif;t&mESifhywfoufI b,fvdka&S›quf&rnfukd rodavmufaom tajctaersKd;a&mufoGm;Edkif onf? wcgw&Hwif aqG;aEG;onfta=umif;t&mwcktwGuf cef@re;f xm;onfxuf tcseyrvkd tyfonftjzpfrsK;d vnf; G h S d f kd kd h &ifqi&Edionf? aphpyfaqmf=ooltaejzifh tkyp.vdtyfcsuay:wGif oH;k oyfwwf&efvtyf+yD; rnfo‹kd we‹f jyef&rnfukd kd f k f fk k f kd k qH;k jzwfEi&rnfjzpfonf? ta=umif;t&macgi;f pOfwi;f onf ta&;}uD;onfreaomfvnf; wcgw&Hwif ydrjkd ynfpaom kd f kd S f G k h kH ajz&Sif;r_jzpfap&eftwGuf tcsKd‹acgif;pOfrsm;udk vdktyfyguðzwfypf&ef qHk;jzwf&wwfygonf? [mo^m%f & S d j cif ; ? wcgw&H tvGepwtm±Hp;l pduae&aomtcsersm;twGi;f aphpyfaqmf=ool.[mo ^m%f&Sdr_/ tjcm;olrsm;. fd f k k f df &,f&$ifzG,ftjzpftysufrsm;udkzvS,fwwfr_wdk‹jzifh avhvmolrsm;pdwf&$ifvef;vmap&efvkyfEdkifonf? A[k o k w jynf h 0 jcif ; ES i f h zef w D ; wwf r _ ? yg0iforsm;tay:wGitajccHI tkypwi;f / tkypwi;f wGiujJG ym;jcm; em;r_rsm;&Sayrnf? aphpyfaqmf=oolaumif; l f f k kd f k kd f d wa,muftaejzifh ajymif;vJaeaomtajctaeESihf tcGitvrf;rsm; ay:wGirwnfI vduavsmnDaxG&atmif aexdif hf fl k f dS k wwfouJhodk‹ wckvHk;.vkyfief;pOfESifh &nfrSef;csufrsm;udkvnf; azmfaqmifEdkif&rnfjzpfonf? Oyrmtm;jzifhtkyfpk wGif;&Sdxl;c|efolrsm;ESifh tawG‹tóuH&Sdolrsm;udk azmfxkwf&SmazGEdkif&rnfjzpfouJhodk‹ rdrd.A[kokwt&if;tjrpfrsm;udk avhvmolrsm;tusKd;twGuf t}uHðyay;apEdkifygonf? 14 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 14 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 15. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf aphpyfaqmfMoay;olaumif;wpfa,muf t&nftcsif;rsm; pd w f " mwf y d k i f ; qd k i f & m Ð bufvurr&S/d yk*K~ vpr&SbJ ormorwfusus &yfwnf kd f _ d f GJ d &rnf? Ð tjcm;olrsm;. *k%foduQmESifh tcGifhta&;rsm;udk av;pm;wwf&rnf? Ð rdru,rrd bufaygi;pHjk ynfpo/l tm;vH;od tm;vH; d kd f d f h kH k k wwfaeaomol[k rrSw,oif? f l h Ð udk,fwdkifu vdifcJGjcm;r_tjrifESifh cJGjcm;zdESdyfr_pdwf uif;&rnf? Ð avhvmoif,orsm;xJrS jyefvnftwk,avhvmvdaom pdwxm; l l l k f rsKd;&Sd&rnf? Ð avhvmoif,orsm;onf bmrSrod/ bmrSrwwf[aom tawG;pdw"mwfrsK; l l l f d a&Smif&rnf? tjyKtrl y d k i f ; qd k i f & m Ð avhvmoif,lolrsm;tm;vHk;ESifh &if;ESD;azmfa&GpGmqufqHwwf&rnf? Ð rdrajymonftcsuEihf rdr.tðytrl/ tajymtqdk udunr&&rnf? d h f S d k f D _ dS Ð rdrduajymonfxuf olrsm;ajymonfudk ydkem;axmifEdkif&rnf? avhvmoif,lolrsm;. ajym=um;csufudk tav;xm; *±kpuem;axmifay;wwf&rnf? kd f Ð pdwfqdk;pdwfaumufaom/ pdwfysufaomtrlt,mrsm;udk ray: atmif xdr;f odr;f Edi&rnf? kf Ð rdrdudk,fwdkifuvJ udk,fhudkukd,f,Hk=unfr_&Sd+yD; oufawmifhouf omjzpfaom yHprsK;d jzpf&rnf? oifavsmovdk Z0eOm%fo;kH wwf kH h f &rnf? Ð b0ifjrif/h rme}uD;aomyHpukd a&Smif&m;&rnf? k H S Ð tcsdefwdusr_ESifhwm0efudk rdrdudk,fwdkifav;pm;wwf&rnf? Ð rvdkvm;tyfbJ trsm;tm¶Hkpl;pdkufapaom/ tjrif¶_wfapaom 0wfpm;qif,ifr_udka&Smif=uOf&rnf? Ð cE<mudk,fudk vdktyfovdkv_yf&Sm;I pum;ajymwwfoljzpf&rnf? rv_yfr,Sufxdkifae+yD; ysif;&dp&mtoHjzifh ajymqdrukd a&Smif=uOf&rnf? k_ enf ; vrf ; yd k i f ; qd k i f & m Ð avhvmoif,lolrsm;. avhvmvdkaomtcsufrsm;/ &nf&G,fcsufrsm;udk aumif;pGmod&Sdem;vnf&rnf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 15hre pack.pmd 15 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 16. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Ð avhvmoif,orsm;. vkyaqmifrrsm;ESihf vkyief;pOfw@kd l l f _ f udk t+rJrjywfavhvmae&rnf? Ð avhvmoif,lolrsm;&nfrSef;xm;onfh &nf&G,fcsufrsm; twdkif; a&mufEdkifatmif vrf;a=umif;ay;Edkif&rnf? Ð avhvmoif,owŒkd em;rvnfEiaom twwfynm l l kd f pum;rsm;rsm;udk wwfEior# a&Smif&m;&rnf? kd f S Ð rdrqvonftcsursm;udk d kd kd h f avhvmoif,ol rsm;em;vnf l atmifv&if;wd&i;f ajymEdi&rnf? kd kS kf Ð oif=um;r_enf;vrf;rsKd;pHkudk oifhavsmfovdkajymif;vJtoHk;cs wwf&rnf? Ð avhvmoif,orsm;. l l avhvmEdirpr;f &nf udqef;ppfavhvmwwf&rnfjzpf+yD; vdtyfovdk xde;f ausmif;Edi&rnf? kf_G k k kf Ð vlwdkif;yg0ifaqG;aEG;vmatmif tm;ay;Edkif&rnf? odk@aomf avhvmoif,lolrsm;onf yHkpHtrsKd;rsKd;jzifhyg0ifwwf onfudk t+rJowdrl&rnf? tcsKd@olrsm;onf tkyfpk}uD;wGif aqG;aEG;jcif;r&Sdaomfvnf; tkyfpki,ftwGif;wGif aqG;aEG;r_&wwfonf? dS Ð avhvmoif,loltcsif;csif; &efvdk/ wdkufcdkufr_udk rjzpfatmif wm;qD;umuG,fay;Edkif&rnf? tm;vHk;,Hk=unf av;pm;wefzdk;xm;onfh ywf0ef;usifrsKd;wnfaqmufay;Edkif&rnf? Ð aqG;aEG;aeonfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;xJrS ta&;}uD;aomtESpfcsKyfudk tjcm;olrsm;odatmif/ b,ftqifh txda&mufaeonfudk owdðyrdatmif tESpfcsKyfjyefvnfwifjywwf&rnf? Ð oifcef;pmwckEiwck od@k r[kwf aqG;aEG;onfta=umif;t&mwckEiwckt=um; qufpyfr&&wifjyoGm;wwf&rnf? S hf h S hf _ dS dS Ð oifwef;om;rsm;. em;vnfr_tajctae {em;vnfr_/ ±_wfaxG;r__/ qufvufoif,lEdkifr_a&csdef(yifyrf;/ tdyf idkuf/ wufºuG )}wdk@udk avhvmtuJcwfwwf+yD; vdktyfovdk xdef;ausmif;ay;Edkif&rnf? Ð avhvmoif,lol udk,fwdkifvkyfudkif&if; tajz&SmEdkifrnfhtvkyfrsm;udk udk,fudk,fwdkifu pdwfapmI udk,fpm; vkyfaqmifay;jcif;/ tajzxkwfay;vdkufjcif;rsm;udk a&Smif=uOf&rnf? avhvmoif,lolrsm;onf olwdk@udk,fwdkif vkyfaqmifavhvmoif,Edkir_udk ydkrdkwefzkd;xm;wwf/ rSwfrdwwfonf? l f Ð oifwef;om;rsm;t=um; vSnfhvnfI avhvmwwfoljzpf&rnf? tkyfpkwpkxJwGifom t+rJaejcif;udk a&Smif& rnf? xdkodk@aeygu xdktkyfpkudk rdrduv$rf;rdk;ouJhodk@jzpfoGm;Edkifonf? Ð avhvmoif,lolrsm;xHwGif ar;p&mar;cGef;rsm;&Sd/ r&Sd r=umc%ppfaq;ay;&rnf? Ð rdrdar;cGef;wckar;vdkuf+yD;ygu ajz=um;rnfholrsm; tcsdef,lpOf;pm;Edkif&ef tcsdefay;&rnf? Ð rdrduqHk;jzwfcsufcsay;jcif;r[kwfbJ avhvmoif,lolrsm;taejzifh ydkrdkeufeJpGmaqG;aEG;awG;ac:apEdkifrnfh ar;cGef;rsm;udkar;+yD; ukd,fwdkifoHk;oyfwwfap&ef vkyfaqmifay;Edkif&rnf? Ð jzpfay:vmaomtajctae/ aqG;aEG;r_ESifh vdkufavsmnDaxGpGm ajymif;vJwwf&rnf? Ð aqG;aEG;rnfhta=umif;t&mudk avhvmxm;oljzpf&rnf? Ð rdrdudk,fwdkifuavhvmoif,lolrsm;.tm;aumif;csuf/ tm;enf;csufrsm;udktðyoabmjzifhaxmufjywwf&ef vdovd/k rdrtay:a0zefaxmufjyEdi&efuvnf; vrf;zGiay;wwf+y;D av;pm;pGmvufcI vdtyfyguajymif;vJwwf&ef k d k f kd hf H k vdonf? k 16 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 16 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 17. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf aphpyfaqmfMoay;olwm0efrsm; aphpyfaqmf=oay;olonf vlxkt=um;wGif vlr_toGifðyjyifajymif;vJa&;rsm; jzpfay:ap&eftwGuf vGwvyfyivif;r_&aom/ vlwi;f yg0ifavhvmr_&aom/ vlxEiuunaom/ vlxukd pGr;f &nfjr‡iay;aomynm f G hf dS kd dS k S hf kd f D k hf oif=um;r_udk udkifpJGusifhoHk;oljzpf&rnf? xdk@odk@aom ynmoif=um;r_yHkpHrsKd; jzpfap&eftwGuf aphpyfaqmf=o ay;oltaeESifh owdðyvdkufemvkyfaqmif&rnfhwm0ef (5) rsKd;&Sdonf? 1 ? yxrOD;qHk;wm0efrSm avhvmoif,lolrsm;t=um; pdk;&drfr_/ r&if;ESD;r_/ oufawmifhoufomr&Sdr_rsm; yaysmufom;+yD; &if;ES;D r_rsm;&&Satmif pwifvyaqmifay;&rnfh (Initiate) jzpfonf? avhvmolrsm;taejzifh G d k f oifwef; od@k r[kwf aqG;aEG;yJppcsi;f wGip;kd &drr/_ ,cifurawG@b;l aomolrsm;ESiawG@&ojzifh r&if;ES;D r_rsm;&Swwf G f f hf d onfrSmobm0yifjzpfonf? xdkcHpm;csufrsm;aysmuf+yD; vef;qef;wufºuGvmap&eftwGuf v_yf&Sm;r_wckckjzifh pwifoifhonf? odk@rSom wdwfqdwf+idrfoufaeaomtajctaeudkòzdzsufI oif,lolwdk@taejzifh vGwfvyf aygyg;r_ucpm;Edirnf? xd@k aemuf oif,avhvmolw@kd . tawG;rsm;udazmfjyEdirnfh ar;cGe;f rsm;udk pwifar;Edirnf? h kd H k f l k kf kf 2 ? aemufxyfwm0efrSm oif,lolrsm;t=um; av;pm;r_/ em;vnfr_/ tcsif;csif;tjyeftvSef ulnDr_rsm; &Sdap&eftwGuf rnfonfhtcsufrsm;udk vkyfaqmifoihfa=umif;/ a&Smif=uOfoifha=umif;0dkif;0ef;aqG;aEG;I pnf; urf;rsm;csrwjf cif; (Regulate)jzpfonf? oif,orsm;tm;vH;k yg0ifaqG;aEG;vmatmif/ tjcm;olrsm; wifjyr_ukd S l l avSmifajymifysu&,f rðyatmif/ 0ifa&mufaqG;aEG;r_r&SbJ t+rJwrf;wdwqw+f idroufaeolukd yg0ifvmatmif/ f d f d f aqG;aEG;r_acgif;pOf ta=umif;t&mrsm; OD;wnfcsuftwdkif;oGm;Edkifatmifb,fvdkrsdK; vdkufemaqmif&Gufoifh a=umif; 0dkif;0ef;aqG;aEG;qHk;jzwfjcif; tqifhyifjzpfonf? 3? aphpyfaqmf=oay;oltaejzifh aemufvkyf&rnfhwm0efwckrSm oif,lolrsm; odoifhod xdkufaom/ avhvmvdkaomta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifhywfoufI vdktyfoavmuf owif; tcsuf r sm;ay;jcif ; / ta&;}uD ; onf h t csuf r sm;ud k a xmuf j yjcif ; / avh v moif , l olrsm;tm; aqG;aEG;rnfhta=umif;t&mrsm;. &nf&G,fcsufESifh tcsdefpm&if;rsm;udk today;jcif;(Inform)jzpfonf? 4 ? aemufxyfvkyfaqmif&rnfhwm0efrSm rdrdta=umif;t&mudk ajymqdk wifjy&ef tcuftcJ&Sdolrsm;/ rdrdwifjycsufudk tjcm;olrsm;em;vnf atmif wifjy&mwGif tcuftcJ&orsm;udk tm;ay;ulnjD cif; (Support) dS l jzpfonf? xdo@kd vyaqmifay;jcif;jzifh tm;vH;k wifjyEdiatmif yHy;kd ay;&m k kf kf h a&mufovdk &nf&G,fcsuftwdkif; c&D;qufEdkifatmif xdef;ausmif;ay;&m vnf;a&mufonf? 5? aemufxyfvkyfaqmif&rnfhwm0efrSm jyefvnftuJjzwfjcif; (Evaluate) jzpfonf? aqG;aEG;r_rsm; b,ftqifo@kd a&mufaeonf/ b,ftcsursm;udk tESpcsKyf h f f wifjyoifonf/ oif,orsm;teuf rnfoutxl;tm±Hðk yI qJac:&ef vdtyfaeonf/ h l l l kd G k aemufxyfb,ftcsursm;udk qufvufaqG;aEG;atmif vrf;a=umif;ay;oifonf ponfh f h tcsufrsm;udk t+rJrjywf tuJjzwfqef;ppfaejcif;rSmvJ ynmay;olwa,muf rjzpf raevkyfaqmif&rnfh vkyfief;w&yfyifjzpfonf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 17hre pack.pmd 17 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 18. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf 18 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 18 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 19. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf tcef;(2) oifMum;rItaxmuftuljyK enf;vrf;rsm; o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 19hre pack.pmd 19 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 20. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf 20 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 20 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 21. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf oifwef;wckjyifqifykH (Designing Training) oifwef;wckujkd yifqifawmhrnfqygu vG,v,Eihf jyifqifIr&Ediyg? trSewu,f xda&mufatmifjrifaom kd f G fS kf f oifwef;wckjzpf&eftwGuf tzufzufrS óudwifjyifqifp&mrsm;&Sdygonf? oifwef;wckudk jyifqifawmhrnfqdkygu rjzpfraejyifqifxm;oifhaom ta=umif;t&mrsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf? 1? bmta=umif;a=umifh oifwef;vdktyfovJudk od&Sd aom todynm twwfynmvdktyfcsufrsm;/ oifwef; xm;&rnf? (Training Needs Assessment) umvtwGi;f t"duavhvmvdaom tcsursm;udk odatmif k f oifwef;wckðyvkyawmhrnf od@k r[kwf vlwOD;OD;/ f vkyEiygu bma=umifh ,ckoifwef;vkyz@kd vdtyfovJqkd f kd f f k tzJG@tpnf;wckcku oifwef;ay;&eftwGuf vma&muf onfhtcsufESifh ywfoufI vHkavmufaomtajzrsm;&&Sd tul t nD a wmif ; onf q d k y gu yxrOD ; qH k ; od & S d & rnf h Edkifrnf? tcsurm bmtwGua=umifh ,ckoifwef;vkyz@kd vdtyf f S f f k xdk@tjyif tu,fI tjcm;olwOD;OD; odk@r[kwf tzJ@G tpnf;wckcu zdw=f um;onfqygu bma=umifh xdk k kd ta=umif;t&mudk oif=um;yd@k csapvdovJqonfh ar;cGe;f k kd udar;jref;Edionf? xktzG@J pnf;. &nf&,csu/f aemufcH k kf d G f ordkif;a=umif;rsm;/ ,Ofaus;r_/ "avhxkH;pHrsm;/ olwdk@. jyemrsm;udk od&Sdxm;jcif;jzifh aemufqufwJGjyifqif p&mrsm;jzpfaom aqmif&efa&Smif&efrsm;/ oif=um;r_enf; vrf;rsm;/ taxmuftulðyypPnf;rsm;udk qufvufjyif qifEdkifonf? xdkuJhodk@vdktyfcsufrsm;tm; avhvmpHkprf; jcif;udk twdkaumuftm;jzifh TNA (Training Needs Assessment) [kvnf;ac:onf? tu,f I oif w ef ; ay;&ef vd k t yf c suf r sm; ovJqaom tcsuyifjzpfonf? xdtcsuonf yxrOD; kd f k f odk@r[kwf oifwef;om;rsm;avhvmvdkaom ta=umif; qHk;vkyfaqmif&rnfh tcsufjzpfovdk oifwef;atmifjrif t&mrsm;udk óudwifI ravhvmEdiygu ppcsi;f tcsewif kf d f G xda&mufrukd wdi;f wm&mwGita&;t}uD;qH;k aom tcsuf _ k f oifwef;om;rsm;xHrS b,fta=umif;t&mrsm;udk avh vnf;jzpfonf? xdk@tjyif xdktcsufudk aoaocsmcsm vmvdovJqonfh tcsursm;&atmif ar;jref;xkwazmf k kd f f &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;odxm;rSom aemufxyfta&;}uD;aom oifhonf? tcsursm;tm; b,fvjkd yifqif&rnfukd pOf;pm;qifjcifEif f kd ayrnf? 2? &nf&G,fcsuf (Objectives) bmtwGuf ,ckoifwef;vkyfzdk@ vdktyfovJqdk aomtajzudo&&ef rdroifwef;vky&ef&nf&,xm;onfh k d dS d f G f bma=umifh xdkoifwef;ay;&ef vdktyfovJqdk aoxHokd@oGm;a&mufI oifwef;vkyf&ef&nf&G,fcsuf aom tajzrsm;udk &&Sd+yD;+yDqdkygu aemufxyfvkyfaqmif vkyfxm;aomolrsm;tm; oGm;a&mufar;jref; okawoe &efrm &¶dxm;aomtcsursm;tay:tajccHI oifwef;. S S f vkyfEdkifonf? xdkodk@oGm;a&mufar;jref;&mwGif vlawG@ &nf&G,fcsufrsm;udkcsrSwf&efjzpfonf? &nf&G,fcsufqdk ar;jref;jcif;vkyEiovdk oifwef;vdtyfonftcsursm;udk f kd f k h f onfrm oifwef;t+yD;wGif oifwef;wufa&muforsm;udk S l od&SdEdkifonfh ar;cGef;azmifrsm;jyifqifI jznfhpGufapEdkif b,fvdkjzpfoGm;apcsifonfqdkonfh ar#mfrSef;csufrsm;udk onf? vltrsm;=um;xJ vSnfhvnfoGm;vmI ppfwrf; csrwjf cif;jzpfonf? xdo@kd &nf&,csursm;udk tpuwnf; S k G f f aumuf , l E d k i f o nf ? xd k o l r sm;wG i f óuH a wG @ ae&aom u wdwusus&i;f &Si;f vif;vif; csrwxm;rS xdoifwef;. d S S f k jyemrsm;/ xdjk yemrsm;udk ajz&Si;f vdaom t}uH^m%f k atmifjrifr/_ xda&mufr/_ tusKd ;&Srw@kd ukd oifwef;t+yD;wGif d_ rsm;/ xdo@kd ajz&Si;f onftcgwif ‚if;wd@k vtyfaom/ odvkd k h G kd xifxif&Sm;&Sm;wdkif;wmEdkifrnfjzpfonf? oifwef;t+yD; o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 21hre pack.pmd 21 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 22. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf wGif xd&nf&,csursm;udk jyefvnfu;kd um;I xd&nf&,f nDr#um oifwef;.&nf&G,fcsufrsm;twdkif;&&SdEdkifrnf? k G f f k G csursm;&&Satmif vkyaqmifEijf cif;&Sr&S/d vkyaqmifEiyg f d f kd d f kd f u b,favmuftwdi;f twmtxd vkyaqmifEionfukd k f kd f wdi;f wm&rnf? xd@k a=umifh &nf&,csucsrw&mwGif (SMART) k G f f S f jzpf&efvdkonf? xdkpum;vHk;.qdkvdkcsufrSm(S-specific tao;pd w f u sr_ ) jzpf o nf ? qd k v d k o nf r S m rd r d c srS w f xm;aom &nf&G,fcsufonf a,bl,srqefbJ vlOD;a&/ ta=umif;t&m/ tcsdefwdwdususjzpf&efvdkonf? (M- measurable wdi;wmI&aom) qdonftcsurm xd&nf kf k h fS k &G,csuatmifjrifr&r&Sukd tvG,wul wdi;f wmEdiaom f f _ dS d f k kf tcsufjzpf&ef vdktyfonf? tcsKd@aom &nf&G,fcsufrsm;onf vlxkt=um; tu,fI oifwef;ydk@csrnfholu rdrdvdkcsifonfht&nf todtjrifwkd;wufap&ef[laom ta&;tom;rsKd;jzpfI tcsi;f rsm;ESihf udunaomoifwef;om;rsm; &Edirnfqyg k f D kf kd vlxkt=um;todtjrifwdk;wufr_ay: rnfuJhodk@wdkif;wm u taumif;qHk;jzpfonf? odk@aomf oifwef;wdkif;wGif EdirvJqonfrm ar;cGe;f xkwp&mjzpfaeonf? aemufw xdkuJhodk@aomoifwef;om;rsm;&Edkifrnfr[kwfyg? xdk@ kf kd S f csujf zpfonfh (A- achievable atmifjrifEir)qdonfrm twGufa=umifh oifwef;ydk@csrnfoltaejzifh rdrdoifwef; kd f _ k S xd&nf&,csuukd owfrwxm;onftcsetwGi;f trSef wGiwufa&mufrnfh oifwef;om;rsm;ta=umif;udk odEif k G f f S f h d f f kd wu,f atmifjrifEir&r&Sqonftcsujf zpfonf? w&uf or#oxm; atmifvy+f yD; xde;f !‡Ei&ef óud;pm;&ayrnf? kd f _ dS d kd h d k d kd f wmoifwef;twGif; vl@tcGifhta&;ta=umif;t&mtm; oifwef;om;rsm;.ta=umif;udk avhvm&mwGif vH;k udk E_uEuc|wc|wf tao;pdwoifEirnf r[kwyg? d f d_ f f f kd f f trsm;tm;jzifh vlta&twGuf/ usm;rOD;a&/ touf/ &&SdaomtcsdefESifh tajctaetwGif;trSef wu,f&&Sd ynma&; tqiftwef;/ ajymqdonfbmompum;/ vlrsK;d / h k h Edkifaom &nf&G,fcsufrsKd;jzpf&rnf? aemufxyftcsufrSm ,Ofaus;r_aemufcH/ tzJG@tpnf;/ wm0ef/ wufa&mufcJh (R- realistic jzpf E d k i f a cs&S d r &S d ) qd k o nf h t csuf j zpf o nf ? bl;aom oifwef;tawG@tóuHrsm;udk odEior#o&atmif kd f d dS oifwef;wywfay;±Hjk zifh wEdiiv;kH u jynforsm;udk vl@tcGihf kfH l vk y f a qmif & onf ? xd k t csuf t vuf r sm;ud k rsm;rsm; ta&;u|rf;usifolrsm; jzpfatmifvkyfIr&Edkifay? xdk&nf odEdkifavav xdkoifwef;rsm;ESifh oifhavsmfudkufnDaom &G,fcsufonf atmifjrifEdkifr_qdkonfh tcsuft&qdkv#if oifcef;pmenf;vrf;rsm;udk a&G;cs,fEdkifavavjzpfrnf? jzpfEdkifrnfh&nf&G,fcsufr[kwfEdkifyg? aemufqHk;tcsufrSm xdkodk@odxm;ygu xdkolwdk@. touf/ usm;ruJGjym;r_ESifh (T-time-bound tcseuujf zpfr)jzpfonf? oifwef;ðyvkyf d f kd _ ,Ofaus;r_rsm;jzifh udkufnDrnfh v_yf&Sm;r_enf;vrf;rsm;udk &ef jyifqifxm;aomtcseEihf jzpfysuaeaom ta=umif; dfS fwDxitoH;k ðyEdirnfjzpfovdk xdow@kd . aemufctcsuf Gf kf k l H t&mudprsm; udunr&r&S/d xdtcsetwGi;f wufa&muf P k f D _ dS k df tvufrsm;/ tzGJ@tpnf;.tajctaersm;/ vuf&Sdvkyf rnforsm; vma&mufEijf cif;&Sr&Sd ponfw@kd ukd xnfoi;f h l kd d h G aqmifaeonfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udo&ygu rdroifcef; k d dS d pOf;pm;&rnf? pmaqG;aEG;r_rsm;xJwif xdtawG@tóuHrsm;udk aqG;aEG;vm G k Edkifatmif OD;aqmifqJGac:oGm;Edkifrnfjzpfonf? txl; ojzifh xdorsm;. ,Ofaus;r_qi&m tqdtrde@f rsm;/ vufcH k l kd f k 3? oifwef;om; a&G;cs,fr_ (Participant) ,k=H unfrrsm;udk rdravhvmxm;+yD; oifcef;pmESihf qufpyf _ d oifwef;om;udk a&G;cs,f&jcif;rSm oifwef;om; IvdktyfovdktoHk;ðyjcif;jzifh oifwef;om;rsm;. vuf rsm;.uGm[r_ukd avsmenf;ap&efjzpfonf? oifwef;wuf awG@b0ESifheD;pyfaom aqG;aEG;csufrsm; jzpfay:vmapEdkif h rnfh olrsm;tm;vH;k wln&efrmrjzpfEiyg/ od@k aomf oifwef; onf? D S dk f wGif;&Sd oifwef;om;rsm;. tawG;tac: jrifhrm;r_a&csdef uGm[csufenf;avav oifwef;atmifjrifr_ ydkrsm;av avjzpfonf? oifwef;yd@k csotaejzifh oifwef;om;rsm;. l a&csdefudk xdef;!‡day;Edkifrnfqdkygu oifwef;om;.yg0ifr_ 22 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 22 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 23. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf 4? ae&m/ tcsd e f ul n D r nf h o l rsm;udk óudwifod&SdrSom xdk&&SdaomtcsdefESifh udkufnDpGm (Place, Time, Assistance) oifcef;pmrsm;udk jyifqifEdkifvdrfhrnf? aemufxyfqufvuf+yD; jyifqif&rnfht&mrSm xdk@jyif xdkoifwef;tqifajyajyatmifjrifpGm oifwef;yd@k csrnfae&m/ tcseEihf oifwef;twGi;f rdrvtyf h dfS d kd +yD;qHk;oGm;&eftwGuf 0dkif;0ef;ulnDaqmif&Gufay;rnfh onfrsm;tm; ulnDay;rnfholrsm;udk jyifqifjcif;yifjzpf olrsm;udk owfowfrSwfrSwfa&G;cs,fI wm0efay;&efvJ onf? rdrdvkyfrnfhoifwef;ae&mudk rdrdt&ifqHk;=unfh vdktyfonf? rdrdoifwef;om;rsm;. aea&;pm;a&;udk Ediygu taumif;qH;k jzpfonf? xdo@kd =unfjh cif;jzifh rdrjd yif kf k ulnDay;rnfh xrif;[if;csufolrsm;/ um;armif;ydk@ay;rnfh qifrnfoifcef;pmrsm;udk xdae&mtus,t0ef;ESihf tcef; h k f olrsm;/ oifwef;twGi;f rSwwrf;wifay;rnforsm;/ rdrEihf f h l dS wnfae&mtvdkuf udkufnDtqifajyrnfh v_yf&Sm;r_enf; yl;wJGI oifwef;ydk@csrnfholrsm;/ oifwef;twGif;vdktyf vrf;rsm;xJrS a&G;cs,fpOf;pm;Edkifrnf? rdrdzdwf=um;rnfh rnfht&mrsm;udk 0,f,lay;rnfholrsm;udk óudwif&SmazG oifwef;om;rsm; avhvmv_yf&Sm;Edkif&eftwGuf tcef;. aqG;aEG;xm;&efvonf? tu,fI bmomjyefrnfvl vdk kd h taetxm;onf vHavmufaomtus,t0ef;/ av0if k f tyfygu xdkolonf bmompum;ajymwwf±Hkoufouf avxGu/f tvif;a&mif&&Sr_ aumif;rGevavmufr&r&Sukd d f kH _ dS d omru rdrdaqG;aEG;rnfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifh &if;ESD; óudwif=unhf&_ avhvmoifhonf? oifwef;ðyvkyfrnfhae u|rf;0ifjcif;&Sdr&Sdudk pDppfavhvm&efvdkonf? trsm;pk &monf oifwef;om;rsm;. ±kyfykdif;qdkif&moufawmifh arhavsmavh&aomolwOD;rSm tu,fI rdroifwef;om; h dS d oufomjzpfruomru pdwyi;f qdi&m oufawmifh ouf _ kd f kd k f rsm;xJwGif uav;i,frsm;&Sdaom rdcifrsm;ygvmygu xdk omjzpf apatmifvnf; jznfhqnf;ay;Ekifaom ae&mjzpf d uav;rsm;udk xde;f ausmif;ay;rnfh uav;xde;f rsm;yifjzpf oifonf? vHòk cHa&;ESihf ywf0ef;usif aESmuf,urw@kd uvJ h S f _ kd onf? rdrd&ifaoG;udk pdwfcspGmxm;EdkifrS xdkrdcifrsm;onf xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;&rnf? xdkae&modk@ oifwef;om;rsm; oifwef;tay: pdwf0ifpm;Edkifrnfjzpfojzifh pdwfcs&aom vma&muf&ef tcuftcJ&r&Sqonfh tcsurmvJ xnfh dS d kd f S uav;xde;f . tcef;u¾rSmvJ tvGeta&;}uD;ygonf? f oGif;pOf;pm;oifhaom tcsufyifjzpfonf? aemufxyftcsufrSm oifwef;vkyfrnfhtcsdefjzpf 5? oif c ef ; pmacgif ; pOf r sm;a&G ; cs,f r _ / onf? xdktcsdefonf rdrdtwGufomru oifwef;wuf (Lesson plan content) rnfh olrsm;tm;vHk; tqifajyEdkifrnfhtcsdefudk a&G;cs,f aemuf x yf j yif q if & rnf h t csuf r S m oif w ef ; wwf&efvonf? txl;ojzifh rdroifwef;om;rsm;xJwif kd d G twGuf txl;ta&;}uD;aom oifcef;pmjyifqifr_jzpf tdrfaxmifwm0efudk rjzpfraexrf;aqmifae&aom tdrf onf? ,cifu rdrdavhvmxm;aom oifwef;ðyvkyf& axmifpD;yGm;a&;twGuf jyifyxGufI pdkufysKd;a&;vkyf&ol onfh&nf&G,fcsufudktajccHI ,ckoifwef;twGif; rnf rsm;/ puf±tvkyvy&olrsm; wufa&mufEirnhf tcsersK;d Hk f kf kd f df onfhta=umif;t&macgif;pOfrsm;ESifh tcsuftvufrsm; jzpf r S o m atmif j rif a omoif w ef ; jzpf r nf ? xd k @ tjyif udk xnfoi;f aqG;aEG;rnfjzpfa=umif; a&G;cs,q;kH jzwfonfh h G f oifwef;om;rsm;rS ay;Edkifrnhftcsdefumv b,favmuf tqifhjzpfonf? vl@tcGifhta&;qdkonfh ta=umif;t&m vJqonfh tcsuuvxnfoi;f pOf;pm;&rnf? wae@v#if kd f kd J h G rSm tvGefus,fjyef@vSojzifh xdkta=umif;t&mrsm;xJrS b,fem&DoifrvJ/ b,fESpf&ufoifrvJqdkaom tcsuf rnfonfhta=umif;t&monf oifwef;om;rsm;vdktyf onfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;jzpfonfua&G;cs,&rnf? xdo@kd kd f k a&G ; cs,f & mwG i f oif w ef ; om;rsm; avh v mvd k o nf h ta=umif;t&momru rdrdzGifhvSpf&onfh oifwef;. &nf&G,fcsufrsm;udkyg [efcsufnDnD xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;& rnf? rdry@kd csrnfoifcef;pmrsm;onf rdr&nf&,xm;aom d h d G f oifwef;wckv;kH . &nf&,csuEihf udun&rnfjzpfonf? G f f S k f D rdrdoifcsifonfht&m/ rdrdu|rf;usifonfhacgif;pOfudkom oifIr&yg? oifwef;umvtwGi;f rnfonfacgi;f pOfEihf rnf h S o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 23hre pack.pmd 23 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 24. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf onfhta=umif;t&mrsm;yg0ifatmif aqG;aEG;aprnf[k 7? &effykHaiG(Fund) a&G;cs,owfrw+f yD;rSom aemufxyftao;pdwf tqifukd f S h txufygtcsufrsm; jynfhpkHaomfvnf; qufvufjyifqifEdkifayrnf? oifwef;ydk@cs&ef ukefusrnfht&mrsm;twGuf &efykHaiG 6?oif = um;r_ e nf ; vrf ; rsm;ES i f h v k d t yf a omypP n f ; rsm; r&SduvkyfaqmifEkdifrnfr[kwfyg? xdk@twGuf ukefusrnfh (Module planning and materials) p&dwfrsm;udk rnfoluwm0ef,lrvJ/ rnfonhfenf;jzifh oifwef;umvtwGi;f rnfonfacgi;f pOfEihf rnf &efyaiG&mrvJ/ ukeusrrsm; tenf;qH;k jzpfatmifb,fvkd h S kH S f _ onhfta=umif;rsm;yg0ifatmif aqG;aEG;aprnf[ka&G;cs,f jyifqifrvJ ponf wdk@udkjyifqif&ayrnf? owfrSwf+yD;v#if aemufxyfjyifqif&rnfh tcsufrsm;rSm xdkta=umif;t&mrsm;udk rnfonfhenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh ydk@cs rvJqdkaomtcsufyifjzpfonf? rdrdxnfhoGif; aqG;aEG;ap rnfhta=umif;t&macgif;pOfwckcsif;tay: rnfonfhenf; vrf;rsm;oHk;rvJ/ rnfonfhaemufqufwJGar;cGef;rsm;udk quf p yf a r;rvJ / rnf o nf h A [k o k w rsm;xnh f a y;rvJ / vufawG@b0eJ@ b,fvqufpyfrvJponfh (ADIDS) enf; kd vrf;rsm;udk jyifqif&rnfhtcsdefjzpfonf? wcsdefxJrSmyif xd k o if = um;r_ e nf ; vrf ; rsm;twG u f vd k t yf r nf h ± k y f y H k / jyZmwfZmwfvrf;/ oDcsif;/ ADGD,dk/ avhvmp&mtjzpf tysuf Zmwfvrf;ponfwdk@udkvJ jyifqifxm;&awmhrnf jzpfonf? xdkvdktyfaomypPnf;rsm;udk pOf;pm;a&G;cs,f&m wGif rdrdoifwef;om;rsm;.touft¶G,f/ &ifhusufr_/ ,Ofaus;r_ponfwdk@ESifhudkufnDaom taxmuftulðy 8? tuJjzwffjcif;(Evaluation) ypPnf;rsm;jzpf&rnf? oif w ef ; . atmif j rif t oH k ; 0if r _ u d k w d k i f ; wm Edkif&eftwGuf tuJjzwfjcif;onf r&Sdrjzpfvdktyfaom tcsufjzpfonf? rlvucsrSwfxm;aom oifwef;vkyf aqmif&onfh &nf&,csursm;ud&&Sd jynfrr&r&Sukd wdi;f G f f k h DS _ dS d k wmEdi&eftwGuf tuJjzwfjcif;udk rjzpfrae vkyaqmif& kf f onf ? rd r d c srS w f x m;aom SMART &nf & G , f c suf r sm; twdkif; vkyfaqmifEdkifcJhjcif;&Sdr&Sdudk tuJjzwf&mwGif rdrdwOD;xJomr[kwfbJ oifwef;wufa&mufolrsm;ESihf oifwef;udkpDpOfolrsm; tm;vHk;tuJjzwfEdkifrSom buf aygif;pHkuoHk;oyfaom tuJjzwfr_rsm; xGufay:vmay vdrfhrnf? xdkodk@jyifqifonfh tao;pdwfjyifqifr_rsm;tm; tuJjzwf&mwGif enf;vrf;trsKd;rsKd;jzifh vkyf vH;k onf xdta=umif;t&mwckcsi;f udk xnfoi;f aqG;aEG; aqmifEiaomfvJ wlnonf&nf&,csurm rdrcsrwxm; k h G kd f D h G f fS d S f aponfh &nf&G,fcsufESifh udkufnD&rnfhtjyif oifwef;ðy aom &nf&,csursm;udk twdi;f twmb,favmuftxdG f f k vkyf&aom&nf&G,fcsufrsm;ESifhvJ udkufnD&efvdktyfonf? &&Sconfuqef;ppfjcif;ESihf tu,fIaemufxyf oifwef; d hJ kd oif=um;r_enf;vrf;ESihfywfoufI oif=um;r_ tpDtpOfrsm;qufvufvkyfaqmifygu rnfonfht&m enf;vrf;erlemrsm;udavhvmEdi&ef Tpmtkywif azmfjy k kf f G rsm;udk ,ckxufyrw;kd wufatmif vkyaqmif&ef vdtyf kd kd f k xm;ygonf? xdenf;vrf;trsm;pkonf(ADIDS)enf;vrf; k aom ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk jyefvnfjyifqifEdkifap&ef udk tajccHIa&;qJGxm;jcif;jzpfygonf? twGufjzpfonf? trsm;qHk;xnfhoGif;I tuJjzwfavh&Sd aomt&mrsm;rSm oifwef;wGif aqG;aEG;aomta=umif; t&mrsm;.toH k ; 0if r _ / oif w ef ; yd k @ csol . u|rf ; usif r _ / 24 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 24 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 25. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf oifwef;pDpOfolrsm;tm;vHk;qHkawG@Iwae@wm oifwef; tay:oHk;oyfcsufrsm;vkyfaqmifyg? wae@wmtwGif; tm;aumif;csufrsm;/ tm;enf;csufrsm;ESifh oifwef;om; rsm;.tajctaeudk jyefvnfoHk;oyfI aemufae@oifcef; pmrsm;udk vdktyfovdkjyifqifajymif;vJ jznfhpGufEdkifonf? wae@wmoifwef;+yD;ygu xdkwae@wmaqG;aEG; csursm;tay:oifwef;om;rsm; b,fvcpm;,lqa=umif; f kd H od&SdEdkif&eftwGuf tkyfpkvdkuf0dkif;I wOD;csif;cHpm;&csuf/ t,ltqrsm;udk xkwazmfapaomyHpukd usio;kH Edionf? f kH hf k f odk@r[kwfygu oifwef;om;rsm;tm; tcsdefay;+yD; wae@ wmESiywfoufI rdrcpm;csursm;udk vGwvwvyfvyf hf dH f f G f a&;Edkifaomtusifhudkwnfaqmufay;Edkifonf? oifwef; umvtwGif; oifwef;om;rsm;. t}uHOm%frsm;/ cHpm; csufrsm;/ owday;csufrsm;/ vdktyfcsufrsm;udk yGifhyGifhvif; aemufxyfavhvmvdkaom ta=umif;t&mrsm;/ tpm; vif;a&;Edirnfh pm&Gu}f uD;w&Guukd oifwef; cef;rtwGi;f kf f taomuftaetxdkifESifh aemufxyfoifwef;ydk@csrnfqdk uyfxm;yg? xdkpm&Gufay:wGif wyg;oltm;epfemapaom ygu rnfonfhtcsufrsm;udk wdk;wufatmifvkyfaqmif tcsurvI rdrt,ltqrsm;udk vGwvwvyfvyfa&;&ef f S GJ d f G f oifha=umif; taxGaxGt}uHðycsufwdk@jzpfonf? tm;ay;yg? xda&;om;csursm;udk ae@pOfzwf±I vdtyfonf k f _ k tuJjzwf&mwGif wae@wmjyefvnfoHk;oyfjcif;/ rsm;udk jyifqifEi&efowday;yg? kd f tywfpOftuJjzwfjcif;/ oifwef;t+yD;wGifjyefvnftuJ rSwwrf;wifrnfo&ygu xdrwwrf;rsm;udk jyefvnf f h l dS kS f jzwfjcif;/ oifwef;aemufydkif;wGifjyefvnftuJ jzwfjcif; zwf&Ivdtyfonfh tcsursm;ruseatmif vrf;!$eay;Edif _ k f f f k ponfjh zifh trsK;d rsK;d vkyaqmifEionf? wae@wmtuJjzwf f kd f onf? oifwef;umvtwGi;f oifwef;yd@k csrnfoonf rdrd h l &mwGif oifwef;tcset+yD; oifwef;om;rsm;tm; wae@ d f ud,rr&ivef;wufºuuse;f rmap&ef*±kpuyg? tem;,lyg? k fdd$f G kd f wmoHk;oyfcsufrsm;udk twdkcsKyfwa,mufcsif;ajymjyap oifcef;pmrsm;udk óudwifjyifqifxm;aomfvnf; oifwef; jcif;rsKd;vkyfEdkifonf? tywfpOfESifh oifwef;aemufqHk;ae@ om;rsm;tajcaet&ajymif;vJ&efvtyfygu ajymif;vJz@kd rawG kd wGif óudwifjyifqifxm;aom ar;cGe;f rsm;tm;ajzqdapjcif; k a0ygEi/hf xdo@kd ajymif;vJr_&SdrSom rdru,wivt+rw;kd wuf S k d kd f kd f J J udkvnf;vkyfEdkifonf? oifwef;+yD;qkH;+yD; aemufydkif;wGif aernf[k oifwef;yd@k csorsm; vufcxm;oifonf? l H h wufa&mufcJhaom oifwef;om;rsm;.tzJG@rsm;/ ae&m rsm;odk@oGm;a&mufI wOD;csif;tm;ar;jref;jcif;odk@r[kwf aemufqufwGJ tuJjzwfar;cGe;f rsm; ay;yd@k Iajzcdi;f jcif;wd@k k udk vkyfaqmifEdkifonf? oif w ef ; ðyvk y f a ecsd e f t wG i f ; owd ð y&ef yxrOD;qH;k ae@wif oifwef;om;rsm;. oifwef; G wufvdkaom &nf&G,fcsufrsm;udk jyefvnfaqG;aEG;&efjyif qifyg? xGuay:vmonfh &nf&,csursm;udk aoaocsm f G f f csmodr;f qnf;I oifwef;umvtcsef wcsecsef od@k r[kwf d df d oifwef;aemufq;kH tcsewif jyefvnfcseuuI &nf&,f d f G d f kd f G csufrsm;&r&ppfaq;yg? xdk&nf&G,fcsufrsm; a&;xm;onfh pm&Gufudk oifwef;cef;rwGifuyfxm;+yD; ae@pOfcsdefudkuf tuJjzwfEdkifonf? ae@pOfoifwef;+y;D ygu yd@k csorsm;tm;vH;k od@k r[kwf l o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 25hre pack.pmd 25 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 26. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf 26 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 26 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 27. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf oif½;kd ñTe;f wrf;rsm;jyifqifykH (ADIDS) enf;vrf; ynmay;olrsm;taeESifh udk,fhudkudk,ft+rJwrf;ar;rdaom ar;cGef;rSm “igw@kd b,fvoif=urvJ” qdaomar;cGe;f jzpfonf? oifwef;wckay;&ef tul kd k tnDawmif;cH&wdkif;/ oifwef;wckay;&ef pDpOfwdkif; xdkar; cGe;f udk rdru,rrd ar;rd=up+rJyifjzpfonf? xdar;cGe;f .tajzudk d kd f d k taumif;qH;k jyefay;Edi&eftwGuf tjcm;wzufrS jyefvnfar;& kf rnfh aemufxyfar;cGef;rSm “oif,lolawGu b,fvdkrsKd;avh vm=uovJ” qdaomar;cGe;f yifjzpfonf? rdrb,fvoifrvJ k d kd udpOf;pm;wdi;f rdry@kd csrnforsm;taejzifh b,fvenf;rsK;d ESiqkd k k d h l kd hf v#if xdkta=umif;t&mtay: aumif;aumif;avhvmEdkifrvJ udk yxrOD;qHk;pOf;pm;=unfh&ef vdktyfvSonf? xdtwGua=umifh vltcGita&;ynmay;vkyief;udk vkyuiae=uaom k f hf f f kd f olrsm;onf rdrynmay;&ef&nf&,xm;onfjh ynforsm;/ tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;/ tkypk d G f l f 0ifrsm;tm;rnfonfhoif=um;r_enf;vrf;rsm;jzifhoif=um; v#ifydkrdkxda&muf atmifjrifEirvJqonfh tcsuu&mazGc=hJ uonf? ydraumif;rGeaom tajzudk kd f kd f kd S k kd f &&SdEdkif&eftwGufvJ qufvufI&SmazGaeqJjzpfonf? avhvmolrsm; txl;ojzifh t&G,a&muf+yD;aomolrsm;tm; ynmay;&mwGif E_wwuusurwI olw@kd ukd f f kd f f S f yg0ifr_rðyaomynmay;yHkpHjzifh ynmay;Ir&a=umif; oabmaygufvmcJh+yD;onfhaemuf rnfonfhenf;rsdK;jzifhqdkygu xdkavhvmolrsm;twGuf ydkrdkavhvmEdkirvJudk tajz&SmcJh=u&mwGif a,bl,stm;jzifh atmufygoHk;oyfcsufrsm;xGuf f ay:vmcJhonf? Ð t&G,fa&muf+yD;olrsm;xHwGif udk,fydkiftawG@tóuH/ A[kokwrsm;pGm&Sdxm;+yD;jzpfojzifh xdktawG@tóuH rsm;udk tajcðyI oif,lrnfhta=umif;t&mESifh rnfodk@qufpyfaea=umif;udk em;vnfaponfhenf;rsKd;jzpf &rnf? (Experimental) Ð xdkodk@&Sd+yD;om; udk,fydkiftawG@tóuHESifh A[kokwrsm;udk xkwfazmfvmEdkifap&ef avhvmolrsm;udk A[dkðy +yD;olw@kd u,wif vkyaqmifapaom enf;vrf;rsK;d jzpf&rnf? kd f kd f (Activity-centered) Ð avhvmolrsm;xHwGif &Sd+yD;om;jzpfaom tawG@tóuHrsm;udk xGufay:vmap+yD; olwdk@udk,fwdkif jyefvnf oHk;oyfwwfapEdkifrnfh ar;cGef;rsm;ar;aom enf;vrf;rsdK;jzpf&rnf? (Problem-posing) Ð avhvmolrsm;tm;vHk; pkaygif;yg0ifapaom/ pkaygif;oHk;oyfqifjcifapaom/ ta=umif;t&mwcktwGuf pkaygif;0dkif;0ef;tajz&Smaom enf;vrf;rsKd;jzpf&rnf? (Participative) Ð avhvmolrsm;wGif ,cifu&SdcJh+yD;jzpfaom tawG@tóuH / A[kokwoufoufcsnf;r[kwfbJ xdkt&mrsm; ESifh tjcm;aomtcsuftvufrsm; aygif;pyfI tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;oHk;oyfapaom enf;vrf;jzpf&rnf? (Dialectical) Ð xdkodk@aqG;aEG;oHk;oyf+yD; xGufay:vmaomtcsufrsm;tm; jyemta=umif;&if;rsm;ESifh qufpyfawG@ jrifvmwwfatmif pepfwusvkyfaqmifay;aom enf;vrf;jzpf&rnf? (Analytical) Ð xdkdokd@qufpyfjrifvmonfhtcgwGif rnfonfht&mrsm;udk &nfrSef;csuftjzpfxm;+yD; rnfuJhodk@enf;vrf; rsm;jzifh vkyaqmifrnfukd vrf;!$eay;Ediaom enf;vrf;jzpf&rnf? f f kf (Strategic thinking-oriented) o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 27hre pack.pmd 27 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 28. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf xdkoHk;oyfcsufrsm;udk jznfhpGrf;Edkifrnfh oif=um;enf;azmfjrLvmwckudk tm&Svl@tcGifhta&;ynmay;olrsm; u wDxGifI prf;oyftoHk;ðy=unfh&m tm&SEdkifiHrsm;tajctaeESifh udkufnDatmifjrifr_&SdaeonfudkawG@&Sd&.? xdkazmf jrLvmudk ADIDS [k twdaumufac:onf? vl@tcGita&;ynmay;r_rsm; vkyaqmifaeaom vl@tcGita&; ynmay; k hf f hf Xme(jrefrmEdkifiH)onfvnf; xdkazmfjrLvmtm; prf;oyftoHk;ðycJh&m atmifjrifr_twdkif;twmwpHkw&m txd&&SdcJh ygonf? ,ckpmtkyfwGifygaom oifcef;pmjyifqifr_rsm;rSmvJ xdkazmfjrLvmyHkpHtwdkif; a&;qJGxm;onfudkawG@&yg vdrfhrnf? xdkvl@tcGifhta&;oif=um;r_azmfjrLvmwGif tqifh (5) qifh&Sdygonf? xdktqifhrsm;rSm- A - Activity D - Discussion I - Input/ lecture D - Deepening S - Synthesis wd@k jzpfygonf? Activity (vIyf&Sm;rIwckvkyfaqmifjcif;) oifcef;pmwckppcsi;f wGif oifcef;pm. &nf&,csursm;ESiqufpyfaom oifwef;om;rsm;. tawG@tóuHEihf G f f hf S A[kokwrsm;xGufay:vmEdkifap&ef odk@r[kwf aqG;aEG;rnfhta=umif;t&m oabmw&m;rsm;udk oifwef;om;rsm; vG,fulpGmem;vnfEdkifap&eftwGuf v_yf&Sm;r_wckjzifh pwifavh&Sdonf? xdktqifhwGif oifcef;pm. &nf&G,fcsufrsm; ESifhqufpyfaom tawG@tóuHrsm;ESifh ywfoufonfh cHpm;csufrsm;ay:vmap&ef vkyfaqmifygonf? xdkodk@ oifwef; om;rsm;. tawG@tóuHrsm;udk xkwfazmfaqG;aEG;vmap&ef v_yf&Sm;r_vkyfaqmifapjcif;jzifh oifwef;om;rsm;taejzifh rdrdwdk@onf aqG;aEG;onfhta=umif;t&m. A[dktcsuftcsmjzpfonf[k cHpm;vmapEdkifonf? Discussion (aqG;aEG;jcif;) ,cktqifhonf oifcef;pmwckvHk;wGif jyefvnfoHk;oyfaqG;aEG;apaom tpdwftydkif;tqifhjzpfonf? T aqG;aEG;jcif;tydi;f wGif toH;k ðyar;jref;aom ar;cGe;f rsm;onf ckeuvkyaqmifcaom v_y&m;r_Eiqufpyfonfh oifwef; k f hJ f S S hf om;rsm;. tawG@tóuHrsm;udk xkwazmfajymqdvm&ef tm;ay;axmufuay;aom ar;cGe;f rsm;jzpf&rnf? xdtqifwif f k l k h G oifwef;om;rsm;onf rdr.tawG@tóuHrsm;ESihf oifcef;pm.&nf&,csuw@kd b,fvqyfpyfaea=umif;udk awG;ac:vm d G f f kd vdrrnf? wOD;csi;f tawG@tóuHrsm;tay: wa,mufEiwa,muf ¶_jrifo;kH oyfyrwlnEiyg? xdtcsursm;udtajccHI hf S hf kH D kd f k f k aqG;aEG;apjcif;jzifh oifwef;om;rsm;. tawG@tóuHrsm;onf t"duaqG;aEG;r_acgif;pOfrsm;jzpfvmvdrfhrnf? Input/ Lecture (A[kokway;jcif;) TA[kokway;aomtqifhonf oifwef;om;rsm;. A[kokwydkrdkrsm;jym;vmap&ef &nf&G,fI vkyfaqmif jcif;jzpfonf? ,cifu tawG@tóuHtay: oifwef;om;rsm;. vufcem;vnfxm;r_Eihf ywfoufI ydrcirmapaom H S k kd kd f od@k r[kwf xdvufcem;vnfrtay: axmufjypdrac:apaomtjrifrsm;udk aphpyfaqmf=oay;ol od@k r[kwf okawoDu k H _ f wifjyay;onftqifjh zpfonf? xdA[kowrsm;onf oifwef;om;rsm;. tawG@tóuHrsm;tm; vl@tcGita&;tjrifjzifh h k k hf 28 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 28 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 29. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf ¶_jrifo;kH oyfxm;aom qufpyfr&onfh A[kowrsm;jzpf&rnf? xdA[koway;&mwGif oifwef;om;.tawG@tóuHrsm; _ dS k k k tay: tcGita&;t&rnfuo@kd owfrwazmfjyxm;onfukd oifwef;om;rsm; od&ap&eftwGuvtyfonfh A[kow hf hJ S f dS f kd k rsm;jzpf&rnf? Deepening (vufawGUb0ESihf qufpyfay;jcif;) TtqifhwGif oifwef;om;rsm;. tjrifrsm;t=um; uJGjym;jcm;em;r_rsm; odk@r[kwf oifwef;om;rsm;ESifh ydk@cscJhaom A[kokwrsm;t=um; uJGjym;r_rsm;udk qufvufI tao;pdwfaqG;aEG;vmapatmif vkyfaqmifay;onf? Synthesis (NcHKiHkoHk;oyfí ed*Hk;csKyfay;jcif;) TaemufqHk;tqifhonf oifcef;pm. aqG;aEG;r_tqifhrS vufawG@b0ESifhqufpyfay;aomtqifhtxd aqG;aEG;cJaom ta=umif;t&mrsm;rS xGuay:vmaomta&;}uD;onfh tjrifrsm;udk oifwef;om;rsm;tESpcsKyf jyefjrif h f f ap&ef txl;pDrHvkyfaqmifay;aomtqifhjzpfonf? Todk@vkyfaqmifay;I xGufay:vmaom xdktESpfcsKyftcsufrsm; ud=k unfI oifwef;yd@k csotaejzifh rdrcsrwxm;aom oifwef;&nf&,csursm;/ oifcef;pm&nf&,csursm; &&Satmif h l d S f G f f G f f d vkyaqmifEijf cif;&Sr&Sd jyefvnfo;kH oyfqef;ppfEionf? vdtyfygu oifcef;pmudaemufxyf b,fvajymif;vJjyifqif f kd d kd f k k kd rvJqdkonfudkyg pOf;pm;qifjcifEdkifonf? vIyf&Sm;rIpwifvkyfaqmifjcif; (Activity) Ð v_yf&Sm;r_rpwifcif xdkv_yf&Sm;r_twGuf vdktyfaom ypPnf;ud&d,mrsm;udk óudwifjyifqifyg? Ð xdvy&m;r_uvyaqmif&rnfh vkyief;tqifqifukd óudwifpwu;=unfyg? xdo@kd óudwifpwu; jyifqif k _ f S kd k f f h h d f l h k d f l xm;jcif;jzifh aemufwqifhbmvkyf&rnfudk tcuftcJr&SdbJ !$ef=um;Edkifrnf? xdk@twGuf udk,fhudkudk,f ,Hk=unfr_udkwnfaqmufEdkifrnf? Ð xdkv_yf&Sm;r_ESifhywfoufI oifwef;om;rsm; b,fvdkcHpm;Edkifrnf/ b,fvdkwkef@jyefEdkifrnfudk óudwifcef@ rSef;xm;yg? wcgw&HwGif rdrd&nfrSef;xm;onfhtwdkif; oifwef;om;rsm;rwkef@jyefEdkifonfudk óuddwif awG;xm;yg? xdk@twGufa=umifh oifcef;pm. &nf&G,fcsufrsm;twdkif; oifwef;om;rsm;a&mufatmif oGm;Edkif&ef/ rdrdar#mfrSef;xm;onfhtwdkif; oifwef;om;rsm;wkef@jyefvmap&ef aoaocsmcsmjyifqifxm; zdk@vdkonf? Ð q&m}uD;yHkpHrzrf;ygESifh? &if;ESD;azmfa&G&efvdkovdk rdrd.tcef;u¾udkvJ oifwef;om;rsm;u av;pm; &efðyrlyg? v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;vkyfaqmif&mwGif udk,fhudkudk,f,Hk=unfr_&SdonfhyHkayguf&efvdktyfovdk oifwef; om;rsm;u ,Hk=unf&if;ESD;pGmjzifh olwdk@udk,fawG@tjzpftysufrsm;udk ajymcsifvmatmif rdrdzufuyGifh vif;±dk;om;r_&Sdzdk@ vdktyfonfudk oabmaygufyg? Ð v_yf&Sm;r_vkyf&mwGif wae&mxJ &yfraeygeJ@? oifwef;om;rsm;t=um; vSnfhvnfoGm;a&muf+yD; tuJ cwfyg/ tm;ay;yg? oifwef;om;rsm;taejzifh xdkv_yf&Sm;r_onf cufcJvGef;onf[k rSwf,laumif;rSwf,l Edkifaomfvnf; oif.wnf+idrfr_ESifh tm;ay;ulnDr_wdk@jzifh olwdk@tvkyfudkatmifjrifpGm tqHk;xdvkyf aqmifvmap&efðyrlyg? Ð txufpD;jzifh trdef@ay;onhf yHkpHraygufygapESifh? !Gef=um;csufrsm;udk wdwdususay;&efvdkaomfvJ nifompGm ajymqdkyg? Ð oifwef;om;rsm;. cHpm;csufESifh vdktyfcsufrsm;udk aoaocsmcsmavhvmtuJcwf+yD; em;vnfay;yg? v_yf&Sm;r_rvkyfcif aoG;ylv_yf&Sm;r_wck vkyfoifhyguvkyfyg? wufºuGatmifzefwD;+yD;rS v_yf&Sm;r_vkyfcdkif; o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 29hre pack.pmd 29 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 30. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Edkifonf? aqG ; aEG ; jcif ; (Discussion) Ð oifwef;om;rsm;. cHpm;csufESifh t,ltqrsm; ydkrdkajymqdkvmaprnfh ar;cGef;rsm;udk jyifqifa&G;cs,fI ar;yg? olwdk@.ajymqdkcsufrsm;tay: rdrdu rjiif;ckefygESifh? rdrdtaeESifh xdkt,ltqtay: vufrcHEdkif aomfvnf; xkdt,ltqtay: av;pm;onfhtoGifjyyg? Ð vkyfaqmifcJhaom v_yf&Sm;r_tay: cHpm;r_rsm;/ xifjrifr_rsm;/ olwdk@.tawG@tóuHrsm;ESifh tjcm;olrsm;. tawG@tóuHrsm;udk ajymqdkvmaprnfh ar;cGef;rsm;ar;yg? oifwef;om;rsm;. udk,fawG@tjzpftysufrsm;/ ,Hk=unf r_rsm;/ t,ltqrsm;wifjyjcif;onf oifwef;.atmifjrifr_yifjzpfonf? xdkodk@wifjyvmrSom oifwef;om;rsm;onf xdkoifcef;pmESifhywfoufI b,favmuftxd od&Sdxm;+yD;jzpfonfudk cef@rSef; Edkif/ tuJcwfEdkifrnfjzpfonf? Ð oifwef;om;rsm;. ajymqdkcsufrsm;udk a&;om;rSwfxm;xm;jcif;jzifh aemufydkif;wGif oifcef;pm. &nf&G,f csufrsm;ESifh qufpyfI toHk;csEdkifrnfjzpfonf? Ð oifwef;om;rsm;t,ltq. tm;aumif;csufESifh tm;enf;csufrsm;udk olwdk@udk,fwdkifjrifa,mifvm aprnfh ar;cGef;rsm;xyfar;&efjyifqifyg? Ð oifwef;om;rsm;t=um; uJGjym;aomt,ltqrsm;udk aqG;aEG;vmap&ef vrf;pazmfay;yg? odk@aomf ppcsif;tajctaewGif txl;jiif;ckefI tajctwifajym&rnfh ta=umif;t&mrsKd;udk a&Smif=uOfyg/ rdrd. t,ltqtawG;tac:rsm;udk rsm;rsm;rwifjyygESifh? oifcef;pm&nf&G,fcsufudka&mufatmifoGm;& rnfjzpfaomfvnf; oifwef;om;rsm;udk b,fvdkpOf;pm;yg[k rcdkif;ygESifh? tu,fI rdrd.xifjrifcsufudk ajym&rnfhtaetxm;rsKd;a&mufygu xkwfazmfajymjyjcif;xuf rdrdajymrnfhtcsuftwdkif;oifwef;om; rsm;awG;Edkifrnfh ar;cGef;rsm;jyefar;I olwdk@udk,fwdkifpOf;pm;rdap&efaqmif&Gufyg? Ð aqG;aEG;rnfhta=umif;t&mESifh qufpyfaomtcsuftvufrsm;/ oabmwlnDr_ESifh oabmrwlnDr_rsm; vHkvHkavmufavmuf&&Sd+yDqdkygu aqG;aEG;r_udk &yfwef@Edkif+yDjzpfonf? A[k o k w ay;jcif ; (Input) Ð rdrdoifwef;om;rsm;. tajctae/ tqifhrsm;udk oabmaygufyg? A[kokway;&mwGif rdrdudk,frdrd ay;jcif;r[kwfbJ oifwef;om;rsm;ESifh qufpyfonfhtcsufrsm;udkom ay;&efowdðyyg? tcsuftvuf rsm; ¹yGwfodyfaeatmifray;ygeJ@? oifwef;om;rsm;ar;vdkaom tcsufrsm;udkar;cGifhay;+yD; vdktyfonfh A[kokwrsm;xyfay;yg? Ð vdktyfonfhA[kokwtwGuf rdrda&;xm;onftcsufrsm;udk jyef&Gwfzwfjyjcif;rvkyfygeJ@? oabmayguf ap&eftwGuf ±kyyrsm;/ Z,m;uGursm;/ qvdursm;toH;k ðyyg? pm&Gu}f uD;ay:a&;om;&mwGif tptqH;k f kH f k f wvHk;rusefra&;bJ vdktyfonfhtcsufrsm;udkom vdk&if;wdk&Sif;a&;yg? Ð A[kokwrsm;ay;&mwGif oifwef;om;rsm;tm;vHk;ESifh rsufvHk;csif; tquftoG,frjywfatmif *¶k pduyg? ud,uu,,=kH unfr&onfh yHayguygap/ q&m}uD;yHk vk;H 0rayguygapESi? k f k hf kd kd f _ dS k f f hf Ð oifwef;om;rsm;udk t+rJtuJcwfyg? tu,fI A[kokwrsm;+yD; +iD;aiG@vm+yDqdkyguacwWtem;ay;jcif;/ tdyfcsifajy v_yf&Sm;r_wckckudkvkyfay;yg? Ð wae&mxJ&yfrajymoifhovdk oifwef;om;rsm; rsufpdtaESmuft,Sufjzpfatmif v_yf&Sm;r_rsKd;udkvJ a&Smifyg? Ð A[kokwrsm;ay;&mwGif vG,ful±dk;&Sif;aom pum;vHk;rsm;udkoHk;I bmom&yfqdkif&m a0g[m&rsm; udkroHk;oifhyg? 30 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 30 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 31. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf Ð A[kokwtydkif;ay;+yD;ygu oifwef;om;rsm;udk ar;cGef;ar;&efcGifhay;yg? oifwef;om;rsm; r&Sif;vif; onfhtcsufrsm;udk &Sif;vif;atmifar;cGifhðyyg? Ð oifwef;om;rsm;ESifh rdrdt,ltqwdk@ tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;aepOfwGif rdrd&nf&G,fxm;aom &nf&G,f csufrsm;udk&&SdEdkif+yDvm;qdkwm t+rJrjywfavhvmaeyg? tu,fIa&muf&Sdae+yDqdkygu xdktcsufudk taotcsm qkwfudkifI oifwef;om;rsm; em;vnfr_&Sdr&Sd aoaocsmcsmar;cGef;xkwfyg? tu,fI &nf&G,fcsufrsm; r&Edkifao;[k ,lqygu TtqifhwGif aemufxyfrnfonfhar;cGef;rsKd;ar;I oifwef; om;rsm;. aqG;aEG;csufrsm;xkwfazmfrnfudkjyifqifyg? Ð oifwef;om;rsm;. ,cifu,Hk=unf,lqxm;csufrsm;pdrfac:onfh ar;cGef;rsm;udkar;&mwGif +cdrf;ajcmuf t=uyfudkifonfh yHkpHraygufap&ef owdxm;yg? tES p f c sKyf j cif ; (Synthesis) Ð oifcef;pmwckvHk;twGif; aqG;aEG;onhftcsufrsm;rS oifcef;pm&nf&G,fcsufESifhywfoufI rnfonfh tcsursm;u udunonf/ rnfonftcsursm;u udunrr&Sqonfukd aoaocsmcsm rSwwrf;wif f k f D h f k f D _ d kd f xm;yg? xdktcsufrsm;udk rnfonfhtcsufurSefonf/ rnfonfhtcsufurSm;onf[k qHk;jzwfay;&efrvdk bJ oifwef;om;rsm;taejzifh rdrdwdk@t,ltqrsm;udk rdrdwdk@udk,fwdkifjrifwwfatmif vkyfaqmifay;jcif; jzpfonf? Ð oifcef;pm. &nf&Gufcsuftwdkif;oGm;Edkifap&ef taxmuftulðyaom wkef@jyefcsufrsm;udktxl; tm±kHðyay;yg? xdktcsufrsm;wifjyaqG;aEG;oludk aus;Zl;wifpum;ajym&efrarhygESifh? Ð oifcef;pm. &nf&G,fcsufrsm;ESifh rudkufnDonfh wkef@jyefcsufrsm;udk rdrdtaejzifhtav;xm;pOf;pm; p&mtcsufrsm;jzpfonf[kqdkjcif;jzifh xdkolrsm;udk rdrdwdk@vufrcH&mrvkyfa=umif; today;&ma&muf onf? xdkodk@ajymjcif;jzifh tcsif;csif;!d‡E_dif;aqmif&GufonfhyHkpHrsKd;jzpfap+yD; tjrifrwlolrsm;taejzifh olwdk@.t,ltqrsm;udk jyefvnfpOf;pm;aumif; pOf;pm;vmapEdkifrnf? Ð oifcef;pmwckvHk;wGif &&SdcJhaomtjrif/ oifcef;pm/ qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;jzifh oifcef;pmudk tqHk;owfyg? xdktcsufrsm;udk rSwfwrf;wifjcif;jzifh oifcef;pmtwGuf rdrd&nf&G,fcsuftwkdif; a&mufatmifoGm;Edkif/ roGm;Edkifudkqef;ppfEdkifonf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 31hre pack.pmd 31 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 32. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf oifwef;cef;rjyifqifyHk oifwef;wck tqifajyap&eftwGuf oifwef;cef;r. taetxm;rSmvJ ta&;}uD;aomtcsufwcsuf jzpfonf? vHòk cH/ at;csr;f / us,0ef;aomoifwef;cef;f r twGi;f wGioifwef;om;rsm; ydrtm±kp;l pdupm avhvmEdio f f k kd H k f G kf vdk rdrw@kd u,awG@ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk ydryivif;pGmr#a0wifjyEdiavh&=dS uonf? xd@k twGuf oifwef;cef;ruda&G;cs,f d kd f k kd G hf kf k &mwGif atmufygtcsufrsm;udk owdðy&rnf? Ð oifwef;cef;ronf toGifyHkpHtm;jzifh vHkòcHr_&Sdap±kHomru oifwef;om;rsm;. pdwfydkif;qdkif&mvHkòcHapr_udk yhHydk;ay;pGrf;Edkifaom taetxm;rsKd;jzpf&rnf? Ð oifwef;cef;ronf oifwef;om;rsm;tm;vHk; &if;ESD;yGifhvif;pGmqufqHajymqdkEdkifaom taetxm;rsKd; jzpf&rnf? tzJG@vdkufcJGxdkif&jcif;/ wa,mufESifhwa,muf qufoG,fajymqdk&efcufcJjcif;uJhodk@aom pDpOf xm;r_rsKd;rjzpfap&? Ð oifwef;om;rsm;tm;vHk;t=um; yGifhvif;aom/ tvG,fwulqufqHEdkifaom yHkpHrsKd;zefwD;Edkif&eftwGuf puf0kdif; wydkif;jywfyHkrsKd; (yapmufyHk) xdkifcHkrsm;pDxm;Edkifygu taumif;qHk;jzpfonf? ausmif;pmoifcef;rsm; uJo@kd a&Saemuftwef;vduf xdicrsm;pDxm;onfyprsK;d udk a&Smif=uOfyg? yapmufyxiapjcif;jzifh oifwef; h › k k f kH h kH H kH kd f om;rsm;tm;vHk; wef;wl&Sdonf[laompdwfrsKd;ay:vmaponf? xdk@tjyif ydk@csolESifh oifwef;om;rsm; t=um; odk@r[kwf oifwef;om;rsm;tcsif;csif;t=um; qufoG,fr_tm;aumif;aponf? oifwef;ydk@cs oltaejzifh oifwef;om;tm;vkH;udktuJcwfEdkifojzifh wOD;csif;vdktyfcsufrsm;udk avhvmEdkifovdk oifwef;om;rsm;. vufcHEdkifr_a&csdefudk cef@rSef;Edkifonf? xdk@tjyif tjcm;ta&;}uD;onfhtcsufrSm oif wef;om;rsm;t=um; pnf;vHk;r_/ aEG; axG;r_rsm; ydkrdktm;aumif;apvmonf? Ð oifwef;cef;rtwGif; oifcef;pmrsm;ESifh qufpyfonfh ±kyfyHkrsm;/ ydkpwmrsm;ESifh ynmay;ta=umif;t&m rsm; uyfxm;ygu oifwef;om;rsm; avhvmpl;prf;Edkifvdrfhrnf? Ð oifwef;cef;rudk aea&mifjcnfvHkavmufI av0ifavxGufaumif;rGefaom ae&mrsKd;a&G;cs,fyg? Ð oifwef;om;ta&twGufESifh udkufnDaom tus,ft0ef;&Sdatmifóud;pm;yg? tu,fI cef;rtwGif; v_yf&Sm;r_vkyfaqmif&ef ae&mrvHkavmufygu jyifyb,fae&mwGifvkyfEdkifrvJudk óudwifjyifqifyg? Ð tu,fI =urf;jyifwGifxdkif+yD; aqG;aEG;=urnfqdkygu oifwef;om;rsm;. usef;rma&;ukdxdcdkufaprnfh t*Faw/ ajr}uD;pdkpGwfr_rsm;&Sdr&Sd ppfaq;yg? Ð ywf0ef;usifwGif qlnHr_rsm;/ teH@qdk;rsm;r&Sdatmif *±kðyyg? 32 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 32 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 33. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf oifykef;toHk;jyKyHk oifwef;ydk@csolonf oifykef;ESifhuif;uGmI r&Edkifay/ oifykef;wGif a&;om;jcif;onf rdrdajymqdkvdkonhf A[kokw tcsuf t vuf r sm;ud k a&;om;Iwif j y&mwG i f j zpf a p/ oif wef;om;rsm;wifjy ajymqdkvmonfh tcsufrsm;udk rSwfwrf; wif&mwGifjzpfap toHk;ðyavh&Sdonf? rdrday;vdkonfh A[kokwrsm;/tcsuftvufrsm;udk oifye;f wGia&;om;jcif;jzifh oifwef;om;rsm;taejzifh vduvH k f k f rSwfom;&mwGif vG,fulapovdk tjrift& rSwfrdEdkifpGrf; tm;aumif;olrsm;tzdk@ ydkrdkrSwfrdapEdkifonf? oifwef;om;rsm; ajymqdkaqG;aEG;onfhtcsufrsm;udk oifwef;ydk@csolu oifykef;wGifrSwfwrf;wifay;jcif; tm;jzifh oifwef;om;rsm;. wifjycsufrsm;ukd tav;ay;rSwfwrf;wifonfh t"dy`m,faygufonfhtwGuf oifwef; om;rsm;. t,ltq/ yg0ifr_udk A[dkðyav;pm;onfh toGifa&mufonf? xdk@tjyif pepfwusrSwfwrf; wifa&;om; xm;jcif;jzifh aqG;aEG;+yD;om;tcsufudk aemufxyfwOD;u xyfwifjyvmygu ta=umif;t&mxyfae+yDjzpfa=umif; oifykef;wGif a&;xm;aomtcsufudkaxmufjyI owday;Edkifonf? xdkodk@vkyfjcif;jzifh ta=umif;wckxJudk t}udrf }udrfaqG;aEG;jcif;r&Sdatmif a&Smif=uOfEdkifonf? tcsdefukefoufomaponf? oifwef;ydk@csoludk,fwdkifvJ oifwef; om;rsm; aqG;aEG;onfhtcsufxJwGif ta&;}uD;onfhtcsufusefaeygu oifykef;rSwfwrf;udk=unfhI aemufqHk;wGif jznfhpGufay;Edkifonf? tcsK@d ae&mrsm;wGif oifye;f tpm; pm&Gu}f uD;rsm;udk toH;k ðyavh&onf? od@k aomf toH;k ðy&mwGif owdxm; k dS oifaomtcsursm;rSm twlwyifjzpfonf? oifye;f od@k r[kwf pm&Gu}f uD;rsm;toH;k ðy&mwGif owdðyoifaomtcsuf h f l k h rsm;udk azmfjyxm;ygonf? Ð oifykef;udk oifwef;om;rsm;tm;vHk; jrifEdkifrnfhae&mwGifxm;yg? jyLwif;aygufrsm;wnfhwnfhwGifxm;ygu aemufcHtvif;a&mifa=umifh oifwef;om;rsm;=unfh&ef tcuftcJ&SdEdkifovdk oifykef;tay: tvif;a&mif xdk;aeyguvJ tvif;jyefr_a=umifh oifwef;om;rsm;twGuf tcuftcJ&SdEdkifonfudkowdðyyg? Ð a&;om;&mwGifvJ oifwef;om;rsm;tm;vHk;jrifEdkifatmif t&G,f}uD;rm;+yD; yDo&Sif;vif;r_&Sdygap? Ð oifykef;taetxm;ESifh vufa&;taetxm;wdk@udk tuJcwfEdkif&eftwGuf oifwef;ydk@csrnfholonf oifwef;om;rsm;. aemufzufodk@oGm;a&mufum xdkae&mrSaeIoifykef;udk=unfh+yD; tuJcwfEdkifonf? Ð oifykef;wGifa&;om;&mY acgif;pOfESifhta=umif;t&mudk rSifta&mifcGJa&;yg? acgif;pOfudk odomxif&Sm; atmifrsOf;wm;jcif;vJvkyfEdkifonf? Ð rdrdwifjyrnfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk a&;om;&mwGifjzpfap/ oifwef;om;rsm;wifjyr_udk rSwfwrf;wif&m wGijf zpfap twdtustjynftpHk vdua&;p&mrvdbJ t"dutcsursm;udom vd&if;wd&i;f tcsuf tvduf h k f k f k k kS k a&;om;Edionf? (Bullet point) oH;k yg? kf Ð oifwef;om;rsm;ajymonfh tcsursm;udk vd&if;wd&i;a&;rnfqygu xdoifwef;om;qdvonftcsurm f k k Sf kd k k kd h f S xdktwdkif;qdkvdkjcif; [kwfr[kwfjyefar;+yD; aocsmrScsa&;yg? Ð vd&if;wd&i;a&;&mwGif twdaumufrsm;/ oauFwrsm;udk oH;EdiaomfvJ xdt&mrsm;udk oifwef;om;rsm; k k Sf k k kf k em;vnfrSomtoHk;ðyyg? oifwef;om;rsm; em;vnfvG,frnfh pum;vHk;rsKd;udkom a&;om;yg? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 33hre pack.pmd 33 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 34. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Ð oifykef;wGifa&;om;pOf rdrdcE<mudk,fESifhuG,fI ra&;om;rdap&ef/ oifykef;wGifa&;om;xm;csufrsm;udk rdrdudk,fESifhuG,fI xdkifaejcif;r&Sd&ef owdxm;yg? Ð oifykef;a&;om;&mwGif toHk;ðyaomrSifrsm;onf ta0;u xifxif&Sm;&Sm;jrifEdkifaom ta&mifrsm;jzpf oifhonf? teDa&mif/ tpdrf;a&mifrSifrsm;onf ta&mifjyefwwfI owdxm;toHk;ðyyg? taumif;qHk; ta&mifrsm;rSm teufESifh eufjyma&mifwdk@jzpfonf? Ð a&;om;aomtcgwGif pmvHk;aygif;rsm;/ owfyHkrsm;rSefatmif *±kpdkufyg? Ð oifykef;xm;&Sd&mwGif cdkifcHhr_&Sdatmif owdxm;yg? Ð A[kowrsm;/ tcsutvufrsm;ay;rnfqygu pm&Gu}f uD;rsm;wGif óudwifa&;om;xm;jcif;onf taumif; k f kd qH;k jzpfonf? xdo@kd a&;om;jcif;jzifh oifwef;tcseuejf cif;oufomonf? tcsutvufrsm;usecjhJ cif;r&SEi/f k d f k f f d kd jynfhpHkr_&Sdr&Sd t}udrf}udrfppfaq;=unfhEdkifonf? owfyHkrsm;udk owdxm;Edkifonf? Ð oifykef;ay:wGif ydkrdk&Sif;vif;aprnfh Z,m;rsm;/ *&yfrsm;udk toHk;ðyEdkifygu oifwef;om;rsm; ydkem;vnf Edionf? xd@k a=umifh xdt&mrsm;jzifh óud;pm;&Si;f jyyg? vkyaqmifyg? kf k f Ð ta=umif;t&mwck. t&if;cHtcsursm; od@k r[kwf xdo@kd jzpfap&ef yhy;csursm;udk wifjyawmhrnf qdygu f k H kd f k csa&;jcif;xuf oufqdkifonfhyHkrsm;jzpfaom opfyif.tjrpfrsm;/ yifhultdrfuJhodk@qufpyfaer_rsm;qJGI a&;om;ygu oifwef;om;rsm;ydk+yD; &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;jrifaprnf? Ð ta=umif;t&mwck. aumif;usKd;rsm;ESifh qdk;usKd;rsm;Ed_if;,SOfjcif;uJhodk@aom Ed_if;,SOfr_rsm;vkyfrnfqdkygu oifykef;wGif aumfvHESpfckcJGa&;jcif;jzifh oifwef;om;rsm; ydkrdk&Sif;vif;pGm jrifapEdkifonf? Ð oifykef;wGifra&;bJ toifha&;xm;aom A[kokwrsm;udk toHk;ðyrnfqdkygu xdkpm&Gufrsm;udkoHk;rnfh tpDtpOftwdkif; pepfwuspDxm;yg? Ð tu,fI oifwef;ydk@csolESpfOD;&Sdygu wOD;uoifwef;om;rsm;udkqufoG,fae+yD; wOD;uoifykef;wGif rSwfwrf;wifEdkifonf? Ð tu,fI oifwef;ydk@csolwOD; xJqdkygu oifwef;om;rsm;ajym=um;csufudk em;axmif/ oifykef;wGifa&;cs rSwfwrf;wif/ oifwef;om;rsm;tajctaeudk rsufpdjzifhtuJcwf xdkwm0ef oHk;rsKd;pvHk;udk a,mufxJu wcsdefxJwGifvkyfaqmif&rnf? xdkodk@jzpfEdkifatmifavhusifhyg? 34 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 34 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 35. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf upm;enf;rsm;toH;k jyKjcif; (Using Games) upm;enf;rsm;udk tcsKd@u aysmf&ifp&m upm;enf;oufoufjzifh $ om jrif=uavh&Sdonf? wcsdK@w0ufrSefygonf? tcsKd@upm;enf;rsm;onf oifcef;pmESiqufpyfjcif;r&SbJ oifwef;om;rsm; tdyiuajyatmif/ vef; hf d f kd f qef;wufºuGatmif oufoufomvkyfaqmifaom upm;enf;rsm;/ trl t,mESifh oDcsif;qdkjcif;rsm;om&Sdovdk tcsKd@v_yf&Sm;enf;rsm;rSm oifcef; pmESihf qufpyfI oifwef;om;rsm; oifcef;pmtay:ydraqG;aEG;vmatmif/ k kd aqG;aEG;rnfhoifcef;pmtay: cHpm;em;vnfvmapI rdrdóuHawG@cJh&aom tawG@tóuHrsm;udk xkwfazmfajym=um;vmatmif vkyfaqmifaomenf; rsm;vJ&ygonf? xd@k a=umifh upm;enf;rsm;udk tdyiuajy upm;enf;rsm; dS f kd f (Ice breakers od@k r[kwf Energizers od@k r[kwf Group Dynamites) [k trsKd;rsKd;ac:avh&Sdonf? trlt,mESiq&aom oDcsi;f rsm; (Action Songs)udk tkypk wpk hf kd f owfrwEi+f yD; oifcef;pmESiqufpyfI tawG@tóuH,&aom v_y&m;r_rsm; S f kd hf l fS (Experiential learning activities)udk aemufxyf tkyfpkwcktaejzifh owfrSwfEkdifonf? td y f i d k u f a jyupm;enf ; rsm;ES i f h trl t ,mjzif h qd k & aomoD c sif ; rsm; xdkupm;enf;rsm;ESifh oDcsif;rsm;udk oifwef;om;rsm; wufºuG vef;qef;ap&efEihf oifwef;ppcsi;f wGif &Saewwfaom pd;k &dryyefrrsm;/ ouf S d fl _ awmifhoufomr&Sdr_rsm; aysmufuG,f+yD; ayghyg;oGm;ap&eftwGuf&nf&G,f toHk;ðyavh&Sdonf? txl;ojzifh reufydkif;oifwef;ppcsif; tcsdefrsm;/ ae@vnfxrif;pm;+yD; jyefvnfpwifaomtcsdefrsm;/ A[kokwaqG;aEG; r_rsm;udk awmufav#mufem;axmifcJhaom oifwef;om;rsm;+iD;aiG@aecsdef rsm;wGif vkyfaqmifavh&Sdonf? oifwef;. ppcsif;ae@wGiftoHk;ðyaom upm;enf;rsm;rSm tdyfcsifajy/ wufºuGvef;qef;¶Hkoufouf r[kwfbJ oif w ef ; om;rsm;wa,muf E S i f h wa,muf & if ; ES D ; ap+yD ; wa,muf ta=umif;wa,muf pl;prf;Edionfrwqufupm;enf;rsm;udk toH;k ðyEdif kf h d f k onf? aygyg;vef;qef;ap&efomru wa,mufEiwa,muf &if;ES;D atmif h S hf ppcsi;f vkyaqmifEiygu oifwef;ppcsi;f wGi&aewwfaom wa,mufEihf f kd f f dS S wa,muf &Sdef;aejcif;/ pdrf;aejcif;rsm; aysmufuG,foGm;apEdkifonf? upm;enf;rsm; tajrmuftrsm;&SdonftxJrS tcsKd@enf;rsm;udk TpmtkyfwGif xnfhoGif;azmfjyxm;ygonf? xdkenf;rsm;udk toHk;ðyrnf qdkygu *±kðy&efrSm oifwef;om;rsm;. ,Ofaus;r_/ touft&G,frsm;ESifh udunoifavsmrnfenf;rsm;udk a&G;cs,toH;k ðy&efjzpfygonf? oDcsi;f rsm; k f D h f h f toHk;ðy&mwGif uJGjym;jcm;em;r_udk todtrSwfðyI av;pm;vdkufemap aom/ +idr;f csr;f a&;/ vltcGita&;ESihf w&m;r#wr_w@kd ukd a&S±aompmom; hf › _ rsm; toHk;ðyoifhonf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 35hre pack.pmd 35 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 36. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf oif c ef ; pmES i f h q uf p yf I tawG @ tóuH , l & aomv_ y f & S m ;r_ r sm; &$ivef;wufºuGap&efoufoufjzifh vkyaqmifaomupm;enf;rsm; f f &Sovdk &nf&,csu&&jdS zifh vkyaqmifaomoifcef;pmESiqufpyf+yD; oifwef; d G f f dS f hf om;rsm; aqG;aEG;vmap&efESifh oifcef;pm.euf±d_if;aom qdkvdkcsufrsm;udk vufawG@vyuicpm;&if; oabmayguap&ef vkyaqmifonfh v_y&m;r_rsK;d k f kd f H f f f S vnf;&Sygao;onf? oifwef;om;rsm;udk vkyaqmif&if; tawG@tóuHrsm;&&Sd d f apaom v_y&m;r_jzpfaoma=umifh xdenf;rsm;udk tawG@tóuH,aomv_y&m; fS k l fS r_rsm; (Experiential learning) [kac:ygonf? omref&ivef;wufºuGaponfh $f upm;enf;rsm;ESihf ,ckenf;wd@k umjcm;onftcsurm ,ckenf;udk oifcef;pm G h fS ESifhqufpyfEdkifatmif txl;jyifqif&efvdktyf+yD; upm;+yD;±Hkoufoufjzifh &yfrypfbJ oifcef;pmESifhqufpyfEdkifatmif aemufqufwJGar;cGef;rsm;ar;& jcif;jzpfonf? omrefupm;enf;wGif upm;t+yD;cHpm;csufrsm;/ upm;pOf óuHawG@&aom tcuftcJrsm;/ &&Sdaomoifcef;pmrsm;udk ar;&efrvdkaomf vnf; tawG@tóuH,laom v_yf&Sm;r_wGifrl oifcef;pmESifh qufpyfEdkifrnfh/ oifwef;om;rsm;. vufawG@b0ESifhqufpyfEdkifrnfh aemufqufwJG ar;cGef; rsm;udk pepfwusjyifqifIar;&onf? xdo@kd ar;cGe;f rsm;udk rjyifqifxm;ygu k odk@r[kwf rar;ygu tawG@tóuH&,lEdkifaom v_yf&Sm;r_jzpfaeaomfvnf; omrefupm;enf;tqifhjzifhom tqHk;owfoGm;ayvdrfhrnf? tawG@tóuH,aom v_y&m;r_rsm;udk xdvy&m;r_twGi;f xGuay: l f S k _ f S f vmaom tawG@tóuH od@k r[kwf todtjrifw@kd ukd oifcef;pmESiqufpyfI hf avhvmEdi&ef &nf&,vyuijf cif;jzpfonf? xd@k twGuxvy&m;r_rsm;onf kf G f k f kd f kd _ f S oifcef;pmESiqufpyfaezd@k txl;ta&;}uD;onf? jyifqifotaejzifh oifcef; hf l pmESihf qufpyfaomenf;vrf;rsm;udk &SmazGEiz@kd vovdk xdvy&m;r_Eioifcef; kd f kd k _ f S S hf pmqufpyfEdkifaom ar;cGef;rsm;udkvJ tpDtpOfwusjyifqifxm;zdk@ vdktyf onf? xdkv_yf&Sm;r_enf;vrf;rsm;rSm rdrdywf0ef;usifwGif&Sdaewwfonf? omrefuav;rsm;upm;aom enf;rsm;twdi;f wdu±utoH;k csEiovdk &S+d yD; k k f kd f kd f om;enf;vrf;rsm;udk tenf;i,frr;f rHI oifcef;pmESiuunatmif toH;k ðy G hf kd f D wwfz@kd vonf? ta&;}uD;onftcsurm oifcef;pmESihf qufpyfawG;ac:wwf kd h fS +yD; wDxGifzefwD;wwfaom^m%f&Sd&efyifjzpfonf? vl@tcGifhta&;ESihfywfoufI pmawG@oufoufomavhvmrnfqdk ygu em;vnf&efcufcaom a0g[m&rsm;ESihf EdiiwumpmcsKyfrsm;oufouf J kfH udom avhvmEdirnfjzpfonf? oif,avhvmolrsm;taejzifh xdpmcsKyfrsm; k kf l k udzwf&&if; vl@tcGita&;ta=umif;t&mESiywfoufI qufvufvyuif k _ hf hf k f kd vdkpdwf enf;yg;oGm;avh&Sdonf? vl@tcGifhta&;qdkonfrSm rdrdwdk@ywf0ef; usiwijf zpfysuaeaom rdrw@kd b0rsm;. ta=umif;yifjzpfonf[k oabm f G f d ayguf vufcHvmap&eftwGuf rdrdwdk@ udk,fydkiftawG@tóuHrsm;udktajccHI aqG;aEG;pOf;pm;vmatmifvkyfay;rSom vl@tcGifhta&;twGuf vlwdkif;vkyf aqmifI&Ediyg vm;[laom todpwrsK;d arG;jrL vmEdiayvdrrnf? rdru,f kf d f kf hf d kd wdkif v_yf&Sm;r_udkvkyfaqmif&if;&&Sdaom tawG@tóuHrsm;ESifh cHpm;csufrsm;rS wqifh vl@tcGifhta&;ta=umif;t&mudk pdwf0ifpm;pGmaqG;aEG;vmatmif vkyfaqmifay;&efrSm oifwef;ydk@csol.wm0efjzpfonf? 36 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 36 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 37. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf tawG@tóuH,laomv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;rSm trSefpifppf oifwef; om;rsm;vufawG@wGif &ifqdkifóuHawG@ae&aom tjzpftysufrsm;udk jyefvnfowdxm; cHpm;rdap&eftwGuf v_yf&Sm;r_wckvkyfcdkif;jcif;yif jzpf o nf ? xd k v _ y f & S m ;r_ w G i f oif w ef ; om;rsm;. vuf a wG @ b0ud k xif[yfaeaom tjzpftysufrsm;/ ta=umif;t&mrsm;yg0if+yD; xdkodk@ vkyaqmift+yD;wGif oifwef;om;rsm;. cHpm;csu/f tawG@tóuHrsm;udk f jyefvnfwifjyaponf? v_yf&Sm;r_wGifyg0ifaom Zmwfaumifrsm;rSm b,foawGv/J xdoawGu jyifyrSm b,foawGv/J tjyifrmolw@kd awG l k l l S u b,fvvyavh&ovJ/ bma=umifow@kd tckvvyEiwmvJ ponfh kd k f dS h l kd k f kd f ar;cGef;rsm;jzifhv_yf&Sm;r_ESifh vufawG@qufpyfEdkifatmif ar;cGef;rsm;ar; onf? vufawG@b0wGif trSefwu,fjzpfysufaeaom tjzpftysuf rsm;udk owdðyrdatmif axmufjyum wu,fhvufawG@wGif b,fvdk vkyfaqmif=urvJ[k qufvufaqG;aEG;apjcif;jzpfonf? tawG@tóuH,aomv_y&m;r_wi;f wGif aemufqufwGJ ar;cGe;f l f S dk rsm;ar;onfhvkyfief;pOf&Sdonf? xdkaemuf qufwJGar;cGef;rsm;onf oifwef;om;rsm;taejzifh v_y&m;r_vypOftwGi;f óuHawG@caom tawG@ fS kf hJ tóuHrsm;/ todtjrifrsm;udk oifwef;om;rsm; xkwazmfajymqdI oH;k f k oyfwwf&ef/ vufawG@b0ESihf qufpyfrap&ef/ oifcef;pm,lI vufawG@ d b0wGif toH;k csEirnfenf;vrf;rsm; xGuay:vmap&ef tpDtpOfwus kd f h f pDpOfxm;aom ar;cGef;rsm;jzpf&efvdkonf? xd k a r;cG e f ; rsm;ud k jyif q if & mwG i f atmuf y gtwd k i f ; tqif h a v;qif h jyif q if E d k i f o nf ? 1? vufawG@v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;rS tawG@tóuHrsm;&&Sdjcif;? (Experience) 2? xkdtawG@tóuHrsm;tay: cHpm;csufrsm;xkwfazmfjcif;/ jzpfysufvkyfaqmifcJhonfhtay: jyefvnfokH;oyfjcif;/ (Reflection) (b,fvcpm;&vJ/ bmawGjzpfcv/J tjcm;olawGu b,fvrsKd ;vkycv?) kd H hJ kd f hJ J 3? jyefvnfoHk;oyfcsufrsm;udk vufawG@b0ESifh E_dif;,SOfqufpyfaqG;aEG;apjcif;/ oifcef;pm&,ljcif;/ (Generalization) bma=umifh DvdkjzpfcJh&wmvJ/ bma=umifhatmifjrifcJhw,fvdk@,lqovJ? bmtcuftcJawG@cJhovJ? vufawG@eJ@b,fvdkquffpyfaevJ/ vufawG@rSm tckvdktjzpftysufeJ@ qifwlwmawG bmawG&SdEdkifvJ/ vufawG@rSm tckvdkvkyfwJholawGu b,folawGvJ/ bma=umifh olwdk@tckvdkvkyfEdkifwmvJ? 4? xdk&&Sdaomoifcef;pmrsm;udk aemufw}udrfwGif odk@r[kwf vufawG@b0wGif rnfodk@tokH;csrnfenf;? (Application) bmoifcef;pmawG&ovJ/ Doifcef;pmawGukd b,fvdkjyeftoHk;csEdkifrvJ/ toHk;cs&if b,fvdktcuftcJeJ@ óuHEdkifovJ/ bmawGjyifqifxm;oifhvJ/ b,fvkdtpDtpOfqJGxm;oifhvJ? aemufqufwar;cGe;f rsm;udk ar;&mwGif cHpm;csursm;udk azmfxwvmaprnfh cHpm;csuar;cGe;f rsm; yg0ifatmif GJ f k f f ar;oifonf? rdrw@kd oif=um;cJaom ausmif;pmoifcef;rsm;wGif vufawG@b0ESihf qufpyfaomtqifrS pwifI oif,l h d h h cJh=uonf? cHpm;csufar;cGef;rsm;udk wcgrStar;rcHcJh&yg? xdk@twGuf tcsKd@rS xl;qef;oa,mif xifjrifwwf=uonf? rdrw@kd onf vlom;rsm;jzpfonf? vlom;wd@k obm0twdi;f &Sonfh cHpm;csuonf rdrw@kd b0. tpdwtydi;f d k d f d f k o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 37hre pack.pmd 37 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 38. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf wckjzpf.? oif=um;ydk@csr_tawmfrsm;rsm;onf vlom;wdk@. OD;aESmuftodOm%fudk ajymif;vJ&efOD;wnf=u+yD;cHpm;r_ ESvHk;om;tydkif;udk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;jcif;r&Sd=uacs? vlom;wdk@. ðyjyifajymif;vJr_onf ESvHk;om;cHpm;csufrS jrpfzsm;cH ayguzm;vmjcif;jzpfonf? OD;aESmufrpwifajymif;vJjcif;r[kw/f xd@k twGua=umifh vlom;wd@k . ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;udk f G f S f t"duxm;vkyfaqmifaeaom rdrdwdk@onf oifwef;om;rsm;. ESvHk;om;cHpm;csufrsm;udk ðyjyifajymif;vJ&ef vkyfzdk@vdk tyfonf? xd@k twGua=umifh xdow@kd . cHpm;csursm; xkwazmfajymqdvmap&eftwGuf tcGitvrf;ay;onftaejzifh f k l f f k hf h ,ckuJhodk@cHpm;csufrsm;udk t"duxm;ar;jref;jcif;jzpfonf? txl;ojzifhzdESdyfcHjynfolrsm;ESifh vkyfudkif&mwGif xdktcsuf onf txl;ta&;}uD;vSonf? xd@k tjyif zdEyorsm;taejzifvnf; olw@kd .cHpm;csursm;udk tjcm;olrsm;ESitwl xkwazmfajymqdvmap&ef Sd f l h f hf f k vkyaqmifay;&rnf? zdEyorsm;onf trsm;tm;jzifh OD;aESmufyi;f tqifEiom vkyuiaqmif&uwwf=u+yD; olw@kd . f dS f l kd h S hf f kd f G f ESv;kH om;cHpm;csursm;udk xkwazmfajymqdvpwf r&S=d uacs? vlwi;f tm; rdrw@kd cpm;csursm;udk xkwazmfajymqdapjcif; f f k kd d kd d H f f k jzifh zdESdyfola&m/ zdESdyfcH&ola&m ESpfrsKd;pvHk;wGif cHpm;csufrsm;rSwqifh vlom;csif;twlwljzpfonfqdkaom tqifhudk &&SdoGm;apEdkifonf? v_ y f & S m ;r_ r sm;ðyvk y f & mwG i f owd x m;oif h a omtcsuf r sm; Ð oifcef;pm.&nf&G,fcsufudk aoaocsmcsmcsrSwf+yD;rS xdkoifcef;pm&nf&G,fcsufESifh udkufnDrnfh v_yf&Sm; r_udka&G;cs,fyg? Ð xdkv_yf&Sm;r_onf oifwef;om;ta&twGuf/ ae&mtus,ft0ef;/ oifwef;om;rsm;.cGeftm;/ touf/ tcsif;csif;&if;ESD;r_ twdkif;twm/ ,Ofaus;r_wdk@ESifh vdkufavsmnDaxGjzpfatmif vdktyfovdkðyjyifyg? Ð oifwef;om;rsm;tm;vHk;yg0ifEdkifr_udk cGihfðyaomenf;rsKd;udk a&G;cs,fyg/ odk@rSom tcsif;csif; yl;aygif; aqmif&Gufr_ESifh pkaygif;vkyfaqmifr_wdk@udk tm;ay;Edkifrnf? Ð xdkv_yf&Sm;r_wGif oifwef;om;rsm;wkef@jyefajymqdkEdkifaom cHpm;csufrsm;/ tajzrsm;udk cef@rSef;=unfhI xdktcsufrsm;rS oifcef;pm. &nf&G,fcsuftwdkif;oGm;Edkifatmif b,fvdkjyifqifoifhovJudk óudwifawG; awmxm;yg? Ð vkyfaqmifaepOfay:aygufEdkifaom tcuftcJrsm;/ jyemrsm;udk óudwifpOf;pm;I xdkodk@ay:aygufvm cJhygu b,fvdkajz&Sif;rvJqkdonfudk óudwifjyifqifxm;yg? Ð v_yf&Sm;r_. vkyfaqmifr_tqifhqifhESifh aemufqufwJGar;rnfhar;cGef;rsm;udk tpDtpOfwus jyifqifxm; yg? vdktyfygu rSwfpkpm&GufwGifcsa&;xm;yg? odk@rSom arhavsmhoGm;jcif;/ tpDtpOfwusrjzpfjcif;udk a&Smif&Sm;Edkifrnf? Ð vdktyfonfh taxmuftulðyypPnf;rsm;udk jyifqifxm;yg? Ð xdkv_yf&Sm;r_onf oifwef;om;rsm;twGuf vG,fvGef;ygu bmrSavhvmp&mjzpfawmhrnfr[kwfovdk cufcJvGef;yguvJ vkyfaqmif&ef atmifjrifawmhrnfr[kwfyg? xdk@a=umifh vG,fvGef;jcif;/ cufcJvGef;jcif; rjzpfap&efcsdefudkufyg? Ð v_yf&Sm;r_rvkyfaqmifcif “oifcef;pmESifh qufpyfaom v_yf&Sm;r_wckvkyf=unfh&atmif/ tm;vHk;yg0if jcif;jzifh ulnDay;=uyg” [kajymEdkifonf? upm;=u&atmif[krajymoifhyg? oifwef;om;rsm; tav; teufxm;r_ avsmhoGm;apEdkifonf? Ð tkyfpkcJG&efvdktyfygu vltkyfpkt&ifcJGyg? tkyfpkcJG+yD; em;axmif&eftqifhoifhjzpfrS v_yf&Sm;r_tqifhrsm;udk wqifhcsif; &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;ajymjyyg? Ð tqifhvdkufvkyfaqmif&rnfh wm0efrsm;/ pnf;urf;rsm;udk oifwef;rsm;em;vnfr_&Sdr&Sd jyefvnfppfaq; yg? vdtyfygu erlemvkyjf yEdionf? k kf Ð tu,fI oifwef;om;rsm;xJwGif xdkv_yf&Sm;r_udk ,cifuvkyfcJhbl;aom olrsm;yg0ifygu xdkolrsm;udk 38 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 38 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 39. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf rdrdESifhtwl tjcm;olrsm;tm;apmifh=uyf&ef tultnDawmif;Edkifonf? odk@r[kwf aemufxyftkyfpkopf ESifh tawG@tóuHopfrsm; xyfrH&Sm=unfh&ef tm;ay;I yg0ifvkyfcdkif;Edkifonf? odk@aomf xdkolwOD;xJu tm;vHk;udk cdkif;apI vG,fvG,fuav;eSifh r+yD;oGm;ap&ef apmifh=uyfyg? Ð v_yf&Sm;enf;trnfESifh vdktyfygu &nf&G,fcsufukdajymyg? oifwef;om;rsm;. pdwfcHpm;r_udkjzpfay: atmif E_d;qGaomv_yf&Sm;r_jzpfygu óudwifIajymp&mrvdkyg? Ð v_yf&Sm;r_ðyvkyfaepOf t+rJapmifh=uyfavhvmyg? oifwef;om;rsm; xdcdkuftE W&m,frjzpfatmif *¶kpuyg? kd f Ð v_yf&Sm;r_vkyfaepOf wOD;csif;. ðyr_r_rsm;/ wkef@jyefr_rsm;udk aoaocsmcsmrSwfom;xm;I aemufqufwJG ar;cGef;ar;&mwGif xnfhoGif;ar;yg? Ð pnf;urf;rsm;udk aoaocsmcsmcsxm;+yD; vdkufem&efapmifh=uyfay;yg? Ð tu,fI oifwef;ydk@csolonf wa,mufxufydkygu wm0efudk,fpDcJGxm;yg? Ð tu,fI vkyfaqmifpOf a&S›qufrvkyfEdkifatmifjzpfaeygu jyefvnfoHk;oyf=unfh&ef/ vdktyfygu acwW tem;,lI b,fvdkqufvkyf&ifaumif;rvJ pOf;pm;=u&ef tm;ay;yg? Ð v_yf&Sm;r_vkyfaqmif&if; ratmifjrifvmygu tcsif;csif;tjypfwifwwfonfrSm obm0jzpfonf? xdktcgrsKd;wGif oifwef;ydk@csolu =um;0ifzsefajz&efvdktyf+yD; vkyfaqmifcJhonfht&mrsm;rS rnfonfh tcsufrsm; aumif;rGef+yD;/ rnfonfhtcsufrsm; tm;enf;aea=umif; tcsif;csif;tajz&Smygap? Ð oifwef;ydk@csol.wm0efrSm b,foltaumif;qHk;jzpfonf/ b,foltm;enf;onfudk a0zefjypfwif&ef r[kwfyg? xdkol.wm0efrSm vkyfaqmifr_wckvHk;tay: oifwef;om;rsm;tm;vHk;rS oHk;oyfa0zef pOf;pm; wwfap&efom jzpfonf? Ð v_yf&Sm;r_udk b,fvdkvkyfv#if atmifjrifEdkifrvJqdkonfhtcsufudk rdrdod&efvdktyfaomfvnf; oifwef; om;rsm;udk ajymjy&efrvdkyg? rvdktyfyJ 0ifpGufzufjcif;/ udk,fwkdif0ifygjcif;/ xyf&Sif;jcif;rðyvkyfygESifh? Ð oifwef;om;rsm;vkyfaqmifaer_onf tE W&m,f&Sdrnfqdkygu csufcsif;&yfwhHcdkif;&ef rarhygESifh? Ð tcsdefowfrSwfxm;ygu usef&Sdaeao;aomtcsdefudk owday;yg? Ð aemufqufwGJ ar;cGef;rsm;udk jyifqifxm;yg// xdkar;cGef;rsm;tm;vHk;onf oifwef;om;rsm;. udk,fydkif tawG@tóuHESifh tawG;tac:rsm;udk ajymcGihfay;onfh tzGifhar;cGef;rsm;jzpf&rnf? Ð ar;cGef;rsm;ar;&mwGif ajz=um;ap&ef tm;ay;tm;ajr‡mufðyaom ar;cGef;rsm;udkar;yg? ajz=um;ol pdwf"gwfusaprnfhar;cGef;rsKd; rar;ygESifh? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 39hre pack.pmd 39 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 40. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf tajctwifajymqdjk cif; (odr[kw) pum;&nfvjk cif; Yk f (Using Debate) pum;&nfvjk cif;onf ta=umif;wcktay: rwlnonftjrifrsm;ESihf D h ywfoufI wzufESifh wzufwifjyum tjrifrsm;zvS,f=ujcif;jzpfonf? wzufEihf wzuftEdi,vonftoGirsK;d ra&mufbJ uJjG ym;onftjrifrsm;udk S k f l kd h f h tjyeftvSewifjyEdiatmif xde;f ausmif;Ediygu tusK;d &Saomoif=um;r_enf; f kf kf d ud&d,mwckyifjzpf.? wcgw&HwGifwzufESifhwzuftEdkif/ t±H_;r&SdbJ ESpfzuf pvHk;vufcHoabmaygufaom tcsuftvufrsm; ay:xGufvmatmifvkyf aqmifEionf? tacstwifajymqdjk cif;[kbajymajym pum;&nfvonf[bJ kd f J k k qdqkd ajymqdrnfta=umif;t&monf bufEpzufu tajctwifajymqdEif k k h S f k kd rnfh ta=umif;t&mjzpf&efvdktyfonf? oifwef;om;rsm;tm; rwlnDuJGjym; onfh t,ltqwzufpwiu,pm;ðyI xdt,ltqudk vufuixm;aqG; D G f kd f k kd f aEG;apEdionf? xd@k a=umifh vl@tcGita&;ta=umif;t&m wckcEiywfoufI kf hf k S hf vufcHolrsm;&Sdovdk vufrcHolrsm;&SdEdkifonfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;tay: oif wef;om;rsm;rS axmufcH od@k r[kwf uef@uuajymqdEi&ef tacstwifajym G f k kd f qdkjcif; odk@r[kwf pum;&nfvkyJGrsm;u pGrf;aqmifay;Ekdifonf? xdta=umif;t&mESiywfoufI oifwef;om;wOD;csi;f rnfr# vufcH k hf onfqdkonfh &yfwnfcsufrsm;udk avhvmEdkif&eftwGufvnf; toHk;0ifonf? ud,uu,,=kH unfr&&Sapaom v_y&m;r_wckjzpfonftwGuf trsK;d orD;rsm; k hf kd kd f _ d fS h pGrf;&nfjr‡ifh&mwGif atmifjrifpGmtoHk;csEdkifonf? tacstwifajymqdk&mwGif enf;vrf;trsKd;rsKd;&SdEdkifonf? oifwef;om;rsm;tm; ta=umif;t&mwckay: axmufcHonfhtzJG@uwzJG@/ uef@uGufonfhtzJG@uwzJG@cJGI bma=umifh xdkodk@ axmufcH/ uef@uGufonfudk trsm;odatmif cdkifcdkifrmrmwifjycdkif;Edkifonf? aemufxyfwenf;rSm ta=umif;t&mwcktay: axmufconftqifh H h rsm;owfrw+f yD; rdr&yfwnfonftay: rlwnfI xdtqifrsm;wGif &yfci;f um S d h k h kd bma=umifxae&mwGi&yf&a=umif; wOD;csi;f ajymcdi;f aomenf;jzpfonf? Oyrm h kd f k rsOf;a=umif;wa=umif;tay:wGif wzufpGef;Y oHknD*&D/ tv,fwGifig;q,f D*&D/ tjcm;tpGe;f wzufwif w&mD*&Drsm; rSwom;xm;+yD; “oifwef;yd@k csol G f onf oifwef;om;rsm;ar;aomar;cGef;wdkif;udkajzEdkif&rnf” [laomtcsuf tay: rdrdvufcHonfh twdkif;twmtwdkif; xdkrsOf;ay:wGif &yfcdkif;Edkifonf? xdk@aemuf bma=umifh xdkae&mwGif &yf&a=umif; wOD;csif;ajymcdkif;Edkifonf? wcgw&HwGif EdkifiHwumtpnf;ta0;rsm;/ w&m;cHk±Hk;rsm;ESifh ±kyfjrif oH=um; tpDtpOfrsm;wGif vl@tcGifhta&;udpPESifhywfoufI vlxk=um;emyJG ðyvkyfonfhyHkpHrsdK;jzifh tm;vHk;0ifa&muf aqG;aEG;EdkifaomyHkpHrsKd; o¶kyfaqmif zefw;D ay;Edionf? xdo@kd tacstwifajymqdronf rdrt,ltqrsm;udk cdicif kf k k_ d k f kd rmrmajymqdwwfap&ef/ ta=umif;t&mwcktay: bufaygi;f pHrS ±_jrifo;kH oyf k k wifjywwfap&ef/ usKd;a=umif;qufpyfr_ESifh ,kwWd&Sdr_wdk@udk oabmaygufI jyifqifwwfap&ef/ tjcm;olrsm;ajymqdcsuukd tav;xm;em;axmifwwfap k f &efavhusifhay;onf? 40 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 40 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 41. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf tajctwif a jymjcif ; enf ; ud k toH k ; ðy&mwG i f owd ð yoif h a omtcsuf r sm;rS m - Ð Tenf;onf tcsif;csif;tjyeftvSef aqG;aEG;onfhenf;jzifh avhvmaomavhusifhcef;jzpfa=umif; oif wef;om;rsm; em;vnfoabmayguatmif yxrOD;qH;k &Si;f jyzd@k vonf? tEdit±_;H qdonfxuf wzufEihf f kd kf k S wzuf avhvmaom yHkpHrsKd;jzifhvkyfaqmif=u&ef owday;Edkifonf? Ð tEdkift±_H; owfrSwfay;jcif;a=umifh yg0ifolrsm;ydkrdk pdwf0ifpm;apEdkifaomfvnf; tEdkift±_H;udk OD;pm;ay; vGef;aom òydifqdkifr_yHkpHrsKd;jzpfroGm;ap&ef owdðyyg? Ð trSwfay;&mwGif wzufESifhwzufajymqdkr_rsm;xJrS tcsuftvufjynfhpHkr_/ usKd;a=umif;cdkifvHkpGmwifjy wwfr/_ ,kw&aom Oyrmrsm;ay;wwfr/_ ud,uu,=kH unfrponfh trSway;r_rsm;udk oifwef;om;rsm; Wd dS k hf kd fkd _ f óudwifodatmif ajymxm;oifhonf? Ð acgif;pOfa&G;&mwGif ESpfbufpvkH;rS jiif;qdkEdkifaom acgif;pOfrsKd;jzpf&rnf? Oyrm- 1? rdcif. tcef;u¾onf zcifxufydkta&;}uD;onf? 2? trsKd;orD;rsm;onf trsKd;om;rsm;xuf ykdjrifhjrwfonf? 3? Globalization onf zG@H òzd;wd;k wufreraom Ediirsm;twGuf aumif;usK;d jzpfaponf// _ d hf kfH 4? trsKd;om;rsm;onf trsKd;orD;rsm;xuf wkdif;jynfwm0ef,lEkdifonf? 5? uav; tem*wfaumif;usKd;twGuf zcifrsm;onf rdciffrsm;xuf ydkrdkta&;}uD;onf? 6? uav;ukd pmóud;pm;&ef rdb od@k r[kwf q&mq&mrrsm;u ±kuEuq;Hk roifonf? d f S f h 7? uav;ppfom;okH;jcif;jzifh vlxkufkd ydkrdkpnf;±kH;Edkifonf? 8? rdef;ronf a,mufsm;avmuf wdkif;jynfudk OD;raqmifEkdif? 9? trsKd;om;nDvmcHudk twdkuftcHtzJG@rsm; wufoifhonf// 10? ( Information Technology - IT) owif;acwfenf;pepf (tkiw)onf vlom;wd@k z@HG òzd;wd;k wufa&; df D twGuf aumif;usK;d jzpfaponf// 11? pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;/ ,Ofaus;r_qdkif&mtcGifhta&;rsm;xuf EdkifiHom;ESifh EdkifiHa&;tcGifhta&;rsm;uydkI ta&;}uD;onf? Ð xdkacgif;pOfrsm;a&G;&mwGif oifcef;pmESifhqufpyfaom ta=umif;t&mrsm;jzpf±Hkomru oifwef;om; rsm;. vufawG@tajctaeESifh em;vnfoabmaygufr_wdk@jzifhyg udkufnDaom acgif;pOfrsm;jzpf&rnf? Ð tu,fI tzJ@G c+GJ yD; tacstwifajymqdrnfqygu yg0ifaomvlO;a&/ axmufcrnfh tzJ@G ta&twGuEihf k kd D H f S uef@uGufrnfhtzJG@ta&twGuf nDr#ygap? Ð tzJG@wGifyg0ifaomolrsm; wa,mufrusefajymEdkif&ef pnf;urf;csyg? tcsKd@oifwef;om;rsm;. wcgrSr ajymbl;onfhtwGuf rajymvdk[k jiif;qefaumif;jiif;qefEdkifaomfvnf; tzJG@vdkuftm;ay;r_jzifh ajymvm wwfap&ef &nf&G,fI usefolrsm;rS 0dkif;0ef;ulnDtm;ay;&ef yef=um;yg? Ð wOD;csif;ajymqdk&rnfhtcsdef/ tzJG@vkdufajymqdk&rnfhtcsdefrsm;udk wdwdususowfrSwfay;yg? Ð acgif;pOfrsm;ay;+yD;ygu tzJG@vdkuftcsdef,lI jyifqif&eftcsdefay;yg? xdkjyifqif&mwGif vlwdkif;yg0ifr_ o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 41hre pack.pmd 41 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 42. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf &Sr&Sd ppfaq;yg? d Ð tzJG@udk,fpm;ðyaqG;aEG;aecsdeftwGif; tm±Hkpdkufem;axmifjcif;ðy&ef owday;yg? Ð wzufuwifjyaepOf useftzJG@u vdktyfonfrsm;jyifqif&ef/ axmufjy&eftcsufrsm;udk tcsif;csif;ajym =um;Edkifonf? odk@aomf ajymaeol taESmifht,Sufjzpfavmufonftxd cGifhrðyoifhyg? Ð rdrdtzJG@udktm;ay;Edkifaomfvnf; tjcm;tzJG@udk ajymifavSmifapmfum;jcif;rjzpfatmifowdðyyg? Ð tm;vHk;ajym=um;+yD;onfhtcgwGif tzJG@vdkuftcsif;csif; jyefvnfE_wfqufapjcif;/ ckeuvkyfaqmifcJhaom yHkpHrS oifwef;om;rsm;tcsif;csif; yHkpHrsKd;jzpfjzpfatmif rdrdwdk@vkyfaqmifcJhonfh Zmwfaumifrsm;p¶kdufrsm; jyefaysmufatmif jyefvkyfay;&efvdktyfonf? tcsif;csif; vufqJGE_wfqufapI acwWtem;ay;jcif;rsm;/ aysmf&$ifp&moDcsif; twlqdkjcif;rsm;vkyfEdkifonf? 42 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 42 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 43. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf o½kyazmfwifqufjcif; f (Using Role Play) vufawG@b0wGif jzpfysuvsu&aom tjzpftysursm;udk ajym f f dS f qdwifjyjcif;xuf o±kyazmfwifjyjcif;u vltrsm;pdw0ifpm;r_yrkd &&Sap k f f kd d aoma=umifh o±kyazmfwifqufrukd oifwef;yd@k csorsm; r=umc% toH;k f _ l ðyavh&Sdonf? xdkodk@wifquf&mwGif jzpfysufaeaomjyemrsm;udk trsm;odatmif wifqufjcif;omrubJ=unfh±_olrsm; pdwf0ifpm;r_udk t&,lI xdjk yemrsm;. t&if;jrpfrsm;ESihf ajz&Si;f Edirnfenf;vrf;rsm; kf h udk &SmazGEionf tpGr;f xufonfh ud&,mwckvjJ zpfonf? xd@k twlyif kd f d tu,fIrdrom xdtjzpftysursK;d &ifqióf uHawG@&rnfqygu b,fv&if d k f kd kd kd qdkifwkef@jyefrvJ[laom óudwifjyifqifr_rsm; pOf;pm;rdatmif o±kyfazmf wifqufr_udk ðyvkyfcdkif;avh&Sdonf? o±kyazmfwifquf&mwGif óudwifZmwfwuxm;aom Zmwfvrf; f kd f Zmwfuursm;twdi;f o±kyaqmifwifjyjcif; (Skit)ESihf óudwifZmwfwuf G f k f kd xm;jcif;r&SbJ oifwef;yd@k csou ajymjyaom tjzpftysutajctaeudk d l f ud,u,f wdicpm;I xdcpm;csutwdi;f o±kyaqmifjcif; (Role Play) k f kd kfH kH f k f [lI ESpfrsKd;&Sdonf? ZmwfwdkufI o±kyfaqmifjcif; (Skit) udkem;vnf atmif Oyrmay;&v#if tkyfpki,frsm;cJGI tzJG@vdkuf rdrdywf0ef;usifwGif trsm;qHk;jzpfysufaeaom trsKd;orD;rsm;tm; t=urf;zufr_qdkif&m ta=umif;t&mwckudka&G;I Zmwfvrf;wykfozG,f jyefvnfo±kyfazmf wifquf&jcif;jzpfonf? tzJ@G rsm;udk Zmwfwujf yifqifcsersm;ay;+yD; tzJ@G kd df vdkufwifqufonf? xdkwifqufr_rsm;udk=unfhI tjcm;olrsm;u bm Zmwfvrf;jzpfa=umif;/ bma=umifhtckvdkjzpfa=umif;/ b,fvdkwm;qD;I &Edkifa=umif; 0dkif;0ef;tajz&SmaqG;aEG;aponf? xdkodk@wifqufr_a=umifh =unf±orsm;taejzifh xdta=umif;t&mESihf ywfoufI A[kowrsm;&&Sd h_ l k k aponf? xdkodk@tcsdef,lZmwfwdkuf+yD; tjcm;olrsm;tm; jyefvnfo±kyf aqmifwifqufr_udk (Skit)[kac:onf? xdko±kyfaqmifwifqufr_onf b,fvdktqHk;owfrnfudk o±kyfaqmifolrsm;u óudwifjyifqifxm;+yD; b,ftcsdefwGif b,fvdktqHk;owf&rnfudk odem;vnfxm;+yD;jzpfonf? aemufwrsdK;rSm oifwef;ydk@csolu Zmwfwdkuf&eftcsdefray;bJ tajctaetjzpftysufwckudk ajymjyI rdrdonf xdktajctaewGif b,fvZmwfaumifae&mu yg0ifaeonfukd &Si;f jyonf? xdtajctae kd k wGif rdrdtaejzifh b,fvdkvkyfrvJqdk+yD; rdrdqENtwdkif;0ifa&mufo±kyf aqmifcdkif;onf? tjcm;Zmwfaumifrsm;uvJ olwdk@pdwfqENtwdkif; 0ifa&mufo±kyaqmif=uonf? Zmwfaumifrsm;tcsi;f csi;f b,fvo±kyf f kd aqmifrnfukd wdiyifxm;jcif;r&S/d rdrwOD;csi;f pdwqENjzifh 0ifa&mufo±kyf kf d f aqmifapjcif;udk (Role Play) [kac:onf? Oyrmjy&v#if Zmwfaumif wa,mufrmtjyifutvkyarmI yifyifyef;yef;jyefvmaom a,musm; S f f jzpfonf? tdrfjyefa&mufaomtcg rdef;ruxrif;rcsufbJ tdyfaeonf? rdrdtvGef agoxGufI rdef;rudkEkd;+ydD;±dkufonf? tjcm;ZmwfaumifrSm tdrfwGifaeraumif;I tdyfaeaomrdef;rjzpfonf? xrif;csuf&efvdkonf o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 43hre pack.pmd 43 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 44. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf ud k o d a omf v nf ; iS u f z sm;wuf a eI xrif ; rcsuf E d k i f / xd k t csd e f w G i f a,musm;u bmrSrar;bJ±uonfuc&onf? Dvjkd zpfv#ib,fvkd o±kyf f kd f kd H f aqmifrvJ[k ESpO;D pvH;k udo;D oef@ppOf;pm;cdi;f I xdpwu;l twdi;f o±kyf f k D k k d f k aqmifci;f jcif;onf (Role play) jzpfonf? kd xdtajctaersK;d wGif tjcm;olrsm;u rdrtay:b,fvwe@f jyefI k d kd k o±kyaqmifrnfukd rdru,wirodovdk xdZmwfvrf;b,fvkd tqH;k owf f d kd f kd f k oGm;rnfudkvJ rnfolrSrodyg? o±kyfaqmifolrsm;odonfhtcsufrSm xdktajctaersKd;wGif xdkodk@jzpfygu rdrdb,fvdkcHpm;rdovJqdkaom cHpm; csufom&Sdonf? xdkodk@o±kyfaqmifjcif;onf xdktajctaersKd;wGif rdrd a&mufygu rdrdb,fvdk pdwfxm;rsKd;&Sdwwfa=umif;/ b,fvdktcuftcJ tm;enf;csu&wwfa=umif; ud,uu,f pl;prf;avhvmoH;k oyfrapaom f dS k hf kd kd d enf;jzpfonf? Zmwf w d k u f I o±k y f a qmif w if j yjcif ; oifwef;tawmfrsm;rsm;wGif xdo@kd ZmwfwuIo±kyaqmifwif k kd f f jyjcif;udk enf;vrf;oH;k rsK;d jzifh trsm;qH;k toH;k ðyavh&onf udawG@&onf? dS k yxrwenf;rSm oifwef;om;rsm;aqG;aEG;cJonfh vl@tcGita&; h hf ta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifh ywfoufI wu,fhvufawG@ywf0ef;usifwGif b,fvtjzpftysursm; jzpfym;vsu&a=umif;udk aqG;aEG;&eftwGuf oif kd f G f dS wef;om;rsm;udk ta=umif;t&ma&G;cs,fcdkif;I wifjycdkif;jcif;jzpfonf? Oyrm-EdkifiHom;ESifh EdkifiHa&;tcGifhta&;rsm; trsm;tjym;&Sdonfhteuf rdrw@kd ywf0ef;usiwif rnfonftrsK;d tpm;rsm;udk trsm;qH;k csK;d azmufc& d f G h H a=umif;udk o±kyazmfwifjycdi;f jcif;jzpfonf? xdo@kd wifjycdi;f onftcgwif f k k k h G trSewu,fywf0ef;usiwif jzpfysuvsu&aom twif;t=uyfay:wm f f G f f dS cdi;f jcif;rsm;/ rw&m;zrf;qD;jcif;rsm;/ ESypufjcif;rsm;ponfjzifh tkypvuf k d f f k kd wifjyvmvdrrnf? xdrwqifh csKk ;d azmufoawGu b,fov/J bma=umifh hf kS l l olwdk@tckvdk csKd;azmufEdkifwmvJ/ vl@tcGifhta&;av;pm;wJh oltaeeJ@ bmvkyfEdkifrvJ[laom aemufqufwJGar;cGef;rsm;qufar;I oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuftwdkif; OD;aqmifvrf;jyac: aqmifoGm;Edkifonf? aemufwenf;rSm oifwef;om;rsm;aqG;aEG;cJhaomta=umif; t&mrsm;udk oifwef;om;rsm; b,favmuftxdem;vnfoabmayguf a=umif; jyefvnftuJjzwfEdkif&eftwGuf tkyfpkvdkufZmwfwdkuf o&kyf aqmifjyefvnf wifjyjcif;jzpfonf? Oyrm- pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra&;/ ,Ofaus;r_ _ tcGifhta&;rsm;udk avhvmt+yD;wGif xdktcGifhta&;rsm;tay: tpdk;& uav;pm;jcif;/ umuG,ay;jcif;/ jznfqnf;ay;jcif;wd@k b,fvysuuuf f h kd f G aea=umif; tkypktvdkufjyef vnfaqG;aEG;ap+yD; Zmwfwdkufo±kyfaqmif f apjcif;jzpfonf? xdo±kyaqmifI jyefvnfwifjycsursm;ud=k unfI tpd;k & k f f h .vl@tcGifhta&;av;pm;&ef wm0ef&Sdr_tay: oifwef;om;rsm;b,f avmuftxd em;vnfa=umif; tuJcwfavhvmEdkifonf? wwd,enf;rSm rdrdaqG;aEG;rnfhoifcef;pmESifhywfouf+yD; oif wef;om;rsm;. ywf0ef;usifwGiftjzpfrsm;aom vl@tcGifhta&;qdkif&m 44 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 44 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 45. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf ta=umif;t&mtjzpftysuf Zmwfvrf;wckua&G;cs,I oifwef;yd@k kd f csolrsm; odk@r[kwf oifwef;om;tcsKd@wdk@u óudwifZmwfwdkufI o±kyfaqmifjyjcif;jzpfonf? xdkyHkpHrsKd;wGif o±kyfaqmifwifjyr_rSm oifcef;pm.v_y&m;r_ ud&,mwckyjkH zpfom;onf? Oyrm - tdrwi;f fS d G f G t=urf;zufr_ESifh ywfoufIaqG;aEG;rnfh oifcef;pmwGif oifwef; csdefppcsif; óudwifZmwfwdkufjyifqifxm;aom o±kyfazmfwifquf r_jzifh pwifvdkufonf? xdkZmwfvrf;wGif tdrfwGifwaeukef tvkyf vkyfae&aomrdef;rudktjyifu t&ufrl;jyefvmaom a,mufsm;u tjypf&Sm±kdufonf? uav;rsm;utazESifh tarwdk@t=um;jzpfae aom tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_a=umifh idk,dkaeonf? ywf0ef;usifu xdkodk@jzpfonfudk róudufaomfvnf; igwdk@eJ@rqdkif[kqdkumbmrS 0ifrvkybvwxm;onf? xdo@kd wifjy+yD;ygu =unf±aom oifwef; f J $ f k h_ om;rsm;tm; ,ckZmwfvrf;wGif bmawGjzpfwmawG@&ovJ/ b,fvkd cHpm;&vJ/ trsKd;orD;taeeJ@ b,fvdkcHpm;&+yD;bmawGoufa&muf r_&rvJ/ uav;awGa&mb,fvcpm;&+yD; bmawGoufa&mufr&rvJ/ dS kd H _ dS ywf 0 ef ; usif u bmvd k @ 0if r qJ G w mvJ / vuf a wG @ rS m tck v d k t jzpf tysuawG óuHb;l ovm;? b,fvrsK;d enf;eJ@ wm;qD;EdirvJ/ ponf f kd kf jzifh pepfwusóudwifjyifqifxm;aom ar;cGe;f rsm;qufvufar;jref; um oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuftwdkif; a&mufatmifqJGac:oGm;Edkif onf? Zmwf w d k u f I o±k y f a qmif w if j y&mwG i f owd ð y&rnf h tcsuf r sm; Ð Twifqufr_udk tcsdef,lI jyifqifEdkifaoma=umifh wifqufrnfhZmwfvrf;onf rdrdjyifqifxm;onfh oifcef;pm. ta=umif;t&mESifh udkufnDr_&Sd&rnf? rdrdZmwfvrf;wGif rnfonfhtcsufrsm;yg0if&rnf/ Zmwfaumifb,fEpa,mufyg0if&rnf/ Zmwf0ifpum; b,fvajym&rnf/ t0iftxGuf b,fvvyrnf/ S f kd kd k f b,ftcsdefwGif Zmwfvrf;qHk;oifhonf ponfjzifh tao;pdwfjyifqif&rnf? Ð ,ckuo@kd o±kyaqmifjcif;onf tEkynmjzifh azsmajzjcif;r[kwonftwGuf ynmonftjzpfo±kyaqmif hJ f f f h f p&mrvdkbJ =unfh±_olrsm;udk owif;ay;Edkif&ef ydkrdk&nf&G,f&rnf? Ð rdrdwdk@wifqufrnfh ta=umif;t&mtjzpftysufonf tEkynm&Sifrsm;wifqufovdk ±_wfaxG;I Zmwfvrf;tvSnfhtajymif;rsm;vGef;jcif;r&Sdap&bJ rdrdwdk@wifjyvdkonfh t"du&nf&G,fcsufudk ±dk;±kd;&Sif; &Sif; vG,fvG,fulul oabmaygufEdkifaom Zmwfvrf;rsKd;jzpf&rnf? Ð Zmwfvrf;wckxJwGif vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_ ta=umif;t&maygif;pHkudk a&m¹yGef;xnfhxm;jcif;rsKd; r[kwfbJ rdrdrD;armif;xdk;wifjyvdkaom ta=umif;t&mwck odk@r[kwf tvGefqHk;ESpfckudkom aZmif;ay; wifjyoifhonf? Ð Zmwfvrf;wifquf&mwGif rvdktyfbJ pum;ajym&Snfvsm;jcif;/ rvdktyfaom ZmwfuGufrsm;xnfh xm;jcif;r&SdbJvdk&if;udk tcsdefwdkwdktwGif; xdxdrdrdwifjyEdkif&rnf? Ð Zmwfaumifrsm;a&G;cs,f&mwGif oifhavsmfaomolrsm;udk a&G;cs,fwwf&rnf? oifwef;om;rsm;xJrS apwemh0efxrf; o±kyfaqmif&ef zdwf=um;Edkifonf? oifwef;om;rsm; yg0ifr_&Sdatmif tm;ay;oifh onf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 45hre pack.pmd 45 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 46. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Ð wa,mufcsif;vkyfaqmif&rnfh tcef;u¾udk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;ajymjyyg/ Ð ta&;t}uD;qHk;rSm Zmwfvrf;udk tenf;qHk;wcg tptqHk;Zmwfwdkuf&efjzpfonf? Ð o±kyfaqmifwifquf&ef tqifhoifhjzpfygu oifwef;ydk@csolu tjcm;oifwef;om;rsm;tm; o±kyf aqmifwifqufr_Y bmawGvkyfaqmifoGm;onf/ bmta=umif;t&mudkwifjyoGm;onfudk aocsm *¶kwpdkuf =unfh¶_ avhvm&efajymyg? rdrdudk,fwdkifvnf; o±kyfaqmifr_udk aocsmapmifh=uyfay;yg? vdktyfv#if jyefvnfaqG;aEG;&eftwGuf tcsKd@aomo±kyfaqmifcsufrsm;udk rSwfpkpmtkyfwGifrSwfom; xm;yg? Ð tm;vHk;tqifoifhjzpfv#if o±kyfaqmifr_pwifyg? Ð o±kyfaqmifwifjyr_+yD;ygu o±kyfaqmifr_ESifh oifcef;pm&nf&G,fcsufrsm;udk qufpyfEdkifrnfh ar;cGef;rsm; udk tpDtpOfwusar;jref;yg? Ð tu,fI =unfh±_olrsm;xJrS oHk;oyfcsufonf rdrdwifjyvdkonfh &nf&G,fcsufESifhvJGaeygu jiif;qdkjcif; rðyygESifh/ bma=umifh ,ckuJhodk@,lqa=umif;ajymcdkif;I tjcm;olrsm;ua&m b,fvdkoHk;oyfovJ[k tm;vHk;aqG;aEG;Edkif&ef vrf;zGifhay;yg? óud w if Z mwf w d k u f x m;jcif ; r&S d b J tjzpf t ysuf w ck u d k cH p m;Io±k y f a qmif j cif ; (Role Play ) óudwifZmwfwdkufjcif;r&SdbJ oifwef;ydk@csolu tjzpftysufwckta=umif;t&mwckudkajymI rdrduZmwf aumifwaumiftaejzifh pdwful;&Sdovdko±kyfaqmifjcif;udk xdktajctaersKd;wGif rdrda&mufygu rdrdb,fvdk pdwfxm; rsdK;&Sdwwfa=umif;/ b,fvdkjyifqifoifha=umif;/ b,fvdk tcuftcJtm;enf;csufrsm;&Sdwwfa=umif; udk,fhudkudk,f pl;prf;avhvmoH;k oyfrap&ef toH;k ðyavh&onf? xdtajctaersK;d xJwiyg0ifywfoufaeaom olwa,mufom rdrjd zpf d dS k Gf ygu rdrdwGifbmawGvdktyfa=umif;/ tjcm;olrsm;u rdrdtay:b,fvdkjrifwwfa=umif;rsm;udk rdrdudk,frdrdavhvmEdkif ap&eftwGuf Tenf;onf txl;aumif;rGeftoHk;0ifaom enf;jzpfonf? Tenf;udk yHptrsK;d rsKd ;ESihf toH;k ðyEdionf? wDxizefw;D r_tvduf toGitrsKd ;rsKd ;jziftoH;k ðyavh&onf? tcsK@d kH kf Gf k f h dS aom Ediirsm;wGif Tenf;udk jynfo@l jyZmwf (People Theater) [laomtrnfjzifh vl@tcGita&;ynmay;&mwGif kfH hf atmifjrifpGm toHk;ðyvsuf&Sdonf? óudwifjyifqifxm;aom Zmwfvrf;wckudk o±kyfaqmifrsm;u wifqufaepOf Zmwfvrf;wae&mod@k a&mufygu acwW&yfwvu+f yD; y&dowfrsm;xJrS vlrsm;udzwac:um Zmwfvrf;udk b,fvquf Hh kd kd f kd oGm;oifhovJar;jref;um y&dowfudk,f wdkifZmwfvrf;wGif 0ifa&mufo±kyfaqmifapjcif;/ wOD;rSESpfOD;/ ESpfOD;rSoHk;OD; wjznf;jznf;vlO;D a&wdk;vmum ta=umif;t&m ajz&Sif;csufaygif;pHkjzifh Zmwfvrf;udk qufoGm;aomenf;jzifh vlxkyg 0ifr_&Sdapaom o±kyfaqmifjyZmwfyHkpHjzifh ynmay;jcif;onf zdvpfydkifEdkifiHwGif txl;a&yef;pm;vsuf&Sdonf? rdrdwdk@vl@tcGifhta&;oifwef;wGif xdkr#avmuf rvkyfEdkifaomfvnf; toHk;ðyrsm;aomenf;vrf;wck&Sdonf? xdenf;rSm rsuEmcsi;f qkiajymjcif; qdaomenf;vrf;jzpfonf? rdrt,ltqudk jyifywGixwazmfajym&ef tcGitvrf; k fS df k d f k f hf r&Sdolrsm;/ udk,hft,ltqudkwifjy&mwGif tm;enf;aomolrsm;taejzifh tjcm;olwa,muf rdrdzufodk@ygvmatmif qJaqmifpnf;±H;k &mwGif owdxm;oifonftcsursm;udk ud,wi&mazGawG@&Ei&eftwGuf Tenf;vrf;udk toH;k ðyEdif G h h f k f kd f S dS kd f k onf? rsuf E S m csif ; qk d i f a jymjcif ; enf ; oH k ; &mwG i f vk y f a qmif & ef t qif h r sm; Ð oifwef;om;rsm;udk vdkif;ESpfvdkif;cJGI rsufESmcsif;qdkifESpfa,mufwwJG &yfcdkif;yg? Ð vdi;wvdi;udk vdi;(u) ESihf aemufvi;wvdi;udk (c) owfrwyg? kf kf kf kd f kf S f Ð vdkif;wvdkif;pDudk ZmwfaumifwrsKd;pDta=umif;ajymI xdkZmwfaumif.pdwfoGif;cdkif;yg? Oyrm vdkif;(u)onf EdkifiHa&;tzJG@tpnf;. trsKd;orD;tzJG@0ifjzpfonf? trsdK;orD;tcGifhta&;oifwef;rsm; 46 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 46 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 47. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf wuft+yD; uk,uu,,=kH unfpwrsm;&Svmonf? tzJ@G tpnf;wGif trsKd ;orD;rsm;tcGita&;ESihf ywfouf d fh kd kd f d f d hf Ivkyief;topfrsm;vkycsionf? od@k aomftzJ@G tpnf;acgi;f aqmiftrsK;d om;onf trsK;d orD;tzJ@G 0ifrsm;udk f f f bmrSwm0efrray;bJ ±k;H oef@&i;f a&;avmufom apcdi;f avh&onf? xd@k a=umifh xdacgi;f aqmifxH oifvyvkd S S k dS k k f aom trsK;d orD;pGr;f &nfjr‡itvkyrsm; vkyaqmifciay;&efom;ajym&rnf? oifb,fvajymrvJ? vdi;f (c)onf hf f f G hf G kd k EdkifiHa&;tzJG@. acgif;aqmifwa,mufjzpfonf? oifvkyfcJhaomvkyfief;rsm;wGif trsKd;orD;rsm; wa,mufrS rygbJ trsK;d om;rsm;oufoufomOD;aqmifvyconf? oifu,wiu trsK;d orD;rsm;. vkyaqmifEirukd k f hJ kd f kd f f kd f _ r,H=k unf/ trsK;d orD;rsm;tm; ta&;}uD;onfh bmwm0efrray;vd/k oifxo@kd trsK;d orD; tzJ@G 0ifwa,mufu S h H olrudk trsK;d orD;jr‡iwifa&;vkyief;rsm; vkyuiciay;&efvma&mufajymqdonf? oifb,fvkd qufqrvJ? hf f f kd f G hf k H Ð xdkvdkif;ESpfvdkif;pvHk;rSolrsm;udk b,fvdkajymqdkrvJ tcsdefay;I pOf;pm;cdkif;yg? Ð tqifoihfjzpf+yDqdkygu pwifIajymygap/ Ð oifwef;ydk@csoltaeESifh twJGwwJGtem;wGif&yfI em;axmifjcif;rvkyfbJ tm;vHk;udkvdkufItuJcwfyg? tu,fI twJGvdkufajym=um;r_rsm; avoHavsmhoGm;+yD; &yfoifh+yD[k,lqygu &yfckdif;yg? Ð oGm;a&mufajymqdkonfh vdkif;(u)rSvlrsm;tm; b,fvdkcHpm;&vJ/ bma=umifhtckvdkcHpm;&ovJar;yg? tm;vHk;tm±kHpl;pdkuf em;axmifygap/ wa,mufrusefajymEdkifatmif vrf;zGifhay;yg? Ð xdk@aemuf vdkif;(c)rSvlrsm;udk vmajymaom vdkif;(u)rSolrsm;uaeI olwdk@pdwfajymif;csifatmif vkyfoGm; Edkifaomtrlt,m/ tajymtqdk/ csOf;uyfr_rsm;udkar;I rSwfwrf;wifygonf? Ð xd@k aemuf b,ftrlt,m/ tajymtqd/k csO;uyfrrsm;u aumif;rGeaomyHprsm; r[kwb;vJ[k ar;jref;I f _ f k H f l oifykef;wGif rSwfwrf;wifygonf? Ð xdk@aemuf vdkif;(u)rSvlrsm;udk vdkif;(c)tjzpf/ vdkif;(c)rSvlrsm;udk vdkif;(u)tjzpfajymif;vJI ,cifvkyfcJh onftqiftwdi;f jyefom;ygonf? xGuay:vmaom tcsutopfrsm;udk oifye;f wGirwwrf;wifygonf? h h k G f f k f S f Ð vdkif;ESpfvdkif;vHk;+yD;ygu tm;vHk;oifykef;wGifa&;xm;aom aumif;onfhtcsufrsm;ESifh raumif;onfhtcsuf rsm;udk 0dkif;0ef;avhvmI aqG;aEG;ygonf? Ð vufawG@b0wGia&m ,ckvtjzpfrsK;óuHb;vm;/ ud,taeeJ@bmawGtcuftcJ&cvJ ar;cGe;rsm;udar;ygonf? f kd d l k hf dS hJ f k Ð xdkrSwfwrf;rsm;uudk,fhudk bmoifcef;pmay;aeovJ qdkaomar;cGef;ar;I rdrdudk,frdrd jyefvnfoHk;oyfjcif; jzifhtqHk;owfEdkifygonf? owdðy&ef oifwef;ydk@csoltaejzifh vdkif;ESpfvkdif;tm; owfrSwfay;&rnfh Zmwfaumifrsm;ESifh ZmwfuGuftaetxm; wdk@udk aoaocsmcsmjyifqifxm;&rnf? vdkif;(u)onf b,foljzpfonf? vdkif;(c)onfb,foljzpfonf? olwdk@ b,fvdktajctaersKd;rSm awG@=uonfqdkaomtcsufrsm;udk vlwdkif;aoaocsmcsm em;vnfatmifajymjy+yD; tcsdef ,lI jyifqifEdkifatmifvkyfyg? Oyrmtaejzifh Ð tdrfwGif;r_udk orD;rdef;uav;uomvkyf&rnf[k ajymaeaomzcifESifh trsKd;orD;tcGifhta&;ta=umif; oifwef;wufxm;aomorD;/ Ð trsKd;orD;qdkwmAdkif;aumif;ausmufzdae&r,f[k vufcHxm;aomvl}uD;ESifh trsKd;orD;tcGifhta&;v_yf &Sm;aeol trsKd;om;/ Ð uav;tm;±kdufESufaeaomrdbrsm;ESifh wm;qD;aeaom aqGrsKd;/ tdrfeD;em;csif;/ Ð zdESdyfaomtvkyf&SifESifh tcGifhta&;awmif;qkdaom tvkyform;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;/ Ð jrefrmEkdifiHwGif pD;yGm;a&;vkyfaeaom pD;yGm;a&;orm;ESifh Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;/ o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 47hre pack.pmd 47 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 48. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Ð &cdkifjynfwGif a&eHwGif;vkyfaeaom ukr`%Drsm;ESifh csKd;azmufcH&Gmom;rsm;/ Ð trsKd;orD;rsm;. udkwmpepfudk vufrcHaomolrsm;ESifh oGm;a&mufpnf;±kH;olrsm;/ Ð yg0gcGJa0r_r&Sdaom acgif;aqmifESifhtzGJ@0ifrsm;/ Ð trsKd;orD;rsm;tm; weff;wlynmroifoifh[k ,lqaomolrsm;ESifh pnf;±kH;aomolrsm;/ Ð vdkif;ESpfvdkif;udk rsufESmcsif;qdkifajym&mwGif xdkifIrajymapbJ rwfwyf&yfI ajymapjcif;jzifh ydkrdkpdwfwuf ºuGaponf? tu,fI xdkifajymrnfqdkygu tm;vHk;oufawmifhoufomjzifh at;aq;oGm;+yD; rdrdt,l tqudkwifjy&mwGif tm;&Sdawmhrnfr[kwfyg? Ð ajym=um;onfhtcsdefudk owfrSwfray;ygESifh/ oifwef;ydk@csoltaejzifh vdkufvHavhvm+yD; tu,fItjyef tvSefajym=um;aeolrsm; avoHavsmhoGm;ygu odk@r[kwf ajymaeonfhtwJGrsm; ajymp&mpum;rsm; ukefoGm;ygu odk@r[kwf twJGawmfawmfrsm;rsm;u ajz&Sif;csuf&oGm;ygu ajymcdkif;jcif;udk &yfwef@Edkifonf? tcsdeftwdtus owfrSwfay;&efrvdkyg? Ð Tv_yf&Sm;r_onf rdrdwifjyvdkonfht&mudk cdkifcdkifrmrmwifjyEdkif&ef avhusifhaomv_yf&Sm;r_vJjzpfonfh twGuf rdrdoGm;a&mufajymqdkwifjyr_udk tjcm;olvufcHatmifb,fvdkajymrvJ[lI óudwifjyifqif&ef tm;ay;oifhonf? Ð tu,fI vdkif;ESpfvdkif;pvHk;ajym+yD;oGm;ygu ar;cGef;rsm;qufroGm;cif wzufESifhwzuftjyeftvSefvuf qJEwqufap+yD; &if;ES;D r_rsm;udk jyefvnfwnfaqmufyg? tcsK@d vrsm;onf rdro±kyaqmif&onfh Zmwfaumif G_ f l d f p±kdufudk azsmufypf&efarhaewwfonf? 48 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 48 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 49. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf tkypi,fcjJG cif; f k (Using Small Group) tkyfpki,frsm;cJGI aqG;aEG;apaomenf;udk oif=um;ydk@csr_enf; vrf;rsm;wGif toH;k trsm;qH;k enf;[kqEionf? xdenf;udo;kH &ef vG,ul kd kd f k k f ovdtjcm;rnfonfh taxmuftulypPn;f rsm;rSrvdojzifh r=umc%qdk k k ovdktoHk;ðyavh&Sdonf? Tenf;onfvG,fulaomfvnf; oifwef;om;rsm;twGuf tusKd;&Sdapaomenf;jzpfonf? txl;ojzifh oifwef;wufonfhtawG@ tóuHenf;aomolrsm;/ vltrsm;a&SwixuI rdrt,ltqudwifjy&ef › Gf G f d k tcuftcJ&orsm;twGuf tkypi,frsm;cJI aqG;aEG;apjcif;onf tvGef dS l fk G tusKd;&Sdonf? tkyfpktwGif; vlOD;a&enf;enf;om&Sdojzifh vltrsm; a&Swiajymonfxuf ydr&wif;r_&aponf? xdrwqifh wjznf;jznf;csi;f › Gf k kd J dS kS trsm;a&Swif ajym&Jq&&onftxd ,H=k unfrw;kd vmatmifvyaqmif › G kd J dS _ k f oGm;Edkifonf? tkypi,ftwGi;f ydryivif;pGmajymwwfvmojzifh tcsi;f csi;f f k k kd G hf tjyeftvSef avhvmwwfaom tavhtusiwckukd wjznf;jznf;rdwf hf qufay;&ma&mufaponf? tjyeftvSeajymqdjk cif; &SvmonftwGuf f d h a=umifh tm±Hp;l pduem;axmifryrsm;vmonf? xd@k twGua=umifh tjyef k k f _ kd f tvSeftm;ay;ulnDr_rsm;vnf; tm;aumif;vmonfudkawG@&onf? tkyfpkvdkufpdwfxm;rsKd; wnfaqmufvmEdkifjcif;a=umifh oifwef;om; rsm;tcsif;csif; &if;ESD;,Hk=unfr_ukdvnf;wdk;vmaponf? tzJG@}uD;wGifjyefvnfrwifjycif tzJG@vdkufaqG;aEG;wifjy&onfh twGuf tcsif;csif;ulnDr_/ owday;r_/ tm;ay;r_rsm;tvdkvdkwnf aqmuf+yD;om;jzpfoGm;onf? pkaygif;vkyfaqmifr_/ pkaygif;wm0efcHr_/ pkaygi;f wm0ef,rqonfh tzJ@G tpnf;pdw"gwrsm; aumif;rGew;kd wufap l _ kd f f f onf? tk y f p k i ,f r sm;cJ G & mwG i f owd ð yoif h a omtcsuf r sm; Ð tkypz@JG &mwGif oifwef;om;ta&twGut& tkypcEiaomfvnf; f k f f k JG kd f trsm;qkH; (5)a,mufxuf rykdap&yg? Ð tkyfpktwGif; vlOD;a&enf;jcif;tm;jzifh qH;k jzwfcsufjrefjrefcsEdkifovdk vlOD;a&rsm;onfhtcgwGif ydkrdkaumif;rGefonfh t,ltqrsm;rsm;xGuf Edkifa=umif; oabmaygufyg? Ð tkypuc&mwGif wpf/ ESp/f oH;k / av; tpOfvua&wGuI cJEiovdk f k kd GJ kd f f G kd f v_yf&Sm;r_enf;upm;jcif;(Oyrm- oabFmom;*drf;)/ vtvdkuf/ ae@tvkduf/ arG;ae@tvdkuf tp&Sdonfjzifh enf;aygif;pkHokH;IcJGyg? odk@rSomoifwef;om;rsm;ydkrdkpdwf0ifpm;wufºuGaprnf? Ð tu,fI tkyfpkrsm;twGif;wGif ae&maorwlaomolrsm;/ vlrsKd; rwlaomolrsm;/ t,ltquJjG ym;aomolrsm;/ usm;-r vdirwlaom f olrsm; aygi;f pHyg0ifapvdygu xdo@kd jzpfatmifb,fvcrnfukd óudwif k k k kd GJ jyifqifawG;xm;yg? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 49hre pack.pmd 49 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 50. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Ð tkyfpki,frsm;twGif;wGif rwlnDaomolrsm; pkaygif;yg0ifEdkifygu taumif;qH;k jzpfonf? usm;/ r ta&twGuwnEi&ef txl;óud;pm; f l D kd f yg? pum;ajymenf;oltrsK;d orD;tm; trsK;d om;rsm;oufoufygaom tzJG@wGifyg0ifapygu xdktrsKd;orD;onf ajymcGifh&Sdrnfr[kwfovdk ,Hk=unfcsufvnf; wdk;vmvdrfhrnfr[kwfyg? Ð jzpfEiygu tkypwpkxwif tm;vH;k yg0ifrukd tm;ay;/ xde;f ay;Edif kd f f k J G _ k aomolwOD;pDyg0ifatmif cJay;Ediv#itaumif;qH;k jzpfonf? tu,f G kf f Ioifwef;ydk@csolrsm; wOD;xufydkaeygu wOD;v#ifwtkyfpkpDwm0ef ,lI tm;vHk;yg0ifEdkifatmif owday;xdef;ausmif;&ef wm0efay;oifh onf? Ð tu,fI oifwef;ydk@csolonf wOD;xJjzpfaeygu tzJG@tm;vHk;. aqG;aEG;csursm;udk tuJcwfEiaomae&mrSavhvmjcif;/ tzJ@G wckcsi;f f kd f pDodk@ vSnhfvnftuJcwfjcif;vkyfEkdifonf? odk@aomf wzJG@xJwGifom xdkifI aqG;aEG;aejcif;rsKd;udka&Smifyg? rdrdt,ltqu xdktzJG@tay: v$r;f rd;k oGm;Ediovdk tjcm;tzJ@G rsm;uvnf; rsuEmvduonf[,q kf fS k f k l oGm;Ekdifonf? Ð tkyfpki,frsm;cJG+yD;rS !Gef=um;csufrsm;ay;jcif;jzifh oifwef;om;rsm; ydkrdktm±Hkpl;pdkufEdkifonf? vkyf&rnfhwm0efrsm;udk ydkrdkoabmaygufap onf? xd@k a=umifh tkypi,frsm;udt&ifc+GJ yD;rS !Ge=f um;csursm;ay;jcif; fk k f udkvkyfaqmifoifhonf? Ð !$ef=um;csufrsm;udkay;&mwGif &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;jzpfap&efowdðyyg/ tqifhvdkufay;ygu ydkrdk&Sif;vif;Edkifonf? Ð tkyfpki,frsm;cJGI aqG;aEG;ap&mwGif acgif;pOfrsm;onf vlwdkif;yg0if aqG;aEG;Ediaom acgi;f pOfrsm;jzpfoifonf? txl;ojzifh ppcsi;f aqG;aEG; kf h aomacgif;pOfrsKd;onf oifwef;om;wdkif;tcuftcJr&Sd tvG,fwul aqG;aEG;Edkifaom acgif;pOfjzpf&rnf? odk@aomf aqG;aEG;p&mraumif; avmufatmif/ ysif;&dp&maumif;onfhacgif;pOfrsKd;vJrjzpfap&? Ð vdtyfygu aqG;aEG;&rnfacgi;f pOfrsm;/ tqifrsm;udk oifye;f wGia&; k h h k f om;ygu ydktqifajyEdkifonf? Ð tvG,wulaqG;aEG;Ediaom acgi;f pOfrsK;d ESipwif+yD; wjznf;jznf;ydrkd f kf hf k eufeaom acgi;f pOfrsm;/ tvG,wultajz&SmIr&aom acgi;f pOfrsm; J f od@k OD;aqmifac:oGm;&rnf? ppcsi;f aqG;aEG;onfacgi;f pOfonf tvGef h xdvG,f&SvG,faom acgif;pOfrsKd;rjzpf&ef txl;owdðyyg? Ð tkypvuajymqdjk cif;udk ppcsi;f vkyaqmifonfh oifwef;rsKd ;jzpfygu f k kd f f tkyfpkvdkufrcJGcif ESpfOD;csif;ajymqdkapaomenf;udk yxrusifhoHk;oifh onf? aemufrSom vlOD;a&udk wjznf;jznf;csif; wdk;csJ@oGm;Edkifonf? Ð tkypvuaqG;aEG;&mwGif pum;t+rJajymol/ ud,uu,,=kH unfr_ f k kd f k hf kd kd f rsm;olw@kd uom vïr;f rd;k jcif;r&Satmif owdðyapmif=h uyfay;yg? vdtyf d k ygu wOD;v#if rjzpfraeajym&rnfh tcsdefuef@owfay;Edkifonf? Ð aqG;aEG;aecsef &nf&,csuvrf;a=umif; ajymif;oGm;r_ &S/d r&Sd apmif=h uyf d G f f ay;yg? Ð tkyfpkwGifyg0ifolrsm;ukdwpfa,mufESifh wa,mufodyfpum;rajym/ r&if;ES;D ao;aomolrsm;ESihf wtkypxjJ zpf&ef pDpOfay;jcif;jzifh &if;ES;D r_ f k 50 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 50 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 51. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf ydkrdk&&Sdvmaponf? Ð aqG;aEG;&eftcseowfrway;yg? tu,fIaqG;aEG;r_t&Seaumif;aeyg df S f df u vdktyfovdk xyfwdk;ay;&eftoifh&Sdyg? tcsdeft"dur[kwfaom aqG;aEG;r_rsm;twGuf aqG;aEG;r_tm;aumif;vmygu vdktyfv#if tcsdefudkwkd;ay;oifhonf? Ð tcsdeftwdtusvkyfaqmif&rnfh wm0efrsm;jzpfygu usef&Sdaeaom tcsef b,favmufuseao;onfukd r=umc%owday;yg? (Oyrm- d f aemufqHk; ig;rdepf/ wpfrdepfponfjzifh) Ð tjcm;tzJG@rsm;xufapmI aqG;aEG;r_+yD;oGm;aomtzJG@&Sdygu tjcm; aomtzG@J rsm;udtaESmuft,Surjzpfatmifxe;f ay;yg? useaeaom k f d f tcsufrsm;udk qufaqG;aEG;&ef vrf;a=umif;ay;yg? Ð tzJ@G vuaqG;aEG;r_+yD;ygu tkyp}k uD;wGijf yefvnf0i;f xdiapI tm;vH;k kd f f kd k f tqifhoifhjzpfygu tzJG@vdkufjyefwifjy&efcGifhðyyg? Ð jyefvnfwifjy&mwGif (acgi;f pOfrsm;rwlygu)tjcm;tzG@J rsm;rS jznfpuf hG Edkif&ef vrf;zGifhay;yg? Ð jyefvnfwifjy&mwGif aqG;aEG;aomacgi;f pOfwaeygu wzG@J v#iwcsuf l f csi;f tvSnusajymygap? xdo@kd ajymapjcif;jzifh wzJ@G ajymaepOf tjcm; hf k tzJ@G rsm;+iD;aiG@jcif;udk a&Smif&m;Edirnf? wzG@J rS wifjyoGm;aomtcsuf S kf udkuseftzGJ@rSxyfajymp&mrvdka=umif;ajymyg? ‚if;tzGJ@ESifhrwlaom tcsufudk ajymygap? Ð tu,fI jyefvnfwifjy&ef tcservHavmufygu tzJ@G vua&;om; df k kd f xm;aompm&Gufrsm;udk tcef;wGif;wGifuyfapI useftzJG@rsm;tae jzifh tjcm;bmrsm; jznhfpGufp&mvdkao;a=umif; ar;Edkifonf? Ð tzJG@udk,fpm;jyefwifjyaomolrsm;udk oifwef;wavsmufvHk; xdkolrsm;omrjzpfapbJ tkyfpk}uD;wGifwcgrSrwifjybl;ao;olrsm; wifjyvmap&ef tm;ay;yg? owday;yg? wm0efay;yg? Ð xdkolrsm;wifjyvmonfhtcg tm;ay;csD;usL;r_rsm; ðyvkyfyg? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 51hre pack.pmd 51 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 52. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf ½kyyrsm;toH;k jyKjcif; f kH (Using Picture and Drawing) vlxkt=um; vl@tcGifhta&;ynmay;&mwGif tpGrf;xufaom oif=um;r_taxmuftul ud&d,mwckrSm±kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;jzpfonf? ±kyfyHkrsm;onf pum;vHk;aygif;w&mxuf ydkajymEdkifonfqdkaom pum; twdi;f ±kyyrsm;onf vl@tcGita&;csK;d azmufc&r_rsm;/ vl@tcGitvrf; k f kH hf H hf ar#mre;f awmifwr_rsm;/ cHpm;csursm;/ b0trsK;d rsK;d wd@k ukd ajymjyaewwf f S h f +yD; =unfh±_olrsm;. ESvHk;om;xJtxd cHpm;csufrsm;jzpfxGef;aponf? ±kyfyHkrsm;=unfh±_apjcif;jzifh oifwef;om;rsm;. pdwf0ifpm;r_rsm;jzpfay: ap+yD; wufºuGonfh aqG;aEG;csursm; jzpfay:vmapEdi.? oifcef;pmESihf f kf qufpyfonfh±kyfyHkrsm;udk a&G;cs,ftoHk;ðyEdkifrnfqdkygu oifcef;pm. &nf&,csuukd rvJraoG&&Saprnfjzpfonf? ±kyyrsm;toH;k ðyrnfqygu G f f G d f kH kd owdðyoifhonfh tcsufrsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf? Ð ±kyyrsm;uda&G;cs,&mwGif rdroifcef;pm&nf&,csuEihf udunaom f kH k f d G f fS k f D yHkrsm;tm;a&G;cs,f&ef txl;ta&;}uD;onf? xdkyHkrsm;xJwGif tjcm; ta=umif;t&mrsm; yg0ifEdkifaumif;yg0ifEdkifrnfjzpfaomfvJ oifcef; pm&nf&,csuEihf udunonfh t"duta=umif;tcsursm;rSm yHwif G f fS k f D f k G xif&m;pGmay:aeoifonf? jzpfEiv#if ta=umif;t&mwckxuom S h dk f J kd rD;armif;xdk;azmfjyxm;aom yHkrsm;jzpfoifhonf? Ð ±kyyrsm;toH;k ðyrnfqygu xdyrsm;onf =unf±rnforsm; &Si;f &Si;f f kH kd k kH h _ h l vif;vif; jywfjywfom;om; jrifEirnfyrsm;jzpf&rnf? rxifr&Sm;ESihf kd f h kH roJruJre0g;aeaom yHrsm;jzpfygu oifwef;om;rsm;. pdw0ifpm;r_ G_f k f r&&SEiovdk rdr&nf&,csursm;ESihf uGvaomwke@f jyefrrsm; xGuvm d kd f d G f f J GJ _ f apEdkifonf? Ð tu,fI rdrd&nf&G,fxm;onfh ta=umif;t&mr[kwfbJ tjcm; ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk oifwef;om;rsm;u wkef@jyefajymqkdvmygu r[kwfbl;[krajymygESifh/ xdkyHkrsm;wGifjrifaomtjrifrsm;/ t,ltq rsm;rSm =unfhaomol. udk,fydkiftjrifrsm;/ t,ltqrsm;jzpfonfh twGuf jiif;y,fjcif;rvkyfygESifh? aemufxyf bmawGjrifao;vJ[lI rdrd&nf&G,fcsufrsm;twdkif;xGufay:vmap&ef vrf;zGifhar;cGef;rsm; qufar;yg? Ð tkyp}k uD;wGio;kH aom±kyyonf vltm;vH;k jrifEionfh t&G,tpm; f f f kH kd f f jzpf&efvovkd tkypi,fwif oH;k aomyHrsm;rSmvJ tkypi,ftwGi;f &Sd kd f k G k f k vlrsm; tm;vHk;jrifEdkifonfh t&G,ftpm;&Sd&rnf? Ð tu,fI tjcm;olrsm;a&;qJGxm;aom yef;csDum;rsm;/ ydkpwmrsm; jzpfygu rnfola&;qJGonfhyHkjzpfa=umif; today;oifhonf? Ð oifwef;om;rsm;ajz=um;aom wke@f jyefrtajzrsm;xJwif rdr&nfre;f _ G d S xm;onfh oifcef;pm.&nf&G,fcsufESifhqufpyfonfh tajzxGufay: vmygu xdktcsufudk trdt&qkwfudkif+yD; a&S›qufIaemufqufwJG ar;cGef;rsm;ar;yg? Ð tjcm;aomtcsufrsm;rSm ta&;}uD;aomfvnf; ,ckoifcef;pmwGif Ttcsufudk tao;pdwfaqG;aEG;oGm;rnfjzpfa=umif; today;yg/ 52 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 52 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 53. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf useftcsufrsm;wifjyonfholrsm;udk vspfvsL±_rjypfy,fygESifh/ xdkodk@ wifjyonfhtwGuf av;pm;a=umif;todtrSwfðyay;yg? Ð tkypi,frsm;cJIrwlnaomyHrsm;ay;+yD; aqG;aEG;cdi;f ygu xdytay: f k G D k k k kH tzJ@G vuawG@&csu/f cHpm;&csursm;udk tzJ@G }uD;wGijf yefvnf wifjyEdif kd f dS f k &ef tcGifhtvrf;ay;yg? xdkodk@ tkyfpkvdkufwifjyaecsdefwGif xdktkyfpk =unfcaomyHutjcm;tzJ@G rsm;uvnf; jrifEiatmif uyfxm;ay;yg? h hJ k kd kd f Ð tkypvuwifjy+yD;ygu useaomolrsm;u bmawGjrifawG@+yD; b,f f k kd f f vdcpm;&a=umif; xkwazmfajymqd&ef tcGivrf;ay;yg? wifjyvmap kH f k hf &eftm;ay;yg? tu,fIxdtypwifjycsuwif ta&;}uD;onftcsuf k kfk f G h useaeygu useaeaomtzJ@G 0ifrsm;u bmawGxyfjznfpuvao;vJ f f h G f kd xyfar;yg? Ð wcgw&HwGif vl@tcGifhta&; csKd;azmufcHae&aom yHkrsm;oufouf omr[kwfbJ csKd;azmuf cH&aomyHkrsm;ESifh vl@tcGifhta&;cHpm;ae& aomyHrsm; ESprsK;d pvH;k udtyptvducIjyEdionf? xdo@kd jyrnfqyg k f k k f k k f GJ k f k kd u aumif;usK;d / qd;k usK;d rsm;udk oifye;f wGiaumfvcI rSwwrf;wif k f H GJ f a&;om;jcif;jzifh oifwef;om;rsm;ydkrdk&Sif;vif;pGm oabmaygufEdkif onf? Oyrm- vrf;ray:wGitvkyvyae&aom uav;vkytm;ap f f k f f cdkif;r_ESifh aysmf&$ifpGm upm;aeaom uav;rsm;yHk ESpfrsKd;jzpfonf? ±k y f y H k r sm;toH k ; ðyjcif ; tqif h q if h Ð oifcef;pm&nf&G,fcsufudk ay:vGifaponfh ±kyfyHkrsm;udk t&ifqHk;pk aqmif;jyifqifyg? Ð oifwef;om;rsm;udk ppcsif; tkyfpki,frsm;cJGyg? Ð oifwef;om;rsm;taejzifh ±kyyrsm;udk =unf=h u&rnfjzpf+yD; xdyrsm;xJ f kH k kH wGif bmawGjzpfysuaeonf/ bmta=umif;t&mrsm;yg0ifonf/ xdyrsK;d f k kH ud=k unf&Ib,fvcpm;&onfw@kd ukd aqG;aEG;&ef!$ef=um;csufay;yg? h kd H Ð jyifqifxm;aomyHkrsm;udk jzef@a0yg? Ð vdktyfygu tcsdefowfrSwfay;yg? Ð jzpfEdkifyguoifwef;ydk@csolrsm; tkyfpki,fwckpDtwGif; em; axmifIvrf;!$efay;Edkifv#ifaumif;onf? Ð wOD;wnf;jzpfygu !$ef=um;csufrsm;udk oabmaygufrayguf aqG;aEG;r_rsm;vrf;a=umif;twdkif; [kwfr[kwf vSnfhvnfI em;pGifhEdkifonf? wzJG@xJwGif0ifxdkifjcif;rsKd;a&Smifyg? Ð tcseaphom;ygu od@k r[kwf aqG;aEG;r_+yD;oGm;+yD,qyg u tkypk df G l f }uD;wGifjyefxdkifcdkif;yg? Ð tzJ@G vuawG@&csu/f cHpm;csursm;wifjyap+yD; wifjypOf xdyrsm; kd f dS f k kH udk tm;vHk;jrifatmifuyfxm;yg? Ð wifjy+yD;ygu tjcm;jznfhpGufcsifp&mrsm;&SdygujznfhpGuf&ef vrf;zGifhay;yg? Ð wifjycsursm;tESpcsKyf txl;ojzifh rdr&nf&,csuEihf udunD f f d G f fS k f onfhtcsufrsm;udk oifykef;wGifrSwfwrf;wifyg? Ð xdtcsursm;udk rD;armif;xd;k jyI oifcef;pmudk qufvufom;yg? k f G o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 53hre pack.pmd 53 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 54. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf usefaeaom tzJG@0ifrsm;u bmawGxyfjznfhpGufvdkao;vJxyf ar;yg? AD,Eihf ½ky&iZmwfvrf;rsm; G D kd S f S f (Using Video) oifwef;yd@k csrenf;rsm;xJwif aemufxyftoH;k 0ifaom ud&,mwckrm AD,kd od@k r[kwf ±ky±irsm;jzpfonf? _ G d S D f Sf omref±yyrsm;xuf toHEihf v_y&m;r_rsm;yg0ifonftwGuf =unf±@_ aomolrsm;udk ydrpw0ifpm;aponf? od@k &mwGif k f kH S f S h h k kd d f tm;enf;csufrSm jyo&eftwGuf vdktyfaomypPnf;rsm;udk ae&mwdkif;wGif tvG,fwulr&Edkifjcif;yifjzpfonf? AD D , d k ±k y f & S i f r sm;toH k ; ðy&mwG i f owd ð y&rnf h t csuf r sm; Ð oifwef;yd@k csotaeESihf rdrwifjyvdaom ta=umif;t&mESihf udunr&aom Ad,kd ±ky&irsm;udók udwifa&G; l d k k f D _ dS D f Sf cs,fxm;&efvdkonf? rdrdudk,fwdkifu óudwif=unfh±_@xm;+yD; Zmwfvrf;ausm±kd;udk oabmayguf+yD;om;jzpf& rnf? Ð AD,kd ±ky&irjyrDf TZmwfvrf;onf bmta=umif;udk ±dujf yxm;a=umif;/ vdtyfv#iZmwfvrf;. aemufcH D f Sf k k f ordkif; tusOf;csKyft&ifajymjy&rnf? Ð Zmwfum;wGif toHk;ðyaombmomonf tm;vHk;em;vnfEdkifaom bmompum;jzpf&efta&;}uD;onf? tu,fI oifwef;om;rsm; em;rvnfonfbmompum;jzpfygu bmomjyefay;&efvtyfonf? ta&;}uD; h kd aomtcef;rsm;jzpfygu acwW&yfI&Sif;jyEdkifonf? Ð wcgw&H tcsdefvHkavmufr_r&Sdygu rdrdjyovdkaomtydkif;udkom jzwfawmufI wifjyEdkifonf? Ð Zmwfvrf;ESifh tquftpyf&Sdaomar;cGef;rsm;udk óudwifjyifqifxm;&rnf? Ð Zmwfvrf;onf txl;pdwfxdcdkufp&mZmwfvrf;jzpfygu oifcef;pmESifhqufpyfonfh ar;cGef;rsm;rar;cif ESpfa,mufwwJG eD;pyfovdkwJGapum rdrd.cHpm;csuf/ xifjrifcsufrsm;udk t&ifajymcdkif;oifhonf? 54 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 54 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 55. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf cufcaomolrsm;ESihf qufqonftcg owdjyK&rnftcsufrsm; J H h h 1? w,l o ef a omol Ð xdkoljrifaomtjrifESifh tjcm;oljrifaom tjrifrsm;udk Ed_if;,SOfjyyg? Ð tajzrsm;udk vGwfvGwfvyfvyfwifjycGifhay;+yD; usefaomolrsm;tm; ‚if;.tajzay: jyefvnfokH;oyfcdkif;yg? Ð wjcm;aomolrsm;.tjrifESifh t,lqrsm;udktodtrSwfðy vufcHpOf;pm;wwfvmatmifwdkufwGef;ay;yg? Ð rdrdcH,lcsufESifh t,ltq xifjrifcsufrsm; tb,fha=umifhrSefuef&onfudkjyefvnfI±Sif;jycdkif;+yD;tjcm; olrsm;.tjrifudkem;axmifcdkif;yg? 2? pum;rsm;vG e f ; aomol Ð wOD;wnf;ajymvGef;ygu tjcm;oifwef;om;trnfudkwyfac:um wpfOD;csif;tjrifrsm;udk ajym=um; Edkifatmiftcsdfefay;yg? Ð aqG;aEG;wifjyr_udk tcsdefuef@owfcsufrsm;xm;±dSjcif;/ cGJwrf;pepfjzifhwifjyaqG;aEG;apjcif;vkyfyg? Ð aqG;aEG;&rnhf tcsuftvufrsm;tm; uef@owfay;I vrf;a=umif;raoGz,fatmif owday;yg? Ð vdk&if;wdk±Sif;wifjyaqG;aEG;wwfvmatmif ajymqdkowday;jcif;/ jyefvnf±Sif;jyjcif;rsm;ðyvkyfay;yg? Ð oifwef;umvwGif; vdkufem&rnfh aqmif&efa±Smif&eftcsufrsm;rS tjcm;olrsm;udk pum;ajymcsdefay; ygqdkaomtcsufudk jyefvnfowday;yg? Ð oifwef;. &nf±G,fcsufESifh tcsdef.ta&;ygykHudk±Sif;jyyg? Ð wcgw&H rodcsifa,mifaqmifaevdkufyg? Ð wpfOD;wnf;ajymqdkaejcif;onf wjcm;aomolrsm;twGuf taESmuft,SufjzpfapEdkifonfudk oG,f0dkuf aomenf;jzifh owday;yg? Ð puULpa0ay;I ajymqdkonfht}udrfta&twGufudk rSwfom;xm;apjcif;jzifhvnf; today;Edkifonf? Ð ajym=um;csufudk em;axmifay;onfhpGrf;&nfudk avhusifhay;aom tjcm;v_yf±Sm;r_avhusifhcef;rsm;vkyf aqmifay;yg? 3? td y f i k d u f w wf o l r sm; Ð tdyfidkufaeol. trnfudkwyfac:um aqG;aEG;r_xJ jyefvnfyg0ifvmatmif qGJac:yg? Ð v_yfv_yf±Sm;±Sm; wufwufºuGºuGjzpfaprnfh upm;enf;rsm;udk toHk;ðyay;yg? Ð tem;,lcsdefudk ykHrSefay;yg? Ð oifcef;pmtay: rnfuJhodk@em;vnfoabmonfudk ar;jref;jcif;udkðyvkyfyg? Ð tdyfidkufaeoltm; ae&majymif;xdkifcdkif;cdkif;yg? Ð ESpfa,mufwpfwGJ aqG;aEG;r_ykHpHudk tokH;ðyay;yg? Ð rdrdoif=um;r_ tvGef+iD;aiG@p&maumif;aeovm; jyefvnfppfaq;yg? 4? tcsd e f r av;pm;ol Ð tcsdef.wefzdk;udk±Sif;jyyg? rdrdwpfOD;.aemufusr_a=umifh tjcm;olrsm;xdcuepfemr_±Eionfu±i;jyyg? kd f Sd kd f kd S f Ð t+rJwrf; tcsdefaemufrusap&ef owday;yg? Ð oifwef;q&mudk,fwdkif tcsdefav;pm;oljzpfygap? Ð aemufusv#if tb,fha=umifhaemufus&onfudkar;yg? ulnDEdkifonfht&mjzpfv#ifulnDyg? Ð owday;onfhtcg oifwef;om;tm;vkH;udk ajymonfhykHpHrsdK;jzifh oG,f0dkufIajymyg? Ð oifwef;umvtwGif; aqmif&efa±Smif&eftcsufrsm;rStcsdefav;pm;&efqdkonfhtcsufudk jyefvnf owday;yg? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 55hre pack.pmd 55 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 56. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Ð tcsdefaemufusv#if rnfuo@kd vyaqmif&rnfqonfh owfrwcsursm;udk óuwifIowfrwxm;apyg? hJ k f kd S f f d S f Ð tm;vyfonfhtcsdefudk jyefnd‡,lyg? Ð oifwef;om;awmfawmfrsm;rsm;updwfrygbl;qdkv#if rdrd.oiffwef;ykHpHESifh oifwef;om;rsm;tm; qufqHonfhykHpHrsm;udk jyefvnfqef;ppfokH;oyfyg? 5? q&m}uD ; vk y f v d k o l Ð oifwef;csdefjyifywGif xdkolESifhESpfa,mufom;awG@um owday;yg? Ð oifwef;pnf;urf;rsm;udk óudwifIowfrSwfxm;yg? Ð wpfOD;wa,mufxJtjrifESifh trsm;pkaygif;yg0ifr_wdk@. uJGjym;aomtusKd;&vfrsm;udk Ed_if;,SOfjyyg? Ð v_yf±Sm;r_wdkif;wGif yg0ifolrsm;tm;vkH;udk tvSnfhusyg0ifapyg? Ð ol@twGufcufcJvdrfhrnf[kxif&aom ar;cGef;rsm;udk xdkol@udk &nf±G,fcsuf±dSpGmar;ay;yg? Ð vlwa,mufxJ tm;vHk;wwfonffqdkonfhtjrifudkazsmufEdkifatmifvkyfyg? 6? tpaemuf o ef a omol Ð paemufjcif;tm; pnf;xm;Ipaemuf&ef today;yg? Ð paemufonfhtwdkif;twmvGefvmv#if owday;yg? Ð ae&majymif;xdkifcdkif;Edkifonf? Ð oifwef;pnf;urf;csufrsm;udk jyefvnfaxmufjyEdkifonf? Ð oifwef;csdefwGif; paemufr_rsm;±dSaev#if ar;cGef;aumufar;jcif;rsm;ðyvkyfay;yg? Ð vltrsm;ah±SarSmufwGif paemufjcif;rsm;rðyvkyf&efajymqdkyg? Ð oifwef;om;tcsif;csif; xdef;ay;&ef ajymqdkyg? Ð xdkolpaemufEdkifonfh tcGifhtvrf;rsm;enf;yg;atmif ðyvkyfay;yg? 7? wyg;ol t m; taES m uf t ,S u f a y;wwf o l Ð tm±kHpl;pdkufr_rjyef@atmif rodrom trnfwyfIar;jcif;/ owday;jcif;rsm;ðyvkyfyg? Ð oifwef;wGif; aqmif&efESifha±Smif&ef pnfurf;owfrSwfcsufrsm;óudwifIxm;±dSyg? Ð tkyfpki,frsm;cGJI aqG;aEG;r_rsm;ðyvkyfcdkif;yg? Ð rdrd.aESmuf,Sufr_a=umifh trsm;tay:usa&mufEdkifonfh qdk;usKd;rsm;tm;±Sif;jyyg? Ð oifwef;om;rsm;jrifomaomae&mwGif“oifha=umifh——ygapESifh”[laomaqmifykfrsm;csdefqGJxm;jcif; jzifhvnf; owday;Edkifonf? 8? wd w f q d w f + id r f o uf p G m aewwf o l / pum;enf ; ol / yg0if r _ r ±d S o l / tm;i,f w wf o l / ±S u f w wf o l Ð tkyfpki,frsm;cGJum aqG;aEG;r_rsm;ðyvkyfcdkif;yg? Ð emrnfudkwyfac:um ar;cGef;ar;jcif;rsm;ðyvkyfyg? Ð ajzqdk&efvG,fulaomar;cGef;rsm;udk OD;pm;ay;Iar;ay;yg? Ð tkyfpk}uD;wGif; jyefvnfwifjyaqG;aEG;aomtcgwGifvnf; OD;pm;ay;IaqG;aEG;cdkif;yg? Ð xdotm; wwfEior# tm;ay;ulnyg? k l kd f D Ð ol.yg0ifr_onfvnf; ta&;}uD;a=umif; todtrSwfðyay;yg? Ð tb,fha=umifhxdkuJhodk@ jzpf&onfudk ar;jref;yg? jzpf&onfhta=umif;t&if;udk±Smyg/ Ð t}uHOm%faumif;rsm;&,lyg/ rnfol@t}uHOm%frS rusef&pf&atmif owdxm;aqG;aEG;yg? Ð pnf;urf;owfrSwfI owday;yg? Ð ajym&Jqdk&Jjzpfvmatmif aqG;aEG;r_jzpfpOfudk tpOfvdkufvG,f&mrSm cufcJ&modk@qGJac:yg? 56 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 56 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 57. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf (ESpfa,mufwGJrS/ tkyfpki,f/ tkyfpki,frS tkyfpk}uD;pojzifh) Ð rdrd.oif=um;r_/ bmompum;tay: em;vnfr_±dSr±dSjyefvnfqef;ppfyg? vdktyfcsufrsm;udkjyefvnfjyif qifyg? Ð tu,fI xdkolajymqdkaqG;aEG;r_xJyg0ifvmygu csD;usL;csD;ajrmufr_rsm; ðyvkyfay;yg? 9? &if ; ES D ; r_ u d k tcG i f h a umif ; ,l I avS m if a jymif o a&mf w wf o l Ð avSmifajymifr_udk onf;cHcGifhv$wfI ol@xHtultnDawmif;yg? Ð oifwef;wGif; rjzpfapcsif/ rjzpfoifhaomt&mrsm;udk ±Sif;jyyg? Ð ayghysufysufrqufqH&atmif/ wm0efESifh&if;ESD;r_uGJjym;atmif owday;yg? Ð cGifhv$wfonf;cHr_jzifh wkef@jyefyg? Ð xdkodk@avSmifajymifoa&mfwwfoltm; ykHrSefqufqH&ef/ cyfwnfwnfaejyyg? Ð vltrsm;a±SŒwGif avSmifajymifoa&mfr_udk rðyvkyf&efowday;yg? Ð xdkolESifh ESpfa,mufom;awG@qkH+yD; aumif;rGefpGmjyefvnf±Sif;jyyg? Ð wpfcgw&Hol. avSmifajymifr_udk OyuQmðyxm;ay;vdkufyg? Ð bma=umifhxdkuJhodk@ avSmifajymif&onfudkar;yg? Ð oifwef;wGif; aqmif&efa±Smif&efrsm;udk jyefvnfowday;yg? 10? cH p m;vG , f o l / xd v G , f ± S v G , f o l Ð xdkoltm;tav;xm;qufqH&ef/ tultnDay;&efvkyfyg? Ð b,fta=umif;t&may:rSm xdvG,f±SvG,fcHpm;vG,fonfudk owdxm;yg? Ð tm;i,fcsutay: zdonf[k txifrvG&atmif owday;yg? f J Ð pdwf±Snfyg/ onf;cHEdkif&nf/ tawG@tóuH±Smwwfatmif avhusifhay;yg? Ð apmfum;jcif;/ csKd;ESdrfjcif;rsm; wm;qD;ay;yg? Ð em=unf;csuf±dSaeygu xdkem=unf;csufudk óud;pm;ajzazsmufay;yg? Ð oli,fcsif;tcsif;csif; ulnDajzmif;jzay;aompepfwckudk oifwef;umvtwGif; wnfaqmufay;yg? Ð tcsif;csif; ,kH=unfem;vnfEdkifr_/ pmem/ pdwf±Snfonf;cHr_rsm;&±dSatmif &nf±G,faomupm;enf;rsm;/ v_yf±Sm;enf;rsm;udk rsm;rsm;tokH;ðyyg? Ð qENrygbJ twif;t=uyfapcdkifjcif;rsm;udk a±Smif=uOfyg? Ð tvGeftuíHpaemufjcif;rsm; rðyvkyfrdap&efowdxm;yg? 11? pum;a=um±S n f o l / pum;ud k ± S n f ± S n f a 0;a0; oG , f 0 d k u f I ajymwwf o l Ð qdkvdk&if;udk vdk&if;wdk±Sif;ajymwwfatmif owday;ajymcdkif;yg? Ð oifwef;wGif; aqG;aEG;r_tcsdefowfrSwfay;yg? Ð aqG;aEG;aeonfh ta=umif;t&mrsm; OD;wnf&mraysmufatmif xdef;ausmif;owday;yg? Ð tu,fIvdk&if;a&mufatmif rajymqdEionftcgrsK;wGif oifwef;OD;aqmifouvd&if;udar;jref;ay;yg? k kd f h d l k k Ð tcsdefwefzdk;±dSa=umif;udktoday;yg? Ð olwyg;tm; tvSnfhjyefay;&ef ajymqdktoday;yg? Ð oifwef;om;tcsif;csif; t}uHay;aomenf;udktokH;ðyI oifwef;om;tcsif;csif; today;jcif;jzifhvnf;& Edkifonf? 12? oif w ef ; q&mtay: ynmprf ; csif o l E S i f txif t jrif a o;wwf o l Ð oifwef;q&mudk,fwdkif 0rf;pmjynfhzdk@óud;pm;&rnf/ rdrdudk,fudk ,kH=unfr_±dSatmifvnf;óud;pm;&ayrnf? Ð oifwef;OD;aqmifolonf tvkH;pkHudkodEdkifwwfEdkifaom/ ±Sif;jyEdkifaomtbd"mefr[kwfa=umif;udkOD;pGm o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 57hre pack.pmd 57 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 58. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf ±Sif;jyxm;yg? Ð abmif0ifonfhar;cGef;jzpfatmifðyjyifyg? oifcef;pmESifhqufpyfr_±dSr±dS qifjcifrdygap? Ð oifcef;pmtwGuf taumif;qkH;jyifqifxm;yg? rdrdwm0efudkrdrdausyGefygap? Ð rdrdrodaomt&mudk rodv#ifroda=umif; yGifhyGifhvif;vif;ajymyg? Ð vdktyfv#iftajzudk±SmazG+yD;rStajzrSefudkay;yg? Ð wefjyefar;cGef;rsm;ar;yg? Ð xdkol.xifjrif,lqcsufudkar;I tjcm;olrsm;. xifjrif,lqcsufudkvnf; ar;jref;yg? Ð oifwef;yd@k csowif ar;cGe;tm;vk;twGutajzr±dEia=umif;ESihf tjcm;olrsm;.,lqcsuuem;axmifci;yg? l G f H f S kd f f kd kd f Ð xdkoltm; wav;wpm;tar;tajzjyKvkyfum ol.txifao;r_rsm;av#mhenf;oGm;atmifjyKvkyfyg? Ð olESifh cifrif&if;ESD;atmifðyvkyfum/ txifao;r_rsm;avsmhenf;atmifðyvkyfEdkifonf? Ð oifwef;.jyifywGif rdrdudk,fwdkifvnf; avhvmoif,lae&qJjzpfa=umif;udk aumif;rGefpGm±Sif;jyyg? Ð ydk@csolonf aphpyfaqmf=oay;olomjzpfonf[laom t"dy`m,f±Sif;jyyg? 13? t&m&mud k tqd k ; jrif w wf o l Ð pdwf±Snf±Snfxm;yg/ csufcsif;vufwkef@jyef jiif;ckHjcif;rsKd; rðyvkyfygESifh? Ð ol@tjrifudk wdwdususajymjyvmEdkfifatmif wav;wpm;zdwfac:yg? Ð wjcm;olrsm;tajymudk aoaocsmcsmem;axmif/ em;vnfaprnfh tzGifhar;cGef;jzifhar;yg? Ð ol@tjrifxJu vufcHavmufaomtcsufrsm;udk a±G;cs,fcsD;usL;yg? Ð tm;vkH;. t}uHudkvufcH&rnfh upm;enf;rsm;rsm;okH;ay;yg? Ð tcseay;yg/ pdw±nyg/ apwemxm;yg/ tultnDvtyfu ulnay;yg? d f f S f kd D Ð t=uHOm%f,lyg? wm0ef,lyg? ESpfa,mufwwGJ aqG;aEG;r_ykHpHudk rsm;rsm;okH;ay;yg? Ð olESifh&if;ESD;r_&atmifðyvkyfum/ ol@tm;taumif;jrifay;yg? Ð xdkolbma=umifh tqdk;jrifae&vJqdkonfh ta=umif;&if;udk±Smyg? 14? yl ; aygif ; yg0if r _ r ±d S o l / q&mvk y f w wf o l Ð yg0ifyl;aygif;r_r±dS&onfh t"dua=umif;t&if;udk±SmazGyg? Ð tvkywm0efukd cGa0ay;yg? f J Ð wcgw&H v_yf±Sm;r_wckckðyvkyfu xdkoltm;OD;aqmifcdkif;ygap? Ð oifwef;om;rsm;. emrnfudk wyfac:umaqG;aEG;apyg? Ð tkyfpki,fwGif;aqG;aEG;+yD; jyefvnfwifjyaomtcgY xdkoltm;wifjyaqG;aEG;cdkif;apyg? Ð ol.aqG;aEG;csufrsm;tm; todtrSwfðyay;yg? Ð Power sharing uktok;ðywwfatmif ±Si;jyI avhusiay;yg? d H f hf Ð trsm;ESifhyl;aygif;v_yf±Sm;&rnfh v_yf±Sm;r_rsm;tokH;ðyjcif;jzifh/ &if;ESD;r_rsm;/ yl;aygif;vkyfaqmifr_rsm; ydkrdkwdk;wufvmatmif vkyfaqmifay;yg? Ð yl;aygif;vkyfqmifjcif;. atmifjrifr_&vmfudk ydkrdkod±dSem;vnfatmif vkyfaqmifay;yg? Ð tu,fIwpfa,mufa,mufom yl;aygif;yg0ifr_r±dScJhv#if rnfuJhodk@jzpfoGm;rnfenf;[lonfhar;cGef;rsKd; tkyfpk}uD;wGifar;ay;yg? Ð ar;cGef;rsm;jzifh rjzpfrae yg0ifaqG;aEG;vmatmif vkyfaqmifay;yg? (tkyfpkvdkufvkyfaqmifaponfhenf; okkH;yg ) wm0efcGJay;yg? Ð t}uHOm%f,lyg? xdkol.t}uHOm%frsm; rusefcJh&avatmif owdðyyg? csD;usL;yg? Ð aqmif&efa±Smif&ef tcsufrsm;udk owday;yg? Ð xdkol.tm;enf;csufrsm;udkavhvm+yD; vdktyfaomtultnDrsm;udkay;yg? 58 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 58 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 59. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf 15? od r f i ,f p d w f ± d S o l Ð xdkolajymqdkaqG;aEG;aom ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk aumif;rGefpGm vufcHem;axmifay;yg? Ð ol. vkyfudkifaqmif±Gufcsufrsm;tm; csD;usL;ay;yg? Ð xdo. odri,f&aom ta=umif;t&if;udk ±SmazGum tm;ay;ulnyg? k l f D Ð tjcm;aomoifwef;om;rsm;ESifh ydkrdk&if;EDS;atmif oifwef;wGif;a&m/ tjyifrSmyg twlwuGaEG;axG;pGmaecdkif;yg? Ð ol.tm;aumif;csuf/ tm;omcsufrsm;udk csD;rGrf;ay;yg? Ð t+rJòyH;jyE_wfqufjcif;jzifh tm;ay;yg? Ð oifwef;om;rsm;tcsif;csif; ,kH=unfr_wnfaqmufEdkifatmif v_yf±Sm;r_rsm;tokH;ðyay;yg? (oifwef;om;tm;vkH;yg0ifEdkifaom v_yf±Sm;r_rsm;jzpfygap) 16? q&mtm;ajrmuf y if h a jymqd k w wf o l / rsuf E S m vd k rsuf E S m &vk y f w wf o l Ð oifwef;OD;aqmifoludk,fwdkifu vdrfrmyg;eyfpGmjiif;qdkwwfygap? xdkuJhodk@aomwpfpkHw&mtm;ar#mfvifhawmifhwaejcif;rsKd;vnf; rjzpfygapESifh? Ð oifwef;om;rsm;tm;vkH;tay: wef;wlqufqHyg? Ð rdrd.tvkyfudkom tm±kHpl;pdkufvkyfaqmifyg? Ð xdkolESkifhtwl t+rJwrf;ESpfa,mufxJ wwGJwGJoGm;vmaexdkifjcif;rsKd;udk owdxm;a±Smif=uOfyg? Ð rdrdtm;ajrmufyifhajymqdkvmv#if ‚if;tm;jyefvnfajrmufyifhajymqdkvdkufyg? Ð aus;Zl;wifa=umif;ajym=um;&efb,fawmhrS rarhygESifh? Ð wpfcgw&H rodcsifa,mifaqmif+yD;aevdkufyg? 17? pum;jzwf I vk a jymwwf o l Ð Active listening v_y±m;r_rsm;jzifh em;axmifEipr;udk jr‡iwifay;yg? fS kd f G f hf Ð tjcm;wpfa,mufajymqdkaepOf jzwfIvkrajym&ef today;yg? vdktyfv#if =um;jzwfIwm;ay;yg? Ð wpfOD;csif;tvSnfhusajymcdkif;onfhpepfudk tokH;ðyay;yg? Ð oifwef;OD;aqmifol udk,fwdkifvnf; em;axmifEdkifpGrf;olaumif;wpfa,mufjzpf&ef óud;pm;yg? 18? *±k r pd k u f o l / pd w f 0 if p m;r_ r ±d S o l Ð pdwf0ifpm;r_enf;yg;&jcif;. ta=umif;t&if;udk±SmazGyg? Ð rdrdudk,fudk okH;oyfyg/ rdrdYrnfonfhtcsuftm; enf;aeonfudkavhvmyg? oifcef;pmESifh oifwef;om; rsm;t=um; rnfonftcsursm; vdtyfaeonfukd qef;ppfyg? h f k Ð oifcef;pmtay:+iD;aiG@aeykHaygufaeygu wufºuGv_yf±Sm;vmatmif tajymif;tvJwckckvkyfaqmifay;yg? Ð oifcef;pmrsm;onf oifwef;om;rsm;twGuf od+yD;wwf+yD;aomt&mrsm;jzpfaevm;qdkonfudkjyefvnf qef;ppfr_ðyvkyfyg? Ð em;vnfr_vGJEdkifonfh tcsufudk±SmazGum wzefjyefvnfI±Sif;jyyg? Ð oifwef;om;rsm; rnfonfhtcuftcJrsm; ±dSaeonfudkar;um ulnDr_ay;yg? Ð oifwef;umvESifh tcsdeftokH;ðyr_ rSm;,Gif;r_±dSr±dSudk avhvmyg? 19? ol w yg;ud k xd c d k u f e pf e matmif rav;rpm;vk y f o l Ð ðyvkyfrdola=umifh jzpfysufvmEdkifaom qdk;usKd;rsm;udk tðyoabmjzifh a0zefaxmufjyyg? Ð oifwef;pnf;urf;csufrsm;twGif; tjcm;olrsm;tm; xdcdkufepfemaprnfhtðytr_rsm;/tokH;tE_ef;rsm; udka±SmifusOf&efqdkaomtcsufudk yg0ifatmif xnfhoGif;xm;+yD; jyefvnfowday;jcif;rsm;ðyvkyfyg? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 59hre pack.pmd 59 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 60. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Ð rwlnDaomta=umif;t&mrsm;/ tcsuftvufrsm;tay: av;pm;wwf&ef ±Sif;jyavhusifhay;yg? Ð xdkol.tjrifESifh tjcm;oifwef;om;rsm;. tjrifwdk@tm; Ed_if;,SOfaqG;aEG;apI tb,fha=umifhxdkuJhodk@ jrif&onf/ xdkuJhodk@ajymqdk&onfudk jyefvnfaqG;aEG;apyg? Ð xdkoludk,fwdkif xdcdkufepfematmif tajymcH&onfhtcg rnfuJhodk@cHpm;&rnfenf;qdkonfh cHpm;csufrsm; udk ay:vGiaprnfh v_y±m;r_rsm;udk vkyaqmifapyg? f f S f Ð vl@*k%foduQmESifh vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_udk em;vnfatmif±Sif;jyyg? 20? ud k , f h u d k , f u d k txif } uD ; wwf o l Ð tjcm;oltay:ESdrfhcsapmfum;jcif;. qdk;uGufrsm;udk em;vnfatmif±Sif;jyyg? Ð vlwdkif;Y rwlnDaompGrf;&nfrsm;±dSa=umif;udk em;vnfatmif ±Sif;jyyg? Ð tm%myg0gESifh ywfoufaom v_yf±Sm;r_rsm;udk rsm;rsm;tokH;ðyay;yg? Ð rdrdwGifvnf;yg0grsm;±dSovdk rdrdwGifr±dSbJtjcm;vlYomv#if±dSEdkifaom yg0grsm;vnf;±dSa=umif;udk oabmaygufatmif v_yf±Sm;aqG;aEG;r_rsm;ðyvkyfapyg? Ð xdkoltm;wav;wpm;jyefI qufqHay;yg? ol.ajymqdkaqG;aEG;csufrsm;/ tjrifrsm;onftb,fa=umifh rSefuef&onfudk ‚if;.t,ltqrsm;jzifh jyefvnfI ±Sif;vif;wifjycdkif;yg? Ð ol.tawG;tac:rsm; ajymif;vJvmatmif zefwD;vkyfaqmifay;yg? Ð em;axmifaumif;olwpfa,mufjzpfatmif avhusifhay;yg? Ð xdkoltm; wwfodol/ ynm±Sifwpfa,muftaejzifh vdktyfovdktokH;csapmifh=uyfyg? Ð tm;vkH;yl;aygif;um 0dkif;0ef;Itajz±Smonfh oifwef;ykHpHudk em;vnfatmif±Sif;jyyg? 21? bmompum; ruírf ; usif o l Ð bmompum;uírf;usifolrsm;ESifh wGJxdkifcdkif;yg? Ð tjcm;aomoifwef;om;rsm;vnf; vdtyfonftcg 0di;0ef;Iulnwwfonfh tavhtxwckarG;ay;yg/ k h kf D Ð oifwef;csdefjyifywGif em;rvnfonfrsm;udk vma&mufar;jref;&ef zdwfac:tm;ay;yg? Ð oifwef;om;tm;vkH; vG,fulpGmem;vnfEdkifaprnfh pum;vkH;rsm;udk a±G;cs,fIajymqdkyg? Ð vdktyfrnfqdkygu bmomjyefxm;ay;yg? Ð bmompum;trsKd;rsKd;u|rf;usifaom oifwef;enf;jyrsm;arG;xkwfyg? 22? rd r d q EN u d k b,f a wmh r S r ajymbJ bmrqd k t +rJ a cgif ; nd w f a eol Ð bma=umifh xdkuJhodk@vufcH&a=umif;udk ar;cGef;jyefxkwfyg? Ð ar;cGef;ar;&mwGif xdkolrsm;udk yxrOD;qkH;OD;pm;ay;I tzGifhar;cGef;rsm;ar;yg? Ð rdrd.t,ltqudk wifjywwfatmif tcGifhta&;ay;¶kHr#ru xdkuJhodk@wifjyjcif;jzifh tjcm;olrsm;. xifjrif,lqcsufrsm;udk ajymif;vJaumif; ajymif;vJvmapEdkifa=umif; ±Sif;jyyg? 23? tao;pd w f Ed _ u f E d _ u f c |wf c |wf a r;wwf o l Ð abmif0ifonfhar;cGef;jzpfatmifðyjyifyg? oifcef;pmESifhqufpyfr_±dSr±dS qifjcifrdygap? Ð xdkol.ar;cGef;tay: tjcm;aomolrsm;. xifjrif,lqcsufrsm;udk awmif;cHyg? ajz±Sif;Edkifrnfhenf;vrf; rsm;udar;yg? k Ð oifcef;pm. OD;wnfcsufraysmuf&avatmif vrf;a=umif;xdef;ndêay;yg? Ð ol.ar;cGef;udk óudqdkaomfvnf; tcsdefuef@owfcsufa=umifh oifwef;jyifycsdefa&mufrSom vma&muf ar;jref;&ef zdwfac:yg? Ð rdrdrajzEdkifonfhar;cGef;rsm;twGuf oufqdkif&mpmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;udk zwf±_&efvrf;!Gefay;yg? 60 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 60 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 61. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf 24? oif w ef ; q&mtm; q&mtjzpf v uf r cH o l Ð wm0efESifhtcsdefudkcGJjcm;wwf&ef today;yg? Ð cGJjcm;zdEdSyfraumif;jrifwwfonfhpdwf yaysmufatmif ±Sif;vif;vkyfaqmifyg? Ð q&maumif;wpfa,muf. t&nftcsif;udk ajymcdkif;I 0dkif;0ef;aqG;aEG;cdkif;yg? Ð rdrdonf q&mr[kwfbJ taumif;qkH;jzpfatmif yHhydk;ulnDvkyfaqmifay;olomjzpfa=umif;udk ±Sif;jyyg? Ð rdrdudk,fudk taumif;qkH;jzpfatmifjyifqifxm;yg? ,kH=unfr_tjynfh±dSygap? Ð rdrtay:a0zefrukd &J&00óhH udqyg? d _ J hH kd 25? p±d k u f = urf ; wrf ; ol Ð xdkuJhodk@ajymqdkvdkufjcif;a=umifh rdrdESifhtjcm;olrsm; b,fvdkcHpm;&a=umif;udk today;yg? Ð wdkuf±dkufaomfvnf;aumif;/ oG,f0dkufIaomfvnf;aumif; ±Sif;jyyg? Ð vdrm,Ofaus;pGm ajymqdqufqjH yyg? R k Ð oifwef;om;tcsif;csif; wm;qD;xdef;odrf;=uapyg? Ð bmomw&m;rsm;jzifh xdef;ay;yg? Ð aookH;pum;rsm;/ "avhrsm;jzpfaeygu em;vnfay;yg? 26? vuf a v#mh w wf o l Ð tm;ay;yg/ jzpfysuwwfonfh oabmudk ±Si;jyyg? f f Ð pdwf"mwfjr‡ifhwifay;yg? Ð upm;enf;rsm;jzifh xdkol.pdwf"gwfudk jr‡ifhwifay;yg? vufav#mhwwfonfh ta=umif;&if;udk±Smyg? tcse,+l yD; &if;&if;ES;D ES;D ajymqdyg? d f k o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 61hre pack.pmd 61 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 62. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf 62 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 62 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 63. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf tcef;(3) vlYtcGifhta&; oifcef;pmrsm; o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 63hre pack.pmd 63 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  • 64. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf 64 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 64 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 65. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf vlYtcGifhta&;oifcef;pm(1) vltcGita&;t"dym,f Y hf Ü &nf&G,fcsuf Ð vl@*%oumESihf vl@tcGita&;qufpyfyw@kd ukd oabmayguap&ef/ k f d Q hf kH f Ð vl@tcGifhta&;t"dy`m,fESifh oabmobm0wdk@udk udk,fwdkifzGifhqdkwwf&ef? Ð vl@tcGita&;tajccHtcsuf (4) csuukd od&ap&ef? hf f dS Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) Inside (puf0dkif;twGif;) (1) ta&mifESpfrsKd;&Sdaom a&mifpkHpm&Guf wa,mufv#if ESpf&GufpDa0yg? (2) vlrSmbmxl;jcm;csuf&SdvJ? tb,fa=umifh udk,fhudkudk,f vlvdk@owfrSwfvJ odk@r[kwf vlwGifb,fvdkrsdK; pdwf"mwfrsKd;&Sdvdk@ vlvdk@ac:wmvJ odk@r[kwf vlESifhwd&dp>mef bmawGrwluGJjym;vJ[laom ar;cGef;rsm;ar;+yD; pOf;pm;I&aomtcsufrsm;udk ta&mifwlpm&Gufay:wGifyHkqJGcdkif;yg? (3) tm;vHk;a&;qJG+yD;+yDqdkygu wOD;csif;rdrda&;qJGxm;aomyHkrsm;udk trsm;jrifatmifjyI bma=umifhDyHkudk a&;qJGxm;a=umif; &Sif;jycdkif;yg? (4) oifwef;ydk@csolu wOD;&Sif;jyaeaomtcsufrsm;udk tjcm;olrsm;tm;*±kwpdkufem;axmifap+yD; xdkyHkrsm;udk puf0dkif;twGif;wGifuyfay;yg? (5) tm;vHk;&Sif;+yD;ygu puf0dkif;twGif;uyfxm;aomyHkrsm;udk tm;vHk;udk0dkif;avhvmcdkif;yg? (6) xdkt&mrsm;onf vlom;tm;vHk;ESifh oufqdkiftóuH;0ifjcif;&Sdr&Sd ar;cGef;rsm;xkwfI qef;ppfapyg? (trsKd; om;rsm;oufouftwGufvm;/ jrefrmvlrsKd;rsm;twGufoufoufvm; ponfjzifh ——) (6) xd@k aemuf xdpuf0i;f xJrm&Saeaom t&mrsm;r&Sv#if b,fvjkd zpfEirvJ? b,fvcpm;&rvJ? gawGr&S&if k dk S d d kd f dk H d vlawG&@J bmawGuxcuEirvJqaomar;cGe;f rsm; ar;ay;yg? tajzrsm;udk oifye;f ay:wGicsa&;+yD; gq&if dk d kd f dk f kd k f kd puf0i;f xJuyHrsm;udk pkaygi;f +yD; b,fvac:EdirvJar;yg? (*k%oumqdonfh tajz&onftxd ar;cGe;f rsm; kd k kd k f f d Q k ar;oGm;yg?) o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 65hre pack.pmd 65 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 66. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Outside (puf0dkif;tjyif) (1) ,cktcgwif twGi;f wGi&aom *k%oumrsm;twdi;f aeEdi&ef vdtyfaomt&mrsm; od@k r[kwf xdtwdi;f aeEdiz@kd G f dS f d Q k kf k k k kf twGuf yhy;kd ay;aomaomt&mrsm; od@k r[kwf *k%oum&Sap&eftwGuf aemufxyfbmawGxyf vdrvJ[aom H f d Q d k l ar;cGe;f ar;yg? (Oyrm- pOf;pm;qifjcifEiz@kd twGuf aemufxyfbmvdrvJ/ b0udw;kd wufjrifrm;atmifvyvwhJ kd f k k h k f kd pdwftwGuf bmawGvdkrvJ/ +idrf;csrf;pGmaexdkifzdk@bmvdkrvJ[lI tpwckESpfckazmfay;Edkifonf?) (2) xdkvdktyfaomt&mrsm;udk pOf;pm;+yD;ygu usefaeaompm&GufwGif aemufxyfyHkwyHkqJGcdkif;yg? (3) tm;vHk;a&;qJG+yD;+yDqdkygu wOD;csif;a&;qJGxm;aomyHkrsm;udk trsm;jrifatmifjyI bma=umifhDyHkudka&;qJGxm; a=umif;&Sif;jycdkif;yg? (4) oifwef;ydk@csolu wOD;&Sif;jyaeaomtcsufrsm;udk tjcm;olrsm;tm;*¶kwpdkufem;axmifap+yD; xdkyHkrsm;udk puf0dkif;tjyifwGifuyfay;yg? (5) tm;vH;k jrifatmifavhvm+yD;onftcg puf0i;f twGi;f &Sd vl@*%oumrsm;twdi;f aeEdiz@kd aemufxyfyy;kd ay;aom h kd k f d Q k kf Hh puf0dkif;tjyifu t&mrsm;udk b,fvdkac:EdkifrvJar;yg? (tcGifhta&;qdkonfh tajzxGufvmatmif ar;cGef;rsm; qufar;yg?) Discussion (tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;) twGif;ESifhtjyifESpfckpvHk;udk t"dy`m,fazmf+yD;u atmufygar;cGef;rsm;jzifh ar;Edkifonf? Ð twGif;ESifhtjyifu b,fvkdqufpyfaewmudkawG@&ovJ? Ð tjyifrSwck qHk;±_H;oGm;ygu twGif;ut&mrsm;bmjzpfoGm;EkdifrvJ? Ð tjyifuwckckomr&Sdygu tjcm;tjyifut&mawGa&m b,fvdkjzpfoGm;EdkifrvJ? ( Oyrm - pmoifausmif;udk ðzwfay;+yD; ausmif;r&Sv#if bmawGjzpfEirvJ? bmomw&m;qH;k rr_ d dk f rsm;r&Sv#if bmawGjzpfom;EdirvJ/ obm0ywf0ef;usiq;kH ±_;H oGm;ygu bmtusK;d qufjzpfEirvJ d G kf f kd f ponfjzifh) Todk@qkdv#iftjyifu “tcGifhta&;” udk b,fvkdt"dy`m,fzGifhEkdifrvJ [kar;um ajzqdkcsufrsm;udk oifykef;wGif rSwfwrf;wifyg? (tjyifESifhtwGif; qufpyfaeonf? tjyifut&mrsm;vJ wckESifhwckqufpyfaeonf? b,ft&m udkrSydkta&;}uD;onfajymIr&ponfjzifh xGufay:vmEdkifonf//) vl@tcGita&;qdonfrm us,jf yef@ve;f ojzifh pum;vH;k wvH;k xJjzift"dym,fazmfIr&ay? a,bl,s hf k S G h ` tm;jzifh vl@tcGifhta&;qdkonfrSm vlom;wdk@*k%foduQm&Sd&Sd aexdkifEdkif&eftwGuf r&Sdrjzpfvdktyfaomt&mtm;vHk; yifjzpfonf? EdkifiHwumwGifvl@tcGifhta&;udktajccHtcsuf (4)csufjzifh owfrSwfxm;onfudk qufvufavhvm&ef qufaqG;aEG;oGm;yg? 66 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 66 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 67. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf I nput (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) vl @ tcG i f h t a&;. tajccH t csuf r sm; 1 ? vl@tcGita&;onf vlwi;f twGuf arG;&mygtcGita&;jzpfonf? (Human Rights are inherent.) hf kd hf vl@tcGita&;udk 0,f,Ir&? vJajymif;Ir&// vlwi;f onf vlom;jzpfaeaom tcsua=umifh vl@tcGita&; hf l $ kd f hf ukd &,lydkifqdkifcGifh&Sdonf? 2 ? vl@tcGita&;onf vlom;tm;vH;k ESioufqionf? (Human Rights are universal.) hf hf kd f tom;ta&mif/ vlrsKd;/ ukd;uG,fonfhbmom/ EkdifiHa&;/ vlr_a&;/ tawG;tac:/ vdifuGJjym;r_ra&G; vl@tcGifh ta&;onf vlom;tm;vHk;tay: wef;wlnDr#r_&Sdonf? vlom;tm;vHk; arG;zGm;vmonfrSpI vGwfvyf+yD; wef;wlnDr#aom vl@*k%foduQmESifh tcGifhta&;&Sdonf? 3 ? vl@tcGita&;ukrnfour# ,laqmifor;f yduIr&? (Human Rights are inalienable.) hf d l d k f vl@tcGifhta&;udk rnfolur# ,laqmifodfrf;ydkufcGihfr&Sd? vlwa,muf. arG;&mygtcGifhta&;ukd xkdol. EkdifiHawmftpkd;&ESifh Oyarsm;u todtrSwfrðyonfhwdkif xdkvlwGif vl@tcGifhta&;cHpm;cGifh&Sdonf? xdkodk@ todtrSwfrðyjcif;onf xdkoltay: vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_jzpfonf? 4 ? vl@tcGita&;rsm;onf wckEiwck tjyeftvSequfpyfaeonf? (Human Rights are indivisible.) hf S hf f vl@*k%foduQmESihftnD aexdkiftouf&SifEkdif&eftwGuf vlom;wdkif;vGwfvyfcGihf/ vHkòcHcGifh/ &Sdovdk vHkavmuf aomvlaer_b0rsm;udk vkdufavsmnDaxGpGmcHpm;cGifh&Sdonf? rnfonfhtcGifhta&;ukdrS tjcm;tcGifhta&; xuf ydkIta&;}uD;onf[k ajymIr&? vl@tcGifhta&;wck csKd;azmufcH&jcif;onf tjcm;tcGihfta&;rsm;ukdyg xdcdkufaponf? xd@k twGuf vl@*%oumonf vl@tcGita&;ESiqufpyfaeonf? vl@tcGita&;ukd z,f&m;Ir&? vl@tcGihf k f d Q fh hf fh S ta&;ukd rcHpm;&jcif;/ z,f&Sm;jcif;onf vl@tcGihfta&;udk csKd;azmufjcif;jzpfonf? vl@tcGifhta&;qdkonfrSm wOD;ESihfwOD;av;pm;r_/ vl@*k%foduQmukd todtrSwfðyr_/ wef;wlnDwlðyr_jzpf+yD; cGjJ cm;jcif;/ apmfum;jcif;r&Sap&yg? tcsK@d ae&mrsm;wGif Oyaudav;pm;&efvtyfovdk tcsKŒd Oyaonf vl@tcGihf d k kd ta&;csK;d azmufaom Oyarsm;jzpfaewwfonfukd owdðy&rnf Oyarsm;onf vl@tcGita&;rsm; csK;d azmuf hf ovm;/ av;pm;ovm;ukd =unfh&efvdkonf? tu,fI vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufaeaom Oyarsm;&Sdonfh Ekiirsm;jzpfygu rdrtcGita&; qH;k ¶_;H r_udk EkiiwumESihf ukvor*~o@kd vl@tcGita&;csK;d azmufa=umif;wifjy dfH d hf dfH hf jcif;onfjynfytm;udk;jcif;r[kwf/ rdrdtcGifhta&;qHk;¶_H;r_ukd wifjyEkdifaomae&modk@ wifjyjcif;omjzpfonf? urB m h u k v or*~ . vl @ tcG i f h t a&;t"d y ` m ,f z G i f h q d k c suf vl@tcGifhta&;onf wurBmvHk;&Sd vlom;tm;vHk;ESifhoufqdkif+yD; wOD;csif;ESifhtkyfpkvdkuf tajccHvGwfvyfcGifh rsm;ESihf vl@*%oumtwGuf tmrcHay;aomt&mrsm;jzpfonf? vl@tcGita&;Oyarsm;udk tpd;k &ud,wiu k f d Q hf k f kd f av;pm;vduemaqmif&u&efwm0ef&ovdk tjcm;olrsm;rcsK;d azmufap&efuvJ umuG,ay;aomt&m rsm;jzpf k f G f dS kd f onf? vl@tcGifhta&;. ta&;}uD;aom oGifjyifvuQ%mtcsKd@rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf? vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;onf - Ð EdkifiHwumESifhqdkifaom tmrcHr_ay;jcif;/ Ð w&m;enf;vrf;uspGm tumtuG,fay;jcif;/ Ð vlom;wdk@. vl@*k%foduQmtay:wGifomwnfrSDaejcif;/ Ð wOD;csif;jzpfap/ tkyfpkvdkufjzpfap tumtuG,fay;jcif;/ o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 67hre pack.pmd 67 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 68. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Ð tpdk;&ESifh tpdk;&tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;udk wm0efay;tyfjcif;/ Ð vufvGwfqHk;¶_H;jcif;ESifh ,laqmifodrf;ydkufjcif;rðyEdkifjcif;/ Ð wef;wlnDr#jcif;ESifh tjyeftvSeftrSDðyjcif;/ Ð vlom;tm;vHk;ESifhoufqdkifjcif; wdk@jzpf=uonf? Deepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;.vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h E d _ i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) vl@tcGifhta&;onf wurBmvHk;ESifhoufqdkifI vlwdkif;twGuf arG;&mygtcGifhta&;rsm;jzpfyg ovm;// bma=umifhvJ qdkonfhar;cGef;udk qufvufar;oGm;yg? Synthesis (rnf u J h o d k @ vk y f a qmif / umuG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f o nf u d k tajz&S m vk y f a qmif a pjcif ; ) rdrdem;vnfaom vl@tcGifhta&;qdkonfht"dy`m,fudk oauFwwckjzifha&;qJGap+yD;bmudk qdkvdka=umif; tjcm;olrsm;tm; &Sif;jycdkif;+yD;aemuf oifykef;wGif wa,mufpDvmIuyfapyg? vd k t yf a omud & d , mrsm; pm&Guf}uD;/ ta&mifESpfrsKd;&Sdaom pm&Gufrsm;/ a&mifpHkcJwHrsm;/ zwf&_avhvm&ef vl@tcGifhta&;tajccHtcsuf (4) csuf/ vl@tcGifhta&;qkdonfrSm tb,fenf;// vl@tcGifhta&; vufppmtky/f tcef;-1 ? JG rSwfcsuf? Ð v_yf&Sm;r_wGif twGif;ESifhtjyifpuf0dkif;rsm;Y uyf&effay;xm;aom pm&Gufrsm;wGif pmjzifha&;rnfhtpm; oauFw±kyyrsm;udk tok;H ðyoif§Ekionf? f Hk h df Ð twGif;tjyifpuf0dkif;ESpf0dkif;tpm; vlyHkwyHka&;qJGI oifwef;om;rsm;ajymaomyxrpm&Gufudk oufqdkif&m udk,fcE<mae&mwGif uyfcdkif;Edkifygonf? (Oyrm- awG;ac:wwfjcif;qdkygu OD;acgif;/ arwWmqdkygu ESvHk;om;/ wd;k wufjrifrm;atmifvycsipwqygu ajcaxmufponfjzif) oifwef;om;rsm; awG;rdonftwdi;f uyfci;f h k f f d f kd h h k kd Edkifygonf? Ð oifwef;om;rsm; pm&Gufrsm;xGufuyfygu bma=umifh xdkyHkrsm;ta&;}uD;a=umif;ajymqdkEdkif&ef tm;ay; IaemufqufwJGar;cGef;rsm;ar;yg? vufawG@EiEi;f ,SOonftydi;f wGif rdr.oifwef;om;rsm;rSm vl@tcGita&;oifwef; tawG@tóuHtajccH r&Sygu- S hf d_ f h k d hf d enf;vrf;opf (1) rdrywf0ef;usiwif tcGita&;wckucsK;d azmufc&ojziftjcm;tcGita&;rsm;yg xdcuf d f G hf kd H h hf kd aomtjzpftysufrsKd;udk jyefvnfpOf;pm;aqG;aEG;apjcif; (Oyrm- aetdrfajymif;a&G@cH&aoma=umifh óuH&aom tjcm;aemufqufwJG tjzpfrsKd;rsm;/ kuQonfjzpfaoma=umifh aemufqufwJGkuQa&mufaom tjzpfrsKd;rsm;/ ynmoif=um;cGifhr&Sdaoma=umifh aemufxyfjzpfaomtjzpfrsKd;rsm;ponfjzifh) rdrdoifwef;om;rsm;onf vl@tcGifhta&;tawG@tóuH&Sdygu - enf;vrf;opf (2) vlom;tm;vHk;twGuf wef;wljzpfonf (odk@) tm&SEdkifiHrsm;wGif taemufEdkifiHrsm;ESifh rwlonfh vl@tcGifhta&;pHcsdefpHE_ef;rsm;&Sdonf qdkaomtcsufrsm;tay: tzJG@ESpfzJG@cJGI tacstwifajymqdkEdkif onf? 68 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 68 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 69. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf vlYtcGifhta&;oifcef;pm(2) vltcGita&;ordi;f aMumif; Y hf k (Human Rights History) &nf & G , f c suf Ð vl@tcGifhta&;t,ltqrsm;onf vl@tcGifhta&;qdkaompum;vHk; ray:aygufrDuwnf;u vlw@kd xwif ude;f atmif;aecJ+h yD;jzpfa=umif; ay:vGipmjrifwwf&ef/ H G f G Ð vl@tcGifhta&;orkdif;a=umif; ay:aygufvmyHkudk em;vnfoabmaygufap&ef/ Ð vl@tcGifhta&;udk tjcm;trnfrsm;jzifh ynmay;v_H@aqmfEdkifa=umif; owdðyrdIenf;vrf;rsm; &SmazGwwfap&ef/ Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) (1) oifwef;om;rsm;udk udk;uG,f&mbmomtvdkuftkyfpkcJGyg? tu,fI bmomwlrsm;omjzpfaeygu vlrsKd;tvdkufcJGEdkif onf? od@k r[kwf vlO;D a&tnDtr#typk (3-4) pkcyg? k f GJ (2) ,cifoifcef;pmwGif avhvmcJhaom vl@tcGifhta&;ESifh vl@*k%foduQmrsm;. qdkvdkcsufrsm;udk jyefvnfpOf;pm;I rdrdwdk@udk;uG,fonfhbmomESifh ,Ofaus;r_rsm;wGif xdkqdkvdk csufrsm;jzifh t"dy`m,fwlaom qdkqHk;rcsufrsm;ukd jyefvnf pOf;pm;I tcsif;csif;aqG;aEG;apyg? (Oyrm - bmoma&; t& &efouyif arwWmxm;&ef a,±_urde@f qxm;/ jA[Rp&f l kd kd kd w&m;xGe;f um;&ef Akurde@f =um;xm;/ aiGyifracs;bJ ulnD < ay;&eftpPvmrfuajymxm;? vlr_a&;t&}udD;olukd±kdao/ ±G,fwludkav;pm;/ i,foludkoem;? udk,hfukdukd,f cspfovkd olrsm;udkvnf;cspf&ef/) (3) xdkaqG;aEG;csufrsm;tkyfpkvdkufjyefIwifjyapyg? D iscussion (tjyef t vS e f a qG ; aEG ; jcif ; ) Ð tb,fa=umifhf Dt&mrsm;udk a&G;+yD;ajymEkdifovJ? Ð xdkt&mrsm;onf vl@tcGifhta&;ESifh bmt"dy`m,fwlaeovJ? trSefwu,fqdkv#if vl@tcGifhta&;qdkaompum;vHk;ray:aygufrDuwnf;u vl@tcGifhta&;t,ltq ESifhqifwlaom tawG;tac:rsm;u vlom;wdkif;. ,Hk=unf&mtqdktrdef@/ ,Ofaus;r_tpOftvmxJwGifxGef;um; cJ+h yD;jzpfonf? pifppfq&aomf vl@tcGita&;qdonfrm zdEyruif;uif;jzifh vHvòkH cHòcHae&jcif;jzpfonf? ordi;f wav#muf kd hf k S dS f _ k k wGif zdEyorsm;/ apmfum;aESmuf,uorsm;atmufrS vGwajrmuf&eftwGuf vl@tcGita&;udk enf;rsK;d pHjk zifh wduyGJ dS f l S f l f hf k f 0if&if; vl@tcGifhta&;toGifv_yf&Sm;r_rsm; ay:aygufcJhonf? EdkifiHwumwGif vl@tcGifhta&;t,ltq ordkif;a=umif; b,fvdkay:aygufvmovJqdkonfudk avhvm&efvdktyfonf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 69hre pack.pmd 69 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 70. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Input - I (ta=umif;t&mESifhqufpyfonfh A[kokway;jcif; - 1) vl@tcGifhta&;tajccHtawG;tac:rsm;onf - Ð [dELa0usr;/ orRmusr;pm/ ud&rfusr;pm/ uGez;&Sy.tqdtrde@f / [rRL&mbDuOyawd@k wivnf;awG@&Eif N f f k f f l f k kd Gf dS dk onf? Ð [mrl&mbDuOyawGif rsuv;wvH;qH;vsif rsuv;wvH;csi; jyefavsm&rnf[aom OyapD&ifcsutcGihf kd f kH k k f kH k f f l f ta&;udkawGŒEdkifonf/ Ð BC 4-5 &mpku t&pPwdkw,f/ yavwdk tp&SdaomtawG;tac:ynm&Sifrsm;. tawG;tac:rsm;wGifvnf; vl@tcGifhta&;t,ltqrsm; yg0ifonf? Ð 1215 wGif t*FvefEkdifiHY bk&ifudkpnf;rsOf;cHbk&iftjzpfrS tm%mavsmhcsonfh r*~emumwmpmcsKyfonf vl@tcGita&;ESiywfoufI pHxm;ud;k um;aeonfh yxrqH;k ay:vmonfh pmcsKyjf zpfonf? (Magna Carter) fh hf Ð 1689 ckEpwif t*FvefYyif zdEycsKyfcs,aom bk&ifpepfxyfray:ayguvmonftwGuf vlxrS awmfvec+hJ yD; Sf G dS f f H f h k Sf aemuf t*Fvyv@l tcGita&;Oya[lI ay:ayguvmcJonf? (England Bill of Rights) df hf f h Ð 1789 ckEpwif ESp}f udrwiwif jyifopfawmfvea&;jzpfym;+yD;aemuf jyifopfEiiom;ESihf vlom;tcGita&; S f G f kd f kd S f G kd f H hf a=unmpmwrf; pwifay:ayguvmcJonf? (French Declaration of the Rights of Man) f h Ð 1776 wGif ajrmuftar&durS jynfe,f 13 cku t*FvyuvevufatmufrS vGwajrmufa=umif; vGwvyfa&; d f kd kd D f f a=unmpmwrf;udk xkwjf yefconf// (US Delaration of Independence) hJ Ð 1789 wGif tar&duef z,f&,fjynfaxmifptajccHOyaudk a&;qGcaomfvnf; vl@tcGita&;jyXmef;csursm; k J hJ hf f ryg0if[qum jynfe,frsm;rS vufrcHc=hJ uay? xk@d twGuf tajccHOyaudk jyifqifjznfpucsuf 10 ckðyvky+f yD;rS k kd hG f om jynfe,frsm;u vufcc=hJ uonf? Tod@k jzifh 1791 ckEpwif tar&duef vl@tcGita&;Oya ay:ayguvmcJh H Sf G hf f onf// (US Bills of Rights) Ð 1690wGif *|eavmh. tawG;tac:rsm;jzpfonfh touf&ici/hf vGwvyfci/hf ypPn;OpPmydiqicirsm; ay:ayguf f SfG f G f k f kd f G hf vmcJh+yD; ‚if;wdk@udk obm0tcGifhta&;rsm;[k owfrSwfvufcHcJh=uonf? 70 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 70 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 71. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf taxG a xG & S i f ; vif ; csuf r*~emumwmpmcsKyfonf vl@tcGifhta&;ESifhywfoufI yxrqHk;aomudk;um;onfhpmcsKyfjzpfaomfvnf; trSepifppfwif Ediiom;tm;vH;k twGur[kwyJ *k%oa&&Sd vlwef;pm;rsm;jzpfaom olaX;vluexH blZmrsm; f G kfH f f f kf G . tcGifhta&;udkom OD;pm;ay;cJhonf? xdkpmcsKyfwGif ypPnf;OpPmydkifqdkifcGifhESifh w&m;pD&ifa&;udk pepfwus jzpfap&ef t"duxm;I xnfoi;f xm;onf? xd@k tjyif xdtcsewif t"dutm;jzifh vlom;[laom pum;vH;k udk h G k df G (Human) vlom;[krazmfjyyJ (Men) a,musm;[kazmfjy+yD; trsK;om;rsm;ukd OD;pm;ay;I a&;qGcaom pmcsKyf f d J hJ omjzpfonf? r*~emumwmpmcsKyfwGif EdkifiHom;tm;vHk;twGuf umuG,fr_ray;Edkifaoma=umifh tcGifhta&; rsm;ydkrdkjynfhpHkpGm azmfjyxm;onfh t*Fvdyfvl@tcGifhta&;OyaxyfrHay:aygufvmcJhonf? xdktcGifhta&;Oya wGif vlrqefpmtjypf%fay;jcif;/ rw&m;tcGeaumufcjH cif;wdŒk rS uif;vGwciEihf rw&m;vkyc&ygu w&m;pGqkd G f f G hf S fH J Edicihf ponfEiiom;rsm;.tcGita&;udk umuG,ay;r_rsm;udk xnfoi;f a&;om;xm;+yD; vlwef;pm;tm;vH;k kfG h kd f H hf f h G cHpm;EdkifcGifh&Sda=umif; azmfjyxm;onf? xdk@a=umifh t*Fvdyfvl@tcGifhta&;Oyaonf t*FvefEdkifiH. zGJ@pnf;yHk tajccHOyaa&;qGJ&mwGif tvGefta&;ygonfh tkwfjrpfwckjzpfcJhonf? xdk@tjyif jyifopfEdkifiHwGifvnf; oufOD;qHydkifbk&ifpepfudkqef@usifonfhjyifopfawmfvSefa&;t+yD;wGifay: aygufvmaom jyifopfEdkifiHom;ESifhvlom;wdk@. tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;xJwGif ypPnf;OpPmydkifqdkifcGifh/ touf&SifvHkòcHcGifh/ vGwfvyfpGmxkwfazmfajymqdkcGifh tygt0ifEdkifiHom;wdk@. tcGifhta&;rsm;udk umuG,fay; onftcsursm;pGmudk xnfoi;f a&;om;xm;onf? xd@k twl tar&duefz@JG pnf;yHtajccHOyawGivnf; xdtcGihf h f h G k f k ta&;rsm;udk xnfhoGif;a&;qGJxm;onf? xdkodkŒ jznf;jznf;wdk;wufvmaom tcGifhta&;rsm;onf kwd, urBmppft+yD;wGif xGufay:vmaom tjynfjynfqdkif&m vl@tcGifhta&; a=unmpmwrf;twGuf udk;um;p&m tcsuftvufrsm;jzpfvmcJ+hyD; ‚if;pmcsKyfrsm;onf vl@tcGifhta&;v_yf&Sm;r_ordkif;wGif tvGefta&;}uD;ygonf? Input II (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; - 2) vl@tcGifhta&;pum;toHk;tE_ef;rygyJ xdkvrf;pOf&nf&G,fcsuftwkdif; aqmif&Gufvsuf&Sdaom wcsKd@vkyfief; pOfrsm;rSm atmufygtwkdif;jzpfonf? Ð Drdkua&pDxGef;um;a&; awmif;qdkaomv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;/ jynfolvlxktrsm;yg0ifqHk;jzwfaom tpdk;&pepfudk awmif;qdkwdkufyJG0ifjcif;/ Ð vlxt"dutzG@J tpnf; (Civil Society) - vGwvyfpm zG@J pnf;Edijf cif;/ rdrw@kd qENtwdi;yg0ifvyaqmifapjcif; k f G k d kf k f . wzGJ@ESifhwzGJ@ yl;aygif;aqmif&GufI tpdk;&.vdktyfcsufrsm;udk jznfhqnf;wifjyay;jcif;/ Ð w&m;Oyapd;rd;a&; (Rule of Law) - csK;azmufo&wi;ta&;,l&rnf? w&m;Oyatwki; ausmom; k k d l dS kd f df &ifom; rcGJjcm;yJwef;wlnDr#r_&Sd&rnf? csKd;azmufcH&oltm; Oyat& wm0ef,laqmif&Gufay;&rnfqdkonfh oabmw&m;rsm;jyef@yGm;atmifvkyfaqmifjcif;/ Ð vlrz@HG òzd;a&; (Development) - ynma&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ pm;0wfaea&;/ obm0ywf0ef;usiponfw@kd zG@H òzd;wd;wuf _ f k &efvdktyfonf? xdk@a=umihf vl@tokdif;t0kdif;wkd;wufatmifvkyfjcif;/ Ð bmoma&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm; - arwWmxm;wwfatmifv_HŒaqmfI/ y&[dwvkyfief;/ txl;vkyfaqmifay;r_ vkyfief;rsm;vkyfaqmifay;jcif;/ Ð +idrf;csrf;r_wnfaqmufjcif; (Peace Building) - tcsif;csif;t=um; t=urf;zufr_&yfwhHap+yD; +idrf;csrf;a&;udk wnfaqmufEdkif&efóud;yrf;aqmif&Gufay;jcif;/ Ð trsKd;orD;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm; - trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: t=urf;zufcH&r_rsm;yaysmufatmif vkyfaqmifjcif;/ trsdK; orD;rsm;. pGrf;&nfrsm;ESifhwm0efrsm;tay: av;pm;todtrSwfðyr_rsm;wdk;yGm;vmap&efESifh pD;yGm;a&;/vlr_ a&;ESifhEdkifiHa&;u¾rsm;wGif wef;wlyg0ifcGifh&&Sdvmatmifvkyfaqmifay;jcif;? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 71hre pack.pmd 71 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 72. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Ð vli,ftzGJ@tpnf;rsm; - vli,frsm;t=um; tcsif;csif; todtrSwfðyr_/ av;pm;r_/ yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_/ ponfh t&nftcsif;rsm;jrifhrm;vmap&ef avhusifhvkyfaqmifay;jcif;/ Ð EdiiawmftwGi; jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&; tpDtpOf National Reconciliation Program ( NRP) Conflict Resolution kfH f EdkifiHawmftwGif;wnf&Sdaeaom yÉdyuQrsm;udk +idrf;csrf;aomenf;jzifh ajyvnfatmifajz&Si;f Edkif&ef enf;vrf;&Sm vkyfaqmifay;jcif;/ txufygvyief;tpDtpOfrsm; tm;vH;k onf vlwi;f . k f kd *k%oum&&Sap&eftwGuf wef;wlnr#r/_ av;pm;r_/ tp&Saom f d Q d D d vl@tcGita&;oabmw&m; rsm;xGe;f um;atmif vkyaqmifae hf f aomvkyfief;pOf rsm;yifjzpfonf? xdkvkyfief;rsm;tm;vHk;onf vl@tcGifhta&;qdkaom pum;vHk;ukd toHk;ðyjcif;r&SdyJvl@tcGifht a&;xGe;f um;a&; vkyief;rsm;udk toGitrsKd ;rsKd ; trnftrsKd ;rsKd ;jzifh f f vkyfaqmifae=ujcif;yifjzpfonf? D eepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;.vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h E_ d i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf j cif ; ) oifwef;om;rsm;udk atmufygar;cGef;rsm;ar;I tkyfpk}uD;wGifjzpfap/ tkyfpki,fcJGIjzpfap aqG;aEG;cdkif;yg? Ð rdrdywf0ef;usifwGif vl@tcGifhta&;[k trnfrcHaomfvnf; vl@tcGifhta&;twGufvkyfaqmif/ yhHydk;ay; aeaomtzJG@rsm;/ vkyfief;rsm;&Sdygovm;/ Ð bma=umifh xdktzJG@rsm;.vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;/ vkyfief;pOfrsm;onf vl@tcGifhta&;ESifhqufpyfonf [kxif ygovJ? S ynthesis (rnf u J h o d k @ vk y f a qmif / umuG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f o nf u d k t ajz&S m vk y f a qmif j cif ; ) vl@tcGifhta&;onf wnf&Sdae+yD;om;yifjzpfonf? xdk@tjyif tcsKd@aomtawG;tac: t,ltqrsm;/ "avh xHk;pHrsm;/ tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;onf vl@tcGifhta&;trnfrwyf/ vl@tcGifhta&; pum;vHk;toHk;rðyaomfvnf; ‚if;wdk@ wGif vl@tcGifhta&;onf yg0ifae+yD;om;/ vkyfaqmifae+yD;om;yifjzpfonf? ,ckvdk bmoma&;rsm;xJwGif vl@tcGifh ta&; t,ltqrsm; yg0if+yD;om;udk avhvmawG@&&+yD;aemuf xdtcsuukd oifwef;om;rsm;taejzifh b,fvtoH;k dS k f kd csEdkifrvJ[k ar;jref;I tajzrsm;udk rSwfwrf;wifyg? vdktyfaom ypPnf;ud&d,mrsm; omrefpma&;ud&d,mrsm;/ zwf±_@avhvm&ef vl@tcGifhta&;ordkif;a=umif;pm&Guf/ avhvm&ef vl@tcGifhta&;ordkif;a=umif; (vufpGJpmtkyf tcef;-2)/ vl@tcGifhta&;qdkif&m bmoma&; tqdktrdef@rsm;/ oufqdkif&m vlrsKd;tvdkuf vlr_a&;/ ±kd;&m"avh tqdktrdef@rsm;/ r*~emumwm/ jyifopf/ tar&duefa=unmpmwrf;/ rSwfcsuf? Ð vl@tcGifhta&;ordkif;a=umif;onf &Snfvsm;wwfojzifh vlrsm;pdwf0ifpm;ap&ef ordkif;±kyfyHkrsm;a&; qJGjcif;/ yHkrsm;uyfI &Sif;jyjcif;rsm;vkyfaqmifoifhonf? Ð ordkif;a=umif;wGif ckESpfrsm;xuf vl@tcGifhta&;awmif;qdkr_t,ltqrsm; tqifhqifhrnfuJhodk@ ajymif;vJvmyHkudk ydkrdkOD;pm;ay;&rnf? oufOD;qHydkifbk&ifudk wGef;vSefaom blZGmrsm;rSwqifh EdkifiH awmf&dS jynfovx/k xdrwqifh tjynfjynfqi&mtqiftxd wd;k wufvmyH/k tcGita&;[ktrnf l l k S kd f h hf 72 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 72 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 73. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf cHaomfvnf; xdkacwftajctaet& trsKd;orD;rsm;.tcGifhta&;udk todtrSwfðy&efarhavsmh aeyHkrsm;udk xnfhoGif;axmufjyoifhonf? Ð A[kow (Input) wGif vl@tcGifhta&;tajccH&Sdaom oifwef;om;rsm;taejzifh óudwifzwfvm+yD; k aqG;aEG;Ekdifap&eftwGuf avhvma&;pmwrf;rsm;udk óudwifjzef@a0xm;oifhonf? Ð vufawG@b0ESihf qufpyfjcif; (Deepening)wGif oifwef;om;taejzifh tawG@tóuHrsm;/ A[kow k rsm;&Sd+yD;jzpfygu EdkifiHwumvl@tcGifhta&;ordkif;a=umif;uJhodk@ jrefrmEdkifiHordkif;a=umif;wGif vl@tcGita&;v_y&m;r_ordi;f a=umif; (Burma Human Rights Timeline) udk okawoevky/f jyifqif hf fS k cdkif;Edkifonf? Ð Oyrm- / oDaygrif;ygawmfraemufyi;f / t*FvyuveD / *syefuve/D 1948/ 1962/ 1988/ l kd d f kd kd kd kd 1996/ 2000/ 2004/ o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 73hre pack.pmd 73 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 74. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf vlYtcGifhta&;oifcef;pm(3-4) tjynfjynfqi&mvltcGita&;aMunmpmwrf; ordi;f aMumif;ESitydrsm; kd f Y hf k hf k f (tajccHtqif) Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) History and h Article (Basic Level) &nf & G , f c suf Ð tjynfjynfqdkif&mvl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf; (UDHR) ay:aygufvmyHkordkif;a=umif;udkod&Sdvmap &ef ‚if;a=unmpmwrf;yg tydkfrsm;. t"dy`m,frsm;udk od&Sdvmap&ef? Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) (1) UDHR tydkfrsm; a&;om;xm;aom pm&Gufrsm;udk oifwef;om;rsm;tm; ay;a0yg? (2) xdpm&Gursm;udk owfrwxm;aom ae&mt0ef;t0di;f twGi;f rdrEpouf&mae&mwGif oGm;a&muf 0Suci;f yg/ k f S f k dSf f kd rdrd0Sufxm;aomae&mudk rdrdrSwfxm;&rnfjzpfovdk jyefvnf&,l&ef tvGefcufcJonfhae&mrsm;ESifhrdrdcE<m udk,fwGifr0Suf&ef owday;&rnf? (3) pm&Gursm;0Su+f yD;ygu tm;vH;k jyefvmI puf0i;f yHjk yef0i;f cdi;f yg? wa,mufEiwa,mufvufcsi;f uef@vef@,uf f kd kd k S hf S I udici;f yg? xd@k aemuf ckeu0Suxm;aom pm&Gursm;udk wa,mufe@J wa,muf vufcsi;f rðzwf/ pum;vJr k f kd f f ajymbJ jyefI,lcdkif;yg? vdktyfygu oifwef;enf;jyu pm&Gufrsm;udk ulnD,lay;Edkifonf? (4) pm&Gufrsm;,lpOfwGif pnf;urf;rcsKd;azmufap&efESifh wOD;csif;vkyfaqmifaomtðytrlrsm;udk teD;uyfapmifh =uyfavhvmyg? (5) tm;vHk;&+yDqdkygu vufwJGjyefðzwfI tarmajzapyg? Discussion (tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;) Ð b,fvdkcHpm;&ovJ? Ð pm&GuawG&atmifb,fvvkyc/Jh bmawGjzpfchv/J f kd f J Ð bmtcuftcJóuHcJhovJ/ Ð b,fvdkatmifjrifatmifvkyfcJhovJ? Ð bmoifcef;pm&ovJ? ,ck&&Sdaompm&Gufrsm;onf vuf&SdumvwGifEdkifiH wumu av;pm;vdkufem&efwm0ef&Sdaom tjynfjynfqdkif&m vl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;rS tydkfrsm;jzpfonf? rdrdvdkcsifaomtcGifhta&;rsm;udk rdrdwdk@jyef&atmif vdkuf&Sm=u&mwGif udk,fhpm&Gufomudk,f&csifaomolrsm;/ rdrd vdcsiaomfvnf; rdrtoHur=um;=uI rdrpm&Guukd aemufq;kH k f d kd d f rS&olrsm;&Sdonf? wa,mufwrsKd;qEN&Sd=u+yD; wa,mufESifh wa,muf wdkifyif!‡dE_dif;jcif;r&SdI tm;vHk;oabmwlatmif vkyfaqmif&mwGif tcuftcJrsm;pGm&Sd=uonf? 74 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 74 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 75. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf xdk@twl kwd,urBmppft+yD; EdkifiHwumuvufcHaom vl@tcGifhta&;Oyarsm;jzpfay:vmatmifvdktyf a=umif; urBmEdkifiHtoD;oD;u vufcHcJhaomfvnf; tm;vHk;oabmwlaom pHcsdefpH!$ef;a&;qJGa&;udk aqG;aEG;&mwGif EdkifiHa&;t,ltqrwlaomEdkifiHrsm;/ udk,fusKd;pD;yGm;csif;rwlaom tpdk;&rsm;/ ordkif;aemufcH/ bmoma&;rwlaom Ediirsm;t=um; tacstwifjiif;cH&r_rsm;jzpfconf? vuf&umvwGif wurBmvH;k uav;pm;vduem&efwm0ef&aom kfH k hJ dS k f dS tjynfjynfqdkif&mvl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf; b,fvdkay:aygufvmovJqdkwm avhvm=uzdk@vdktyfonf? Input (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) Ð yxrurBmppft+yD; 1919 ckEpwif Ekiiaygi;f csKyftoif;}uD;ukd wnfaxmifcaomfvnf; ratmifjrifyJ kw, S f G dfH hJ d urBmppfxyfrHjzpfyGm;cJhonf// Ð kwd,urBmppftwGif; [pfwvmacgif;aqmifaom emZDygwDonf *sL;vlrsKd; (6)oef;ausmftygt0if tjcm; vlrsm;tm; vlom;csif;rw&m; &ufpuf/ ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;owfjzwfcJhonf? Ð emZDygwonf tpGe;a&muftrsK;om;0gudk usio;I *sL;rsm;/ *spypDrsm;/ ud,t*F gcsK@d worsm;/ vdiwcspol D f d hf kH f k f hJ l f l f rsm;udkrsKd;ðzwfowf&ef tpDtpOfcsrSwfcJhonf? Ð yxrqHk;tqifhwGif xdkolrsm;udkoD;oef@ owfrSwfxm;aom&yfuGufrsm;odk@ajymif;a&$@aexdkifaponf? Ð kwd,tqifhwGif ac|;wyfpcef;rsm;odk@ ajymif;a±$@I tvkyfapcdkif;cJhonf? Ð wwd,tqifhwGif tqdyfaiG@rsm;v$wfI tpkvdkuftòyHvdkufowfjzwfcJhonf? Ð xdk@a=umifh ppft+yD;wGif emZDppfacgif;aqmifrsm;omru t&yfom;wm0ef&Sdolrsm;tygt0if pkpkaygif;vl ta,muf (200)ausmfudk Ek&ifbwfòrd@wGif ppfcHk±kH;wifppfaq;tjypfay;cJhonf? Ð ta&S@tm&SwGifvnf; *syefrsm;.zufqpfpepfa=umifh wm0ef&Sdolrsm;ukd *syefEkdifiHwdkusKdòrd@wGif cHk±kH;wifppfaq; tjypfay;cJhonf? Ð ppftwGif;usL;vGefolrsm;udk cHk¶kH;wifppfaq;ta&;,lr_rsm;omru tvm;wlvlom;csif; rw&m;&ufpufr_/ ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;owfjzwfr_rsm; xyfrHray:aygufap&ef/ +idrf;csrf;a&;xGef;um;a&;ESifh yÉdyuQcsKyf+idrf;a&;twGuf EdkifiHtpdk;&rsm;u óud;yrf;vkyfaqmifvmcJh=uonf? Ð urBmtES@H wif Ediitpd;&rsm;u Ediiom;rsm;.tcGita&;rsm;udumuG,ay;Ediaom/ wrBmvH;ESihf v$r;òcHEif G kfH k kfH hf k f kf k f kd onfh vl@tcGifhta&;pHcsdefpH!Gef;rsm;ay:xGufvm&ef awmif;qdkoHrsm;xGufay:vmcJhonf? Ð kwd,urBmppf+yD;aemuf 1945 atmufwkdbmv (24)&ufwGif xdkuJhodk@aom ppfyGJtedXm¶Hkrsm; xyfrHray: aygufap&eftwGuf EkdifiHwumyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_&Sd&ef/ urBm}uD;zGH@òzd;wdk;wufvmap&ef/ vl@tcGihfta&; umuG,fapmifha&Smuf&ef &nf&G,fcsufrsm;jzifh urBmhukvor*~ ay:aygufvmcJhonf? Ð EkdifiHwumrS pkaygif;aqG;aEG;vm+yD; ukvor*~yÉdnmOfpmwrf; tydkf (68)t& vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sif (Human Rights Commission) ukd 1946 ckEpwif zG@J pnf;cJonf? Sf G h Ð xdkaumfr&SifrSOD;aqmifI ukvor*~yÉdnmOfpmwrf;wGifyg0ifaom vl@tcGifhta&;ESifhvGwfvyfcGifhqdkaom t"dy`m,frsm;udk zGifhqdk&Sif;vif;jyEdkifrnfh tjynfjynfqdkif&mvl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;ukd jyifqifa&;qGJ&ef wm0efay;cJhonf? Ð tar&duef orRwuawmf t,fvem¶kpbJh (Eleanor Roosevelt). OD;aqmifrj_ zifa&;qGcaom xdpmwrf; D h J hJ k tay: urBmhEdkifiHrsm;u txl;pdwf0ifpm;cJh=uonf? Ð xdkaumfr&Sifu rl=urf;a&;qGJwifjyvmaomtydkfrsm;/ zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOyaaygif; (55) ck udkavhvmcJhonf/ Ð 1947 Zefe0g&DvrS 1948 ckESpftwGif; tpdk;&rsm;.oHk;oyfcsufudk vufcHcJhonf/ Ð tpnf;ta0;aygif; (81) }udrfusif;ycJh&onf/? jyifqifr_aygif; (168) }udrfðyvkyfcJh&onf/ Ð tpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,frsm;/ tpkd;&r[kwfaom tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;jzifh t}udrf}udrfaqG;aEG;wkdifyifn‡dE_dif;r_rsm; vkyfaqmift+yD; 1948 ck/ ZGefvwGif tjynfjynfqdkif&mvl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;ukd t+yD;owfcJhonf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 75hre pack.pmd 75 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 76. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Ð 1948 ck/ DZifbmv (10) &ufae@wGif jyifopfEkdifiH/ yJ&pfòrd@wGifusif;yaom urBmhukvor*~taxGaxGnD vmcHrSaeI xdka=unmpmwrf;udk twnfðyjyXmef;EdkifcJhonf? Ð EdkifiHaygif; (48) EkdifiHu axmufcHcJhonf? Ð bJvwf&yf/ csuupvdaA;uD;,m;/ ydvef/ aqmftma&;bD;,m;/ awmiftmz&du/ ,lu&de;f / qdA,uf f kd k k D k D jynfaxmifpkESifh ,l*dkpvm;AD;,m;ponfh EdkifiH(8) EkdifiHwdk@u rJray;bJ =um;aecJh=uonf? Ð jrefrmEkdifiHrS axmufcHcJhonf? Ð uef@uGufonfh EdkifiHvHk;0r&SdbJ twnfðyjyXmef;EdkifcJhonf? Ð tjynfjynfqdkif&mvl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;wGif tydkfaygif; (30) yg0ifygonf? vl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;udk aqG;aEG;=u&mwGif taemufEkdifiH (14) Ed k i f i H u Ð vlom;wdi; arG;&mygtcGita&;tjzpf vufcconf? kf hf H hJ Ð wef;wlnr#rEihf rcGjJ cm;a&;tajccHrukd wifjyonf? D _ S l tar&duwdkuftv,fydkif;ESifh vufwiftar&du EkdifiHaygif; (20)u Ð taemufEiirsm;.t,ltqudk vufcconf? kd f H H hJ Ð ydrjkd yif;xefav;eufaompum;vH;udk oH;csionf? k k k f qd k & S , f v pf E d k i f i H r sm; (qd k A D , uf j ynf a xmif p k E S i f h ta&S › O a&myEk d i f i H tcsKd @ )u Ð rwfp0gudvufuixm;/ vl@tcGita&;qdonfrm t&if;&SipepfEihf f k kd f hf k S f S udkvdkeDpepfatmufwGifomvdktyf/ uGefjrLepftodkif;t0dkif;twGif; rvdktyf[k wifjy=uonf? Ð pwmviftm%myHkpHrsKd;udkom vdkvm;cJhonf? tm&S (14) Ek d i f i H u Ð &yfwnfcsufjyif;jyif;xefxef r&SdcJhyg? Ð rGwqvifEiijH zpfaom aqmftma&;bD;,m;ESihf ygupPwefEiiw@kd u f kd f D kd f H ,Ofaus;r_xHk;wrf;pOfvmudk owdxm;&ef axmufjycJhonf? tmz&d u ef E d k i f i H (4) Ed k i f i H u - Ð rl=urf;tydkf (1)wGif bk&m;ocifu zefqif;ay;xm;csuft& [laomtcsufudkxnfhcsif/ tcsKd@u obm0 w&m;t& [kxnfhcsif=uonf? Ð tydkf (&) Oyaa&S›wGif w&m;Oyaa&S›arSmuf vlwdkif;wef;wlnDr#r_&Sd&rnfukd awmiftmz&duEdkifiHu oabmrwlcJh/ Tonfukd usefaomEkdifiHrsm;tm;vHk;u uef@uGufcJhI vufcHoGm;cJhonf? Ð uGefjrLepfEkdifiHrsm;u EkdifiHom;/ EkdifiHa&;tcGifhta&;rsm;om yg0ifaea=umif;axmufjycJhonf? Ð aemufq;wGif pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra&;/ ,Ofaus;r_Eiqufpyfonftyd22/ 23/ 24/ 25/ 26/ 27/ 28 wd@k ukd kH _ S hf h k f jznfhpGuf/ tcsKd@aomtykdfrsm;ukd tajymif;tvJðyvkyf+yD;aemuf vufcHcJhonf? Ð aqmftma&;bD;,m; ud,pm;vS,u tydf (18) wGiyg0ifaom bmoma&;ajymif;vJciukd uef@uuc/hJ D k f f k f G hf G f odk@aomf tjcm;olrsm;u 0dkif;0ef;qef@usifcJh=uonf? Ð tcsKd@uufovpfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;u tydkf (16)ygonfh vufxyf&mwGif usm;/ r wef;wlnDr#cGifhESifh ywfoufI ar;cGef;rsm;xkwfcJhaomfvnf; aemufydkif;wGifjyefvufcHcJhonf? 76 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 76 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 77. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf tjynfjynfqdkif&m vl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf; ay:aygufvmyHkudk avhvmt+yD;wGif xdkpmwrf;wGifyg0ifaom tydaygi;f (30) udk qufvufavhvm=urnf? k f Deepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;. vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h E_ d i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) oifwef;ydk@csolu jyxm;aom ±kyfyHkrsm;teuf rdrd&&Sdxm;aom tydkfrsm;ESifh udkufnDaom ±kyfyHkrsm;udk a&G;cs,f&rnfjzpfa=umif; ajymjyyg? oifwef;ydk@csolu vdkufvHI rSefrrSef ulnD=unfhay;Edkifonf? tm;vH;k rSe+f yDqygu tkypi,frsm;cJI rdr&&Sxm;aom tykrsm;udk (1)rdrb,fvem;vnfonf (2) xdtcsuf kd fk G d d df d kd k rsm;cHpm;&r_ odk@r[kwf csKd;azmufcH&r_tawG@tóuH Oyrmrsm;udk tkyfpki,fxJwGif wa,mufcsif; aqG;aEG;cdkif;yg? tkyfpkwGif; tcsif;csif;tjyeftvSefulnDay;Edkifonf? tkyfpkvdkufaqG;aEG;+yD;ygu tkyfpk}uD;wGif wa,mufcsif; jyefvnfwifjycdkif;yg? oifwef;ydk@csolu wOD;csif; wifjycsursm;udk oifye;f ay:wGif Z,m;uGujf zifrwwrf;wifyg? vdtyfcsursm;udjk znfpuyg? tjcm;olrsm;. oabm f k h S f k f h G f xm;rsm;/ wifjycsufrsm;udkawmif;cHyg? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 77hre pack.pmd 77 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 78. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf tyd k f t"d y ` m ,f Oyrm ¹cG i f ; csuf 1 vlwdkif;arG;zGm;uwnf;u wef;wljzpf 2 usm;/ r/ vlrsKd ;/ tom; ta&mif/ tom;ta&mifcjGJ cm;r_ jcGi;f csur&Sd f bmomcGJjcm;r__r&Sd& ZmwferZmwfjrifcjGJ cm;r_ d hf h trsKd ;orD;rsm;tm; cJjG cm;r_ 3 touf&ici/fh vHòk cHci/fh SfG G - vHavmufaompm;0wfaea&;r&Sr_ k d ao%fudktpdk;&uusifhoHk;jcif; (pm;0wfaea&;/ - w&m; Oyapk;d rd;k a&;r&Sjd cif;/ (toufrjynfhol/udk,f0efaqmif a=umuf&G@Hjcif;rSuif;a0;jcif;/ ESifhpdwfa&m*gonfudk ao%fray; awmifwjcif;rSuif;a0;jcif;) h Edkif)ao-udk,f0efzsufcscGifh jyXmef; xm;jcif; 4 u|eftjzpfapcdkif;jcif;rðy&/ - ay:wmqGjJ cif;/ - Slavery convention - vcwef&mwefa=u;r&jcif;/ - vkytm;ay;apcdi;f jcif;/ f k u|eðf yjcif;wm;qD;a&;qdi&m kf - qENrygbJ t"rRapcdi;f jcif;/ k - ppfo@Hk yrf; (ac|;wyf)/ pmcsKyfwGif - apcdkif;r_a=umifh&kyfydkif;§pdwfydkif; - aqmif=umòrdif (Zdrr,f)/ f tao;pddwf=unfh xdcuepfemr_jzpfapjcif;/ kd f - t"rRjynfwefqmvkyapjcif; / h f Edkifonf? - apcdi;f olu tjrwfxw&ef k k f - uav;vkyom;apcdi;f jcif;/ f k &nf&,csujf zifci;f jcif; G f h kd - uav;ppfom;apcdi;f jcif;/ k 5 rw&m; ESdyfpufjcif;/ - tusO;f om;tm; &duEujf cif;/ k f S - Convention Against - &kyyi;f / pdwyi;f jyif;xefpm f kd f kd G - wduywjf cif; k f d Torture (CAT) emusirj_ zpfap&rnf? f - tdrwi;f t=urf;zufjcif;/ f G ESdyfpufr_wm;qD;a&;pmcsKyfwGif - &nf&G,fcsuf&Sd&Sdjzifhvkyfaqmif - vdiapmfum;jcif;/ f tao;pdwf=unfhEdkifonf? jcif;jzpf&rnf? - *k%oumxdcuatmif qufqI f d Q kd f H - usL;vGefolonfwm0ef&Sdol jcdr;f ajcmufjcif;/ jzpf&rnf/ (Oya0efxrf;/ tpdk;&wm0ef&Sdol/ &J/ ppfom;/ axmufvr;f a&;) S 6 Oyaa&Swivom;uJo@kd qufqci/hf - ppfc±;Hk jzifh pD&ifjcif; › Gf l h HG kH - a&SaeiSm;cGi/hf › - use;f rma&;apmifa&Smufcci/hf h HG - oufaot,lc&&Sci/hf H dG - av#mufvci/hf JG - trsm;=um;emcGi/hf jiif;qdyici/hf k kd f G - rdom;pkEiqufo,ci/hf S hf G fG - tmrcHcsu&ydici/hf f kfG - tusOf;om;vrf;!Gefr_/ - tjrefq;kH w&m;pD&ifci/hf f G 7 Oyaa&S›wef;wl&SdcGifh - vmbfay;r_ -jcGif;csufr&Sd/ - vdi/f tqiftwef;/ &mxl; h - &mxl;t& rsuEmvdujf cif; f S k w&m;a&;0efxrf; usifhxHk;rsm;wGif - bufvuI qH;k jzwfjcif; kd f tr_rsm;udk trSeftwdkif;pD&if&ef - rsK;d ¶d;k / bmom rcGjJ cm;bJ Oyaa&Swif wef;wl&cihf › G dS G vrf;!Gefxm;onf? 78 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 78 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 79. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf 8 OyatultnD,lcGifh - wdi=f um;aomfvnf;ta&;r,ljcif; - jcGif;csufr&Sdyg? k - csK;d azmufc&ygu wdi=f um;/ H k - EdkifiHwumyef=um;csufrsm;udk rvdkuf ta&;,l/ avsma=u;awmif; f emjcif;/ Edijf cif;/ k 9 OyarJhzrf;qD;jcif; - rusL;vGefyJrouFmr_jzifhzrf;jcif;/ jcGi;f csursm;rSm - f - 0&rf;yg&jcif;/ - tcserawmf bmta=umif;jycsurS d f f EdkifiHawmfykefuefr_/ t=urf;zufr_ - zrf;qD;&efwm0ef&Sdoluom zrf; ray;bJ ac:aqmifom;jcif;/ G v#yfwjyuf&mZ0wfr_rsm;wGif qD;jcif; - v#K@d 0uae&mrsm;wGif csKyfaESmifjcif;/ S f &SdEdkifonf? - rzrf;qD;rD bma=umifzrf;& h a=umif;udk a=unm&jcif;/ tcsdK@EdkifiHrsm;wGif ta&;ay: - csKyfxm;rnfhae&mtoday;jcif;/ Oyarsm;jyXmef;xm;+yD; - zrf;qD;pm&if;rSwywifjcif;/ f kH xdvyx;kH vkyenf;rsm;twdi;f tvkybJ k kf f k f - rdom;pk/ a&S@aeESiqufo,cihf hf G fG zrf;qD;cGifhjyKxm;onf? ay;jcif;/ - tjrefq;kH w&m;pD&ifjcif; 10 r#waomw&m;pD&ifcHydkifcGifh/ - ppfc±;kH jzifh pD&ifjcif;/ kH jcGif;csufrsm;rSm- vltrsm;=um;emcGifh - axmifA;l wGif w&m;±H;k jzifh pD&ifjcif; - toufrjynfao;aom uav; h - w&m;vd/k w&m;cHrsm;&Sjd cif;/ - oufaorcdivbJ pD&ifjcif; k f kH rsm;yg0ifaeaomtr_rsm; - oufao/ a&S@aersm;&Sjd cif;/ - EdiiawmfyeuefrEihf Edii. kfH k f _ S kfH - Oyau|rf;usifolrsm;uavhvm v#Kd @0ucsursm; aygu=f um;ap S f f Edijf cif;/ k Ediaomtr_rsm; kf 11 taxmuftxm;r&Sdv#if tjypf - oufaocHr&SbJ axmif%fcsjcif;/ d jcGif;csufr&Sdyg? r&Sd? - xifa=u; oHo,jzifh trde@f csjcif;/ - trde@f rcsrcsi;f pGypc&aom ol - pD&ifcsurcscif owif;wGif w&m;cH f JG H f omjzpf/ w&m;cHr[kw/f tjzpfa&;om;jcif;/ - trdef@rcsrcsif; tjypf&Sdonf[k owif;a=unmIr&/ raumif;aom&nf&G,fcsufjzifh - tifwmeuf/ pmrsm;/ cd;k zwfjcif;/ jcGif;csufrsm;rSm 12 tdrtwGi;f 0ifa&mufjcif;/ f - zke;f toHoi;f jcif;/ G - trsm;jynfoltusdK;udk um zkef;ckd;em;axmifjcif;rðy&/ - Oyat&xufykd+yD; EkdufEkdufc|wf uG,f&ef/ t=urf;zufr_udkwm;qD; -yk*vu vGwvyfci/hf ykiqif ~ d f G d f kd c|wf ppfaq;ar;jref;&SmazGjcif;/ &efta=umif;jyI tcsdK@EdkifiHrsm; cGiukd xdcujf cif; hf kd wGifOyat&cGifhjyKxm;onf? 13 vGwfvyfpGmoGm;vmcGifh - *dwrsm;xm;¶SI ppfaq;jcif;/ f d jcGif;csufrsm;rSm - wdi;f jynftwGi;f oGm;vmcGihf k - ta=umif;trsK;d rsKd ;jyI oGm;vm - rdrdwdkif;jynfwGif;omjzpfonf? ydwyifrrðyoif/h f _ cGiywyifjcif;/ hf d f - ta&;ay:tajctaersdK; - Ediiu;l vufrwrsm;udk vG,f kfH S f - EdkifiHul;vufrSwfrsm;rxkwfay;jcif;/ - tE W&m,f&Sdaomae&mrsdK;/ ulpmxkway;&rnf? G f - trsm;vH+k cHKr_/ tusKd ;pD;yGm; xdcuf kd apaomae&mrsKd ; 14 rw&m;tjypfay;cH&ygu (tjcm; - kuQonftjzpftodtrSwfrjyKjcif;/ kuQonfpmcsKyfwGif Ekiiwi) cdvcihf awmif;cHyicihf d f H G f k H_ G kd f G - twif;t=uyfae&yfodk@jyefydk@jcif; tao;pdwf=unfhEdkifonf? - qENrygyJ twif;t=uyff jyefy@dk cGifhr&Sd? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 79hre pack.pmd 79 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 80. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf 15 vlwi;f EdiiwEdii. Ediiom; jzpfci/f h - EdiijH cm;om;ESivufxyfI Ediiom; kd k f H k f H k f H G kf hf kfH - rnfol@udkrS EdkifiHom;tjzpfrS jzpfcihf z,f&m;vdujf cif;/ G S k ta=umif;usK;d rJh ypfy,fcir&S/d G hf - wdi;f &if;om;tcsKd @ukd Ediiom; tjzpf k kfH - ajymif;vJciukd jiif;y,fcir&S/d G hf G hf todtrSwrjyKjcif;/ f 16 t&G,fa&muf+yD;olwdkif; rdrdqENjzifh - t&G,ra&mufyJ tdraxmifcsjcif;/ f f vufxyfxdrf;jrm;cGifh/ - bmom/ vlrsK;d rwlI cJjG cif;/ - vufxyftdrfaxmifðycGifh/ - qENrwlbJ t"rRvufxyfr_/ vufrxyfcGifh/ - t&G,a&muf+yD; ESpO;D qENwl f f 17 vlwdkif;udk,fydkifypPnf;ydkifqdkifcGifh - ypPn;f rsm; vk,ufzsuq;D jcif;/ f - a&$@ajymif;I&aomypPnf; - &Gma&G@ajymif;apjcif;/ - a&$@ajymif;Ir&aomypPnf; - cGijhf yKcsur&SbJ "mwfy/kH toHrsm;udk f d - ynm(rlyici) kd f G hf oH;k jcif;/ - owif;/ "gwy/kH toH f 18 vGwvyfpm ud;k uG,ci/hf f G fG - bmoma&;vlenf;pkrsm;tay:cGjJ cm; - bmomul;ajymif;cGi/hf 0wfjyKcGi/hf zdEyjf cif;/ dS taqmuftOD aqmufci/hf G -bmoma&;taqmuftODrsm;zsufjcif;/ bmoma&;yGusi;f ycGi/hf bmom J pmayrsm;xkwfcGifhr&Sd/ a[majymcGifhr&Sd/ a&;pmayxkwa0cGi/hf a[majymcGi/hf f &HyHkaiG&SmcGifh? 19 vGwvyfpm xkwazmfajymqdci/hf f G f kG - Ediia&;ygwukd pnf;&k;H cGirjyKjcif;/ kfH D hf owif;&,lcGifh/ - pmaypDppfa&;vkyfjcif;/ - owif;rsm;em;axmifcirjyKjcif;/ G hf - tpdk;&tay: a0zefolrsm;tm; zrf;qD;jcif;/ 20 +idrf;csrf;pGmzJG@xm;aom - tzG@J rsm; 0ifciukd wm;qD;jcif;/ G hf aomtzGJ@rsm;odk@ - tzGJ@0ifv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;ydwfyifjcif;/ qENjzif0ifci/hf qEQr&Sygur0ifci) h G d G hf - tzJ@G rxuatmif aESmuf,ujf cif;/ S G f S - twif;t=uyfr0ifrae& 0if&jcif;/ 21 vlwi;f tpd;k &wGif yg0ifci/hf kd G - a&G;aumufyGJrusif;yjcif;/ - qENray;cGi/hf J &vmfrav;pm;jcif;/ - ud,wiyg0ifa&G;cGi/hf k f kd f - vGwfvyfw&m;r#w/oef@&Sif;/ tcserereusi;f yonfh a&G; d f S f S f aumufyrsm; usi;f yay;&ef JG - &vmfudkav;pm;&ef/ 80 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 80 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 81. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf 22 vlwi;f vlrb0 zlva&;cHpm;cGi/hf kd _ kH - ppfrxrf;a[mif;rsm;cHpm;cGir&Sjd cif;/ _ hf TtcGifhta&;rsm;onf tpdk;&. - usef;rma&;apmihfa&Smufr_ -vkyfief;cGifwGif xdcdkuf%f&m&ygu pdwfapwemESifh EdkifiH.zHG@òzd;wdk;wuf - yifpif/ avsma=u;&cGi/hf f epfema=u;r&jcif;/ r_/ aiGa=u;wd@k tay:wGif txl;rSwnf D - touftmrcH&cGi/hf aq;cGi/hf - bd;k bGm;&dyomrsm; rvHavmufjcif; f k aewwfonf? rD;zGm;cGi/hf 23 vlwi;f tvkyvyci/hf tvkyorm; kd f k fG f - tvkycirsm; use;f rma&;ESihf rnD fGf jcGi;f csurm f S or*~0ifcGifh/ nGwjf cif;/ - vlwdkif;tvkyfvkyfEdkifaomfvnf; - xduoifaomvpm&&Sjd cif;/ k f h - xduoifaomvpmr&jcif;/ k f h toufrjynfhao;aom uav;rsm; - tvkycivòkH cHa&;/ oifawmf fGf h - usm;r vkycrwlnjD cif;/ f ryg0ifyg? EdkifiHawmfu tvkyfvkyfEdkif aomtvkycse&jdS cif;/ f d f - toufrjynfao;aom uav; h onfh tedrq;kH toufukd owfrwf hf S - tvkya&G;cs,Eijf cif;/ wef;wl f f kd vkyom;rsm; apcdi;f jcif;/ f k ay;&ygonf? tvkyftwGuf vkyfcwlwl&jcif;/ 24 tyrf;ajztem;,lcGifh/ - vpmrJh tcseyci;f jcif;/ d f kd kd TtcGifhta&;rsm;onf tpdk;&. - tvkycsef owfrway;jcif;/ f d S f - tm;vyf&ufrsm;wGifvkyftm;ay;ap pdwfapwemESifh EdkifiH.zHG@òzd;wdk;wufr_/ - em;&ufowfrSwfay;jcif;/ jcif;/ aiGa=u;wdk@tay:wGif txl;rSDwnfae - tcseytwGuf tcseya=u;cHpm; d f kd d f kd wwfonf? &jcif;/ 25 vHavmufaomvlaer_ tqiftwef; k h - tpm;tpmvHkavmufr_r&Sd/ TtcGifhta&;rsm;onf tpdk;&. pdwf ESihf aq;ukor_cpm;cGi/hfH - aq;±kwif aq;0g;r&S/d rjynfp/kH H G h apwemESifh EdkifiH.zHG@òzd;wdk;wufr_/ aiG - aetdr/f aq;0g;/ tpm;tpm/ - ukefaps;E_ef;rw&m;jrifhrm;jcif;/ a=u;wd@k tay:wGitxl; rSwnfaewwf f D vlwi;f &&SEi&rnf/ kd d kd f - aiGa=u;azmif;yGjcif; onf? - tpm;tpmrsm;onf t[m& jynf/h ab;uif;/ zlvr/_ ,Ofaus; kH r_Eiuunr&&rnf? S hf kd f D _ dS - aetdronf use;f rma&;ESihf uduf f k nD/ qufo,a&;aumif;/ vlwi;f G f kd &&SEi/f w&m;0ifvòkH cHr&/dS ,Ofaus;r_ d kd _ ESiuun/D aiGa=u; wwfEir&/dS hf kd f kd f _ 26 vlwdkif;ynmoifcGifh/ - ausmif;p&dwfjrifhvGef;jcif;/ TtcGifhta&;rsm;onf tpdk;&. - vlwdkif;oifEdkif&rnf? - tqifjh rifbmom&yfrsm;Y trsK;d h pdwfapwemESifh EdkifiH.zHG@òzd; - tedrq;kH rlvwef;ynmudk tcrJh hf orD;rsm;wufa&mufcirðy/ G hf wdk;wufr_/ aiGa=u;wdk@tay:wGif roifrae&/ txufwef;udk - aus;vufaorsm;wGif pmoif txl; rSDwnfaewwfonf? wufEiatmif kd f ausmif; r&Sjd cif;/ vrf;zGifhay;&rnf? - ynma&;tmrcHcsufr&Sdjcif;/ - oif=um;aomynma&;onf - tprf;oyfcHynma&;jzpfaejcif;/ toH;k csEiaom/ tcGita&;/ kd f hf - wdi;f &if;om;pmayudausmif;Y k k wef;wlnDr#r_wdk@udk wefzdk;xm; oif=um;cGirjyKjcif; hf aomynma&;jzpf&rnf? 27 ,Ofaus;r_b0wGif yg0ifci/hf G - ,Ofaus;r_tarGtESpfzsufpD;jcif; - t0wftpm;/ yGawmf/ *Dw J - ordi;f udk azsmufzsu/f jyifqifjcif;/ k tqdtu/ ta&;twD;/ bmom k - ¶d;k &mxH;k pHrsm;udk usio;kH cGirðyjcif;/ hf hf pum;/ pmay/ tpm;tpm/ ,Ofaus;r_oauFw o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 81hre pack.pmd 81 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 82. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Synthesis (rnf u J h o d k @ vk y f a qmif / umuG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f o nf u d k tajz&S m vk y f a qmif a pjcif ; ) oifwef;om;rsm; puf0dkif;yHkrwfwyf&yfum vl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;ESifhywfoufI rdrd,cifu rodao; aomta=umif;t&mwckudk twdkcsKyfajymjyapyg? vdktyfaom ypPnf;ud&d,mrsm; Ð tydkfrsm;a&;xm;aom pm&Gufrsm;/ Ð tydkfo±kyfazmfyHkrsm;/ ydkpwm/ Z,m;uGuf avhvm&ef Ð vl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;ordkif;a=umif;/ ukvor*~ordkif;a=umif;/(vl@tcGifhta&;vufpJGtcef;-4) Ð wydkfcsif;pD.t"dy`m,fzGifhqdkcsufrsm;(vl@tcGifhta&;ar;cGef;ESifhtajzrsm; vl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;) Ð qufpyfI ay;Ekiaom Oyrmrsm;? df rS w f c suf Ð v_yf&Sm;r_vkyfpOf oifwef;om;rsm; ðyrlaomtðytrlrsm;udk teD;uyfrSwfxm;I aqG;aEG;&mwGif axmufjy aqG;aEG;ygu tusKd;&SdEdkifonf? Ð oifwef;om;rsm;tm; pm&Gufrsm;0Sufaomtcg jyef&Sm,lIr&Edkifavmufatmif cufcJaomae&mrsm;wGif r0Suf&eftxl;owday;yg? Ð pm&Gufrsm;ESifh yHkwJG&mwGif oifwef;ydk@csoludk,fwdkif trSeftwdkif;wJGwwf&ef avhusifhxm;yg? ,ckoifcef;pmwGif vl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;yg tydkfrsm;udk &Sif;jy&mwGif tcsdef=umjrifhwwfonf? vdktyfygu =um;tcsdefwGiftem;ay;jcif;/ v_yf&Sm;r_wckvkyfjcif;/ xdktydkif;udk eHeufydkif;tcsdfefwGif a&G;cs,fvkyfjcif; wdk@vkyfoifhonf? rnf u J h o d k @ vk y f a qmif / umuG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f o nf u d k tajz&S m vk y f a qmif a p&mwG i f enf ; vrf ; opf Human Rights Charade [kac:aomenf;udk oH;Ekionf? vlrsm;udk ESpwef;tnDtr#cwef;pDap+yD; tydrsm;yg k df f GJ kf aompm&Gursm;udk oifwef;yd@k csouudixm;yg? vdi;f ESpvi;f wGia&Sq;kH rS&yfaeolwOD;udk yxrOD;qH;k ac:I tydygaom f l kf k f kd f › kf pm&Guw&Guuay;yg? xdou pm&GuwiygaomtyduzwfI xdtydf udpum;rajymbJ trlt,mjzifh o±kyazmfjyyg? f f kd k l f Gf k f kd k k k f xdo±kyazmfcsuukd xdoygaomvdi;f rSvrsm;u (1)rdepftwGi;f cef@re;f I tajz&SmEdiv#if xdvi;f trSw(1)rSw&rnf? k f f k l k l S kf k kd f f xdkyxrvdkif;utajz&SmcsdefwGif kwd,vdkif;rS 0ifajymIr&yg? tu,fI yxrvdkif;u owfrSwfxm;aom (1)rdepf twGi;f tajzray;Ediygu kw,vdi;f u rdepf0uftcsetwGi;f tajzajymEdionf? tu,fIajymEdiygu kw,vdi;f u kf d k df kf kf d k trSwf(1) rSwf&rnfjzpfonf? ESpfvdkif;pvHk;rajymEdkifygu oa&jzpfrnf? xdkenf;twdkif; pm&Gufrsm;ukefonfhtxd wa,muf+yD; wa,mufvkyfaqmifoGm;Edkifonf? owdðy&efrSm oifwef;om;rsm;tcsif;csif;&if;ESD;rSom tqifajyEdkif rnf? tu,fI rdrdoifwef;om;rsm;onf Tv_yf&Sm;r_udk toHk;ðy&efroifhawmf[k,lqygu atmufygenf;udk oHk;Ekdifonf? 82 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 82 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 83. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf vltcGita&;ordi;f aMumif; Y hf k (Human Rights History) &nf & G , f c suf Ð vl@tcGifhta&;ordkif;a=umif;ay:aygufvmyHktqifhqifhudk avhvmod&Sdvmap&ef? Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) kwd,urBmppftwGif;u emZDwdk@. &ufpufr_rsm;ukd ±kdufjyxm;aom ±kyf&Sifrsm;/ rSwfwrf;wiftacGrsm;/ ordkif; 0if"mwfyrsm;udk jyoEdionf? Oyrm- EsL&ifbwfc±;Hk AD,tacG/ Anne Frank’s Diary/ Pianist/ Shindler’s list/ Hk kf Hk D kd Life is Beautiful/ Holocaus t±kyyrsm;? f Hk Discussion (tjyef t vS e f a qG ; aEG ; jcif ; ) =unfh±_+yD;ygu Ð bmawGawG@&ovJ/ Ð b,fvdkcHpm;&vJ/ Ð b,foawGtay: b,foawGu bmvkyovJ/ l l f Ð bma=umifh tckvdkjzpfwmvJ/ Ð aemufwcg tckvdkrjzpfatmif b,fawGvkyfoifhovJ? Input (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) ,cifu tcsufrsm;xnfhEdkifonf? xdk@jyifvl@tcGifhta&;pmcsKyfrsm;tqifhqifhwkd;wufvmyHkudk atmufyg twdkif;&Sif;jyEdkifonf? 1945 kwd,urBmppf+yD;qHk;jcif; - +idrf;csrf;a&;twGufvl@tcGifhta&;udkav;pm;&efvdka=umif; oabmayguvmonf? f 1945 ukvor*~ xlaxmifvujf cif; kd - urBmhjynfolrsm;tm;vHk;twGufvl@tcGifhta&;umuG,f atmufwbm kd ay;&ef ukvor*~u wm0ef,conf? l hJ (24) - vl@tcGita&;umuG,&ef tpd;k &wdi;f wGivnf; wm0ef&dS hf f k f a=umif; todtrSwðf yvmonf? 1946 pD;yGm;a&;ESifh vlr_a&;aumifpDuaeI - tjynfjynfqdkif&mvl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;rl=urf;udk vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sifudk zJG@pnf;vdkufonf? a&;qJ&ef jyifvmcJonf? G h 1948 vlom;rsm;tm;rsKd;ðzwfowfjzwfaom &mZ0wf - vlom;rsm;tm;rsKd ;ðzwfowfjzwfruvom;wrsKd ;vH;k tay: _ kd l r_tm;wm;qDa&;oabmwlpmcsKyfay:vmjcif; usL;vGefaom&mZ0wfr_tjzpfowfrSwfvmcJh+yD;usL;vGefol rsm;udk tpd;k &rsm;u Oyat&ta&;,l&efvufcvmcJonf? H h o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 83hre pack.pmd 83 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 84. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf 1948 tjynfjynfqdkif&mvl@tcGifhta&;=unmpmwrf; - EdkifiHrsm;taejzifh tedrfhqHk;av;pm;vdkufem&efvdktyfaom DZifbmv ay:aygufvmcJhjcif;/ vl@tcGita&;pHcsep!e;f wckay:ayguvmcJonf? hf d f H $ f h (10)&uf 1966 vlrsdK;a&;cJGjcm;zdESdyfr_enf;rsdK;pHktm;yaysmufa&; vlrsdK;a&;zdESdyfr_qdkaomt"dy`m,fudk zGifhEdkifcJhonf? usL;vGef oabmwlpmcsKyfay:aygufvmjcif; aomEdkifiHtpdk;&rsm;taejzifhxdkzdESdyfcJGjcm;xm;aomOyarsm; vkyf&yfrsm;udk zsufodrf;&efqHk;jzwfvm=uonf? 1967 kuonftqiftwef;qdi&maemufqufwpmcsKyf - 1951 ckEpf kuonftqiftwef;qdi&mpmcsKyft& owf Q h kf GJ S Q h kf ay:vmjcif; rSwxm;aom kuonfrsm;. tcGita&;ESihf wm0efrsm; txl; f Q hf ojzifh tE &m,fjzpfaprnfh Edii&if;rsm;od@k jyefvnfryd@k ap&efukd W kfH wurBmvH;k u vduematmif wm0ef,Eiconf?k f l kd f hJ 1976 pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra&;ESihf ,Ofaus;tcGita&;qdi&m - UDHR wGif azmfjyxm;aom pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra&;ESihf ,Ofaus; _ hf kf _ oabmwlpmcsKyftouf0ifvmjcif;/ r_qi&mtcGita&;rsm;udk twdtusazmfxwvmEdiconf? kd f hf k f k f hJ - xdp;D yGm;a&;/ vlra&;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_qi&mtcGita&;pmcsKyf k _ kd f hf udk w&m;0ifvufrwx;kd xm;aom Ediirsm;taejzifh xdtcGihf S f kfH k ta&;rsm;udav;pm;taumiftxnfazmfvmaponf? pmcsKyf k EdkifiHrsm;.taumiftxnfazmfr_udk avhvmapmifh=uyfonfh aumfrwDw&yfudk zJG@pnf;EdkifcJhonf? 1976 EdkifiHom;ESifh EdkifiHa&;tcGifhta&;qdkif&m pmcsKyf - UDHR wGifazmfjyxm;aom EdkifiHom;ESifh EdkifiHa&;qdkif&m touf0ifvmjcif; tcGifhta&;rsm;udk twdtusazmfxkwfvmEdkifcJhonf? - xdkEdkifiHom;ESifh EdkifiHa&;qdkif&mtcGifhta&;pmcsKyfudk w&m; 0ifvufrSwfxdk;xm;aom EdkifiHrsm;taejzifh xdktcGifhta&; rsm;udkav;pm;taumiftxnfazmfvmaponf? pmcsKyfEdkifiH rsm;.taumiftxnfazmfrukd avhvmapmif=h uyfonfh (18)_ OD;ygaomaumfrwDw&yfudk zJG@pnf;EdkifcJhonf? 1976 EdkifiHom;ESifh EdkifiHa&;tcGifhta&;qdkif&mpmcsKyf - aemufqufwpmcsKyfuw&m;0ifvufrwx;kd xm;aom EdiiH GJ kd S f kf aemufqufwJGpmcsKyfay:aygufvmjcif; rsm;rSjynforsm;onf vl@tcGita&;aumfrwDo@kd wOD;csi;f wdif l hf k =um;EdkifcJhonf? 1979 trsKd ;orD;rsm;tm; enf;rsKd ;pHjk zifcjGJ cm;xm;r_ tm; - trsdK;om;ESifh trsdK;orD;wdk@t=um; wef;wlnDr_udk EdkifiHw h vHk; yaysmufa&;oabmwlpmcsKyf ay:vmonf? umu todtrSwfðyvmcJhonf? - CEDAW pmcsKyfukd w&m;0ifvufrwx;kd xm;aomEdiirsm; S f kfH taejzifxtcGita&;rsm;udk av;pm;taumiftxnfazmfvm h kd hf aponf?pmcsKyfEdkifiHrsm;. taumiftxnfazmfr_udk avhvm apmif=h uyfapEdionfh CEDAWaumfrwDukd zJ@G pnf;Ediconf? kf k f hJ 1981 bmoma&;ESihf ,H=k unfrw@kd utajccHI onf;rcHr_ - vlwi;f vGwvyfpmawG;ac:cGi/hf ,H=k unfouf0ifci/hf ud;k uG,f _ kd kd f G G ESihf cJjG cm;zdEyrrsKd ;pHyaysmufa&; oabmwlpmcsKyf cGifh&Sda=umif;ESifh ,Hk=unfudk;uG,fr_a=umifh cJGjcm;zdESdyfjcif;r&Sd& dS f _ k ay:vmjcif; [laomtcGifhta&;udk twdtvif;azmfjyvufcHvmcJhonf? - bmoma&;qdkif&monf;rcHr_rsm;udkwm;qD;ap&eftwGuf txl;pHkprf;ppfaq;a&;t&m&SdwOD;udk cef@tyfEdkifcJhonf? 84 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 84 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 85. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf 1984 ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;r_qef@usifa&;qdkif&moabmwl -ESypuf!i;f yrf;r_tm; Ediiwum&mZ0wfrtjzpfowfrwEif d f ‡ kfH _ S f kd pmcsKyfay:vmcJhonf? cJonf? h - ESypuf!i;f yrf;r_usL;vGeorsm;udk pmcsKyftzJ@G 0ifEiirsm;u d f ‡ f l kd f H tjypfay;&efwm0efay;EdkifcJhonf? - rnfonfta=umif;tcsua=umifrS ESypufjcif;rðyEdia=umif; h f h df kf azmfjyEdiconf? k f hJ -wurBmvH;k &SEiirsm;wGif ESypufjcif;qdi&mESiywfoufItpD d kd f H df kf hf &ifcpmwifoi;f &ef txl;pHprf;ppfaq;a&; t&m&SwOD;udk H G k d cef@tyfEic+hJ yD; tpd;k &rsm;xHt=uHay;csursm; xkwjf yefEichJ kd f f kd f onf? 1986 zHG@òzd;wdk;wufr_qdkif&ma=unmpmwrf; - vlwdkif;twGuf zHG@òzd;wdk;wufr_onf r&Sdrjzpfvdktyfaom tcGita&;w&yfjzpfa=umif; todtrSwðf yvmEdic+hJ yD; xdk hf kf vkyief;pOfwif vlwi;f yg0if&efva=umif; vufcvm=uonf? f G kd kd H - Ediirsm;ESihf vlwOD;wa,mufcsi;f wd@k twGuf zH@G òzd;wd;k wufr_ kfH onf wef;wl&u&&rnfh tcGita&;jzpfa=umif;tod trSwf dS kd dS hf ðyvmcJhonf? - trsm;ESioufqiaomtcGita&; od@k r[kwf vlxtcGihf hf kd f hf k ta&;w&yf&a=umif; todtrSwðf yvmcJ=h uonf? dS 1989 uav;rsm;tcGifhta&;qdkif&mpmcsKyf - uav;rsm;tm; ydr*±kpu&efvtyfa=umif;ESihf txl;um k kd kd f kd uG,apmifa&Smufay;&efvtyfa=umif;udk todtrSwðf yvmcJh f h kd onf? - pmcsKyftzJ@G 0ifEiirsm;. uav;rsm;tcGita&;ESihf ywf kd f H hf oufIvkyaqmifaer_uapmif=h uyf&ef aumfrwDw&yfz@GJ pnf; f kd Ediconf? k f hJ 1990 a±$@ajymif;tvkyorm;rsm;ESihf xdorsm;. rdom;pk - a±$@ajymif;tvkyorm;rsm;ESihf xdorsm;. rdom;pk0ifrsm;. f k l f k l rsm;tcGifhta&;umuG,fa&;oabmwlpmcsKyf tcGita&;udumuG,ay;&efvtyfa=umif; todtrSwðf y hf k f kd vmcJonf? h 1992 EdkifiHom;/ vlrsdK;pk/ bmoma&;ESifh bmompum; - ud,yi,Ofaus;r_/ ud,yibmoma&;/ ud,yibmom k f kd f k f kd f k f kd f tkyfpk0ifvlrsm;.tcGifhta&; ESifhywfoufaom pum;ESihf rdrtyp0ifrsm;tcsi;f csi;f qufo,Eiciw@kd ukd d k f k G f kd f G hf a=unmpmwrf; todtrSwðf yaom tcGita&;rsm;ay:vmcJonf? hf h 1994 roefrpGrf;aomolrsm;ESifh ywfoufonfh - roefrpGrf;aomolrsm;ESifhywfoufI umv=um&Snfu urBmvH;k qdi&m tpDtpOf kf wnf;uvkyaqmifcaom wurBmvH;k wef;wltcGita&;qdkf hJ hf aom enf;AsL[mudk csrwEiconf? S f kd f hJ 1998 ¶krf;pmcsKyf - tjynfjynfqi&m&mZ0wfrrsm;udk ta&;,lEirnfpmcsKyfukd kd f _ kd f h twnfðyjyXmef;Ediconf? k f hJ 2002 tjynfjynfqdkif&m&mZ0wfr_w&m;&Hk; - tjynfjynfqdkif&mZ0wfr_rsm;/ vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmuf r_rsm;udk w&m;pJqta&;,lEirnfh t+rJwrf;w&m;&H;k udk G kd kd f zGivpEiconf? hf S f kd f hJ o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 85hre pack.pmd 85 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 86. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf 2003 a±$@ajymif;tvkyorm;rsm;ESihf xdorsm;. rdom;pk - ESpaygi;f 10 ESpausm=f umjrifcaom a&G@ajymif;tvkyorm; f k l f f h hJ f rsm;tcGifhta&;umuG,fa&;oabmwlpmcsKyf tcGita&;pmcsKyfukd EdiiH (20) ausmu vufrwa&;xd;k cJI hf kf f S f h touf0ifvmcJonf? h Deepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;. vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h E_ d i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) “tjynfjynfqi&mvl@tcGita&;a=unmpmwrf;wGiyg0ifaomtcsursm;onf tm&S,Ofaus;r_Eirudun” kd f hf f f S hf k f D [laomt,ltqtay: oifwef;om;rsm; tkyfpkESpfpkcJGIjzpfap/ rsufESmcsif;qdkif pum;0dkif;jzifhjzpfap aqG;aEG;apEdkif onf? Synthesis (rnf u J h o d k @ vk y f a qmif / umuG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f o nf u d k tajz&S m vk y f a qmif a pjcif ; ) tjynfjynfqi&mvl@tcGita&;a=unmpmwrf;udrnfo@kd jrifovJ od@k r[kwf b,fv,qygovJ [lIar;+yD; kd f hf k kd l wa,mufcsif;. t,ltqrsm;udk oifykef;wGif a&;om;rSwfwrf;wif&ef/ tjynfjynfqdkif&mvl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;onf EdkifiHwum. vl@tcGifhta&;pHcsdefpH!Gef;tjzpfay: aygufcJhaomfvnf; pnf;aESmifr_tm;r&Sdjcif;a=umifh aemufqufwJGvl@tcGifhta&;pmcsKyfrsm;ay:vmonf? EdkifiHwum pmcsKyfrsm;onf EdkifiHawmftpdk;&u av;pm;vdkufemrSom armif;ESiftm;aumif;aom ,E W&m;rsm;jzpfonf? pmcsKyf rsm;tm;aumif;atmif Ediiwumu v_@H aqmfz@kd vtyfovdk Ediiwi;f &Sd jynforsm;uvJ todtjrif jrifrm;zd@k vtyf kfH kd kfH G l h kd a=umif; tESpfcsKyfEdkifonf? vdktyfaom ypPnf;ud&d,mrsm; - ADGD,dkacGrsm;ESifh jypufrsm;/ 86 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 86 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 87. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf vlYtcGifhta&;oifcef;pm(5) vltcGita&;trsKd;tpm; Y hf &nf & G , f c suf Ð tjynfjynfqdkif&mvl@cGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;wGifyg0ifaom EdkifiHom;/ EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_qdkif&m tcGifhta&;rsm;.t"dy`m,frsm;ESifh oufqdkif&mtydkfrsm;udk trsKd;tpm;tvdkufcGJjcm; odjrifvmap&ef? Activity v_y&m;r_ f S Ð oabFmom;upm;enf; Oyrm Ð oabFmom;tu (wa,mufxJu) Ð rSefajymif;=unfh (ESpfa,muf ausmjcif;uyf+yD; xdkif/xvkyf) Ð óud;qGJ (oH;a,mufwwGóJ ud;qGaeyH) k J k Ð avSavSmf (av;a,mufwwGavSavSmaeyH) J f k Ð xrif;pm; ( ig;a,mufwwGJ xrif;pm;aeyH) k Ð u|ef;ay:wuf (ajcmufa,mufwwGJ) xdupm;enf;rS cGxm;onfh tzG@J av;zG@J pvH;k udk ae&mtoD;oD; cGxiap+yD;aemuf oabFmysuom;aom oabFm k J J kd f f G om;rsm;onf vlwa,mufrr&Saom u|e;f wu|e;f ay:a&mufom;onf? xdu|e;f ay:wGif rdrw@kd touf &Si&efEihf zH@G òzd;wd;k S d G k d f S wufap&eftwGuf vdktyfaomt&mrsm;udk wnfaqmuf&rnf? rdrdwdk@vdktyfaomt&mrsm;udk u|ef;tjzpfay;xm; aom puULpm&Guf}uD;ay:wGif a&mifpHkcJwHrsm;jzifh csa&;qGJ&rnf? Discussion (tjyef t vS e f a qG ; aEG ; jcif ; ) xdk@aemuf u|ef;tvdkufa&;qJGxm;onfhyHkrsm;udk tjcm; u|e;f om;rsm;u vduv=H unf±apygonf? u|e;f tm;vH;k =unf+h yD; k f h _ aomtcgwif u|e;f ay: YqJxm;aom yHwckpwi;f onf tjynf G G k D kd jynfqi&m vl@tcGita&;a=unmpmwrf;wGiygaom rnfonfh kd f hf f tcsursm;ESihf oufqionfuavhvmI xdywi;f wGif oufqif f kd f kd k kH kd kd &mtydkfrsm;udk a&;apygonf? tm;vHk;+yD;yguoifwef;ydk@csolu rnfonfyonf rnfonftydEiuuna=umif; u|e;f tvduf h kH h h k f S hf kd f D k ar;ygonf? xd@k aemuf rnfonftydrsm;usecovJ/ xdtcsuf h k f f hJ k rsm;usecygu b,fvjkd zpfom;EdiovJ/ rnfonfyukd trnfwyf f hJ G kf h kH &ef cufcJovJpojzifh tcsif;csif; aqG;aEG;apygonf? qufvuf+yD; xdtcGita&;rsm;udk rnfo@kd trsK;d tpm;cGxm; k hf J onfudkavhvm=uygonf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 87hre pack.pmd 87 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 88. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Input (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) 1? Ediiom;tcGita&; (Civil Rights) (Ediiom; wOD;csi;f tay: tpd;k &. pGuzufrrsm;ukd uef@owfxm; kfH hf kfH f _ aomtcGihfta&;) EkdifiHom;wdk@. touf&SifcGifh/ vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;ukd tpkd;&uw&m;vufv$wf0ifa&mufaESmuf,Sufjcif;rS tum tuG,fay;aom tcGifhta&;rsm;? 2? Ediia&;tcGita&; (Political Rights) (tpd;k &rS cGiðhf yay;&ef tcGita&;rsm;) kfH hf fh wdkif;jynf&Sdtpdk;&. vkyfief;a&;&mrsm;wGif EkdifiHom;rsm;u yg0ifywfoufcGihf? 3? pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra&;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_qi&mtcGita&; (Economic, Social and Cultural Rights) (tpd;k &rS _ kd f hf jznfhqnf; ay;&rnfh tcGifhta&;rsm;) vlom;wdk@.b0vlaer_tqifhtwef;rsm; wdk;wufjrifhrm;vmatmif tqifhqifhawmif;qdk&aom tcGifhta&; rsm;? xdtrsKd ;tpm;rsm;udk tkypEprsK;d cJjG cm;xm;&m Ekiiom;ESihf Ekiia&;tcGita&;rsm;u wtkypjk zpf+yD; pD;yGm;a&;/ k fkSf dfH dfH hf f vlr_a&;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_tcGifhta&;rsm;u aemufwtkyfpkjzpfygonf? Deepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;. vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h E_ d i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) xdaemufoifwef;om;rsm;tm; xdtypEpck b,fvoabmobm0 uJjG ym;aeovJuar;I uJjG ym;csuf rsm; k k k f k S f kd kd udkoifykef;wGif csa&;xm;yg? Ek d i f i H o m;ES i f h Ek d i f i H a &;tcG i f h t a&; pD ; yG m ;/ vl r _ / ,Of a us;r_ q d k i f & mtcG i f h t a&; Ð tpd;k &udk wm;jrpf (-) Ð tpd;&rS jznfqnf;ay;&ef (+) k h Ð wOD;csif;ukd umuG,fay; Ð trsm;tusK;ukd jznfqnf;ay; d h Ð taumiftxnfazmf&jref Ð tcse/f aiG/ enf;ynmay:rlwnf d Ð qifajcay;Ir&/ jrifomxif&Sm; Ð qifajcay;Eki/f wdi;wm&cuf d kf (t&if;&SiftaemufEkdifiHrsm;uóuduf) (qd&,vpf uGejf rLepfEiirsm;uóudu) k S f dk f H f Ð ,cktcg xdtcGita&;pmcsKyfEpcv;ukd av;pm;vkuem&rnf[k trsm;pku vufcvm=uonf? k hf S f k kH d f H Deepening (oifwef;om;rsm;. vufawG@tjzpfESifh E_dif;,SOfqufpyfay;jcif;) oifwef;om;wOD;csi;f pDtm; vl@tcGita&; a=unmpmwrf;ygtydrsm;ESifh o±kyazmfyrsm;jyefay;I rdr&&Saom hf kf f kH d d tyduEiiom;tcGita&;/ Ekiia&;tcGita&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra&;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_qi&m tcGita&;[k cGxm;aom k f kd dk f H hf dfH hf _ kd f hf J óud;oHk;óud;ay:wGifcGJjcm;+yD;uyfaponf? xdk@aemuf oifwef;om;rsm;tm;vHk;ESifhtwl rSefrrSefjyefvnfIppfaq;yg? 88 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 88 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 89. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf Synthesis (rnf o d k @ vk y f a qmif / umuG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f o nf u d k tajz&S m vk y f a qmif a pjcif ; ) vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_rsm;udk avhvmrnfqdkv#if xdktcGifhta&;tkyfpkoHk;ckpvHk;ukd =unfh&rnfjzpfonf? tpdk;&rS rnfonfhtkyfpk0iftcGifhta&;rsm;udk csKd;azmufaeonf/ rnfonhftcGifhta&;rsm;ukd cGifhðyay;&efysufuGufae onf/ rnfonfht&mrsm; jznfhqnf;ay;&rnfukd tm;vHk;avhvm&rnfjzpfonf? vdktyfaom ypPnf;ud&d,mrsm; Ð tydkfrsm;a&;xm;aom pm&Guftykdif;rsm;/ Ð a=unmpmwrf;o±kyfazmfyHkrsm;/ Ð a&mifpcw/H kH J avhvm&ef Ð EdkifiHom;ESihfEdkifiHa&;tcGifhta&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;/ ,Ofaus;r_tcGifhta&; t"dy`m,fzGifhqkdcsufrsm; vl@tcGita&;vufp/JG tcef;-4) hf Ð vl@tcGifhta&; a=unmpmwrf; / (vltcGifhta&;vufpGJ tcef;-4) o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 89hre pack.pmd 89 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 90. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf vlYtcGifhta&;oifcef;pm(6) wOD;csif;ESihf tkypvuf tcGita&;rsm; f k kd hf (Group Rights and Individual Rights) &nf & G , f c suf Ð tkyfpkvdkuftcGifhta&;bma=umifhjzpfay:vmonfudk avhvmod&Sdap&ef? Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) (1) oifwef;om;rsm;udk twef;vdkufwef;pDap+yD; vufcsif;wJGI&yfcdkif;yg? a&S›wae&mwGif yef;wdkifvdkif; wvdkif; owfrSwfxm;yg? (2) oifwef;ydk@csolu !Gef=um;csufrsm;udk vdkufem&ef vrf;!$efay;yg? (3) vrf;!$efcsufrSm oifwef;ydk@csolu ta=umif;t&mwckcsif;udkzwfjyI xdkta=umif;t&mESifhudkufnDyg u !$ef=um;csufwGifygonfhtwkdif; a&›Swdk;qdkygu a&S›wdk;/ aemufqkwf&rnfqdkygu aemufqkwf&rnf jzpfonf? (4) ta=umif;t&mtvdkufqHk;jzwfcsufudk rdrdudk,fwdkifomqHk;jzwf&rnfjzpf+yD; tjcm;olrsm;ESifh wdkifyifp&m/ tjcm;olrsm;aemufodk@vdkuf&efrvdkyg? (5) xdk@aemuf oifwef;ydk@csol tqifoifhjyifxm;aom atmufygta=umif;t&mrsm;udk wckpDjznf;jznf;csif; &Gwzwfjyyg? f zwf j yrnf h t a=umif ; t&mrsm; Ð rlvwef;ynmudk wufa&mufoif=um;zl;olqdkygu a&S›udk wvSrf;wdk;yg? Ð ,cktcsdeftxd rdrd.udk,fydkiftdrf/ udk,fydkifajruGuf&Sdoljzpfygu a&S›odk@ESpfvSrf;wdk;yg? Ð wuUodkvfynmtxd oif,lcJhjcif;r&Sdygu aemufodk@ ESpfvSrf;qkwfyg? Ð wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pk0ifwa,mufjzpfygu aemufwpfvSrf;qkwfyg? Ð rdrd.rdom;pk0iftm;vHk;twGuf oifhwifhvHkavmufaom rdom;pk0ifaiG&&Sdolrsm; a&S›ESpfvSrf;wdk;yg? Ð rdrd. vdifuJGjym;r_a=umifh tvkyfvkyf&mwGif av;pm;r_rcH&ol aemufodk@oHk;vSrf;qkwfyg? Ð ausmif; odk@r[kwf oifwef;rsm;wGif rdcifbmompum;jzifh ajymqdkoif=um;cGifh&cJhaomola&S›odk@ ESpfvSrf; wufyg? Ð tdr.jyifyod@k wOD;xJxuygu tjcm;olrsm;. enf;wrsK;rsK;jzifh apmfum;aESmuf,urnfukd pd;&dr&aomol f G f d d S f k f aemufwpfvSrf;qkwfyg? Ð rdrd.qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk tjcm;olrsm;vdkufematmif ajymqdkEdkifaomol a&S›ESpfvSrf;wdk;yg? Ð tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;wGif od@k r[kwf trsm;ESivyaomvkyief;rsm;wGif rdr. vdiujGJ ym;r_ od@k r[kwf touft&G,f hf k f f d f a=umifh rdrd.wifjyr_udk tav;rxm;jcif;cH&ol aemufESpfvSrf;qkwfyg? Ð rdrdwdkif;jynfwGifrae&bJ tjcm;wkdif;jynfwGifcdkv_Hae&ol aemufoHk;vSrf; qkwfyg? Ð EdkifiHawmfwGif vltrsm;udk;uG,faombmomudk udk;uG,faomol a&S›wpfvSrf;wdk;yg? (6) xdkt&mrsm;udk zwft+yD;wGif ,cifu vufcsif;wJGxm;aomolrsm;onf twef;vdkufr&SdawmhbJae&m toD;oD;wGif tuJGuJGtjym;jym;jzpfoGm;onfudk awG@&rnf? (7) oifwef;om;rsm;udk rdrd&yfae&mrSaeI ae&mra&G@bJ tjcm;olrsm;udk vdkuf=unfh+yD;avhvmcdkif;yg? 90 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 90 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 91. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf (8) xdk@aemuf xdk&yfaeonfhae&mrS yef;wdkifodk@ tjrefajy;I oGm;cdkif;yg? (9) xdk@aemuf oifwef;cef;rodk@ jyefvmI tkyfpk}uD;0dkif;xdkifcdkif;yg? Discussion ( tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif; ) Ð v_y&m;r_tay: b,fvcpm;&vJ? f S kd H Ð yef;wdiroGm;cif &yfaewJtcserm tjcm;vlawGu=kd unf&awmh bmxl;jcm;wmawG@&vJ? b,fvcpm;&vJ? kf h d f S h kd H Ð v_yf&Sm;r_eJ@ywfouf+yD; bmawGxl;jcm;wmawG@&vJ? Ð a&S›wdk;aemufqkwfvkyfcdkif;wJhtay: bmawGowdxm;rdvJ? Ð aemufrm usecwoawGu vufawG@rm b,foawGjzpfEiv? bma=umifh olw@kd a&Sra&mufEiwmvJ? S f hJ hJ l S l kd f J › kd f Ð a&Syi;f uda&mufaewJoawGu vufawG@rm b,foawGv? › kd k h l S l J Ð v_yf&Sm;r_uae bmawGoifcef;pm&ovJ/ vufawG@wGif aemufrSusefcJholrsm;u b,foljzpfEdkifonf[laomtajzudk jyefvnfaxmufjyI vlom;csif; jzpfaomfvnf; tcsKd@vltkyfpk0ifrsm;onf tjcm;olrsm;ESifh wef;wltcGifhta&;cHpm;cGifhr&Sday? tcsdK@tkyfpk0ifrsm;onf tjcm;olrsm;xuf csKd;azmufr_ydkcHpm;&onfudk awG@&a=umif;udk oifwef;om;rsm; owdðyrdygap? Input (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A [k o k w ay;jcif ; ) vl@tcGifhta&;onf vlom;tm;vHk;ESifhoufqdkifonf? odk@aomfwkdif;&if;om;rsm;/ jynfwGif;tajcwus r&SbJ vSnvnfaexdiae&olrsm;/ kuonfrsm;onf tjcm;olrsm;enf;wl vGwvyfpmoGm;vmEkijf cif;/ ynm d hf kf Q f G d oif=um;Ekdifjcif;/ pD;yGm;&Smjcif;rsm; rvkyfaqmifEkdifyg? tkyfpkwck.tzGJ@0ifrsm;jzpfaeaoma=umifh ydkrdkapmfum;cH&/ zdESdyfcH&aoma=umifh wef;wltcGifhta&;rsm;/ txl;umuG,fay;r_rsm; awmif;qdkvmjcif;jzifh tkyfpkvkduf tcGifh ta&;ay:vmonf? xdorsm;onf tkypwck. tzG@J 0ifrsm;jzpfjcif;a=umifh tcsK@d tcGita&;rsm; jiif;y,fc&onfh k l f k hf H olrsm;jzpfoGm;+yD; tkyfpkvkduftcGifhta&; vkdtyfaeaomolrsm;jzpfvmonf? jynfwGif;tajcwusr&SdbJ vSnfh vnfaexdiae&olrsm;onf rdru,ukd umuG,Eicir&Sovdk ‚if;tkyp0ifuav;rsm;onfvnf; tjcm;uav; kf d kd f f kd f G fh d fk rsm;uJo@dk ynmoif=um;cGi/hf tm[m&&&Scirsm;r&Syg? xd@k a=umifh jynfwi;f tajcwusr&SbJ vSnvnfaexdiae& h d G fh d G d hf kf olrsm;jzpfI tcsKd @tcGita&;rsm;qH;k ±_;H aeaoma=umifh tjcm;olrsm;ESiwef;wl tcGita&;rsm;cHpm;Edi&eftwGuf hf hf hf kf EdkifiHtwGif;tajcwusr&SdbJ vSnfhvnfaexdkifae&olrsm;qdkif&m tcGihfta&; ay:vm&onf? kuonfrsm;onf rdrcvaeaomEdiirS Ekiiom;rsm;enf;wl oGm;vmcGi/f h Ediia&;wGiyg0ifci/fh tqifjh rihf Q d kd H_ kfH dfH kfH f G ynmoif=um;cGifh/ aq;±kH/ aq;cef;rsm;odk@oGm;cGifhrsm;r&Sdyg? xdkolrsm;udk ukvor*~kuQonfrsm;qdkif&m r[m rif;}uD;±Hk;u tumtuG,fay;xm;aomfvnf; tjynfht0r[kwfyg? xdkolrsm;twGuf pmoifausmif;/ aq;±Hk pojzifh tumtuG,ay;&ef txl;tpDtpOfrsm;vktyfae+yD; rdru,rrd r&yfwnfEiaoma=umifh vlom;csi;f f d d kd f d kd f pmemaxmufxm;onfhtaejzifh taxmuftul/ umuG,fay;&eftwGuf kuQonfqkdif&mtcGifhta&;ay: vmjcif;jzpfonf? wdkif;&if;om;vlenf;pkrsm;onf vlenf;pkrsm;jzpfI ‚if;wdk@.pmay/ ,Ofaus;r_rsm;wpp uG,faysmuf oGm;Ekdifonf? a&G;cs,fwifajrmufr_rsm;wGif vlenf;pkjzpfaeI EkdifiHa&;qHk;jzwfr_wGif yg0ifcGifhenf;aeonf? pD;yGm;a&;wGifvnf; vuf0g;}uD;tkyfcHae&onf? xdk@twGuf pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;/ EkdifiHa&;wGif wef;wlnDr#r_&Sd&ef awmif;qd&if; vlenf;pktcGita&;ay:vmonf? xd@k twl trsK;d orD;rsm;udk ypfrwxm;+yD; apmfum;jcif;rsm;udk k hf S f umuG,fay;r_tm;enf;jcif;/ trsKd;orD;rsm;onf EkdifiHa&;qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;csrSwf&mwGif yg0ifcGifhtm;enf;jcif; ponfhvkdtyfr_ESifh tcuftcJrsm;a=umifh trsKd;orD;tcGifhta&; ay:aygufvmonf? xdk@twl uav;rsm;/ tjcm;enf;jzifhoefpGrf;olrsm;twGufvnf; txl;umuG,fay;&efvdktyfr_rsm;a=umifh xdktkyfpkvdkuf tcGifhta&; rsm; ay:aygufvmcJhonf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 91hre pack.pmd 91 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 92. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf tk y f p k v k d u f t cG i f h t a&;rsm;rS m - Ð kuonf Q Ð wkdif;&if;om; Ð uav;/ trsK;orD; d Ð tjcm;enf;jzifhoefpGrf;ol Ð trsKd;orD;tvkyform; Ð tvkyorm; f Ð a&G@ajymif;vkyfom; Ð Xmaewkdif;&if;om; Ð vdifwlcsif;cspfolrsm; (LGBT) Ð jynfwi; tajcwusr&Sbvnvnfaexdiae&olrsm; (IDP) Gf d J S hf kf Ð AIDS a&m*gjziftouf&iaeolrsm; PLA (People Living with HIV) h Sf qufvuf+yD;oifwef;yd@k csorS tb,fa=umifh tkypvutcGita&; awmif;qd&jcif; ta=umif;&if; rsm;udk l f k kd f hf k xyfrH&Sif;vif;jyyg? D eepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;. vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h E_ d i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) xdtypvuf tcGita&;awmif;qdjk cif;onf vlwOD;csi;f k k f k dk hf rS wOD;csif;qdkif&m vl@tcGifhta&;udkrcHpm;&aoma=umifh wlnD aomolrsm;pkpnf;I wef;wlnDr#jzpfvm&eftwGuf vl@tcGihf ta&;ukd tkyfpkvkdufawmif;qdkjcif;omjzpfonf? xl;jcm;onfh tcGifhta&;awmif;qdkjcif; r[kwfyg? tkyfpkvkduf tcGihfta&; awmif; qd&jcif; tajccHoabmw&m;rSm tm%m(yg0g)ESihf tpGJ k aygi;f pyfra=umihf wef;wlnr#r/_ av;pm;r_/ todtrSwðf yr_r&Sonfh _ D d cGJjcm;qufqHr_rsm;ESifht=urf;zufr_rsm; ponfwdk@ay: aygufvm jcif;wd@k a=umifjh zpfonf? xkt=urf;zufrrsm;a=umihf wef;wlnr#r/_ d _ D av;pm;r_/ todtrSwfðyr_rsm;&&Sdatmif vkyfaqmifjcif;onf tkyfpkvkduftcGifhta&;yifjzpfonf? xdkcGJjcm;qufqHr_rsm;rSm vlrsKd;}uD;rS vlrsKd;enf; zGH@òzd;aomaovlrsm;rS aus;vufae olrsm;/ a,musm;rsm;rS rde;f rrsm;/ tvky&irS tvkyorm;rsm; f f Sf f tm; cGJjcm;qufqHjcif;wdk@yifjzpfonf? zdESdyfcGJjcm;qufqHr_. tusKd ; quf a =umif h tk y f p k v k d u f t cG i f h t a&;awmif ; qd k r _ r sm; omru awmif;qdkr_wkdufyGJrsm;yg jzpfyGm;vmavh&Sdonf? oifwef;om;rsm;tm; rdrw@kd ywf0ef;usiwif awG@&avh d f G &Sdaom tkyfpkvdkuftcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI b,fvdktajc taersdK;jzpfaeonfudk wifjycdkif;yg? csdK;azmufcHae&onfhtjzpf rsm;udk oifykef;wGifrSwfwrf;wifyg? xdkjzpfysufaeonhftjzpftysufrsm;ESifh ywfoufI tcGifhta&;rsm;&&Sdatmif awmif;qdkr_rsm;udk wOD;csif; zvS,fcdkif;yg? Oyrm- jrefrmEdkifiHom; a&G@ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;taejzifh tvkyform;tcGifhta&; rsm;&&Sdatmif tvkyf&SifESifh xdkif;tpdk;&xHwGif awmif;qdkv_yf&Sm;aeonfh tjzpftysufrsm;/ trsdK;orD; rsm; EdkifiHa&;wGifyg0ifcGifh&&Sd&ef awmif;qdk&if; trsdK;orD;rsm;pGrf;&nfjr‡ifhwifa&; tpDtpOfrsm;vkyfaqmifaeonfh trsdK;orD;tzJG@rsm;ta=umif;udk ydk@csolu wifjyEdkifonf? 92 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 92 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 93. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf Synthesis ( rnf o d k @ vk y f a qmif u muG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f r nf u d k tajz&S m vk y f a qmif a pjcif ; ) Ð ud,u,wif bmawG umuG,ay;EkirvJ? bmawGvyay;EkirvJ? k f kd f dk f df k f df vdktyfaomypPnf;rsm; Ð v_yf&Sm;r_twGuf trsdK;orD;tcGifhta&;/ a&G@ajymif;tvkyform;/ uav;rsm;tvdkuf }udKwifjyifqif xm;aom ar;cGe;f rsm;/ rSwfcsuf vdifuGJjym;r_tay:cGJjcm;zdEdSyfonfhtjrif (Gender) ar;cGef;rsm; erlemjyifqifjcif;? Ð vdiujJG ym;r_a=umifh i,fi,fxu vkycsiwmudrvky&ol - aemufwvSr;f qkw/f f J f f k f Ð rdom;pktwGi;f tpm;tpmudk OD;pm;ay;cH&ol - a&SŒwvSr;f wd;k / Ð ynma&; olrsm;xufom&ef OD;pm;ay;cH&ol - a&SŒwvSr;f wd;k / Ð vdiujJG ym;r_a=umifh ynma&;tcGitvrf; qk;H ±_;H &ol - aemufEpvr;f qkwf f hf S f S Ð i,fi,fxu rdbrSwa,mufwnf; tjyifay;rvGwol - aemufwpfvr;f qkwf J f S Ð acgi;f aqmifjzpf&ef i,fi,fxu oGeoifq;Hk rcH&ol - a&SŒESpvr;f wk;d J f f S Ð tdrrS rdr.wm0efa=umifh ta0;rSm ausmif;rwuf&ol - aemufwvSr;f qkwf f d Ð cGifhawmif;&efrvdkyJ tdrfrSoGm;csif&m oGm;cGifh&ol - a&SŒESpfvSrf;wdk; Ð rD;zdrm rjzpfrae uln&efajymcHxol - aemufEpvr;f qkwf k S D d S f S Ð cGifhawmif;+ydD;rS tjyifxGufcGifh&ol - aemufESpfvSrf;qkwf Ð rdremrnfEihf tk;d ykitryi&ol - a&SŒESpvr;f wuf d S d f d f dk f dS f S TwGiftrsKd;orD;rsm; vdifuGJjym;r_tay:cGJjcm;zdEdSyfonfhtjrif Gender a=umifh aemufa&mufaernf? xdk@twGufjzpfEdkifaom ar;cGef;rsm;udk jyifqifxm;yg// t"durSm Ttkyfpk0ifrsm;jzpfI omrefvlrsm;cHpm;&onfrsm; udk rcHpm;&jcif;tm; ay:vGifap&ef ta&;}uD;onf// o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 93hre pack.pmd 93 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 94. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf vlYtcGifhta&;oifcef;pm(7) vltcGita&;csKd;azmufrEihf umuG,rI Y hf I S f &nf&G,fcsuf Ð vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_ yHkpHtrsKd;rsKd;udk od&Sdem;vnfvmap&ef/ Ð csKd;azmufr_rsm;avsmhenf;oGm;vmatmifvkyfaqmifEdkifrnfhenf;vrf;rsm;udk &SmazGwwfvmap&ef? Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) (1)oifwef;om; wa,mufcsif;pDudk a&mifpHkabmyifwacsmif;ESifh pm&Gufw&GufpDa0ay;yg? (2)pm&GufwGif atmufygtwdkif; touftvdkufumvrsm;udk Z,m;uGufqJGapI xdktoufZ,m; uGuf. tay:wGif rdrd&&SdcHpm;cJhaom vl@tcGifhta&;trsKd;tpm;rsm;ESifh atmufwGif rdrdcsKd;azmuf cHcJh&aom vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_ yHkpHtrsKd;tpm;rsm;udk o±kyfazmfa&;om;cdkif;apyg? oauFwrsm;udk oHk;cdkif;Edkifonf? (3)xdka&;om;xm;aomtcsufrsm;udk wOD;csif; jyefvnf&Sif;jycdkif;yg? xdktcGifhta&;rsm;udk csdK;azmufol/ umuG,fay;olrsm;udk azmfxkwfyg? cHpm;&aom tcGifhta&;rsm; 1-10 ESpf 11-20 ESpf 21-30 ESpf 31-40 ESpf csK;d azmufc&aom tcGita&;rsm; H hf Discussion (tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;apjcif;) wOD ; csif ; &S i f ; jycsuf r sm;em;axmif I oif w ef ; yd k @ csol u csd K ;azmuf o l / umuG , f a y;ol r sm;pm&if ; ud k atmufygZ,m;uGufwGif jznfhpGufa&;om;yg? xdkolrsm;udk tpdk;&ESifh tpdk;&r[kwfaomolrsm; cJGjcm;Ia&;om;yg? csKd;azmufolrsm; tpdk;& tpdk;&r[kwfolrsm; umuG,fay;olrsm; tpdk;& tpdk;&r[kwfolrsm; oifykef;wGif a&;om;xm;aomtcsufrsm;udk oifwef;om;rsm;tm;avhvmap+yD; bmxl;jcm;csufrsm;jrif a=umif; ar;cGef;xkwfyg? b,ftcGifhta&;rsm;udk trsm;qHk;csKd;azmufcH&ygovJ? b,ftcGifhta&;rsm;udk trsm;qHk;umuG,fay;cH&ygovJ? b,folawGu trsm;qHk;csKd;azmufavh/ umuG,fay;avh&SdygovJ? 94 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 94 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 95. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf I nput (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h quf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) vl@tcGifhta&;udk tpdk;&ESifh tpdk;&vufatmufcHtr_xrf; (ppfwyf/ &J/ v0u) tm%mydkifrsm;csKd;azmuf ygu vl@tcGita&;csK;d azmufr_ (Human Rights Violation)[kac:+yD;/ tpd;k &r[kwaom t&yfom;rsm; tcsi;f csi;f hf f csKd;azmufygu (Human Rights Abuse) [kac:onf? tpdk;&ucsdK;azmufaomtcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_rsm;udk xif&m;pGmjrifomaomfvnf; tpd;k &r[kwaomolrsm;ucsKd ;azmufaomt&mrsm;udrl xif&m;vG,upm rjrif&Ekif S f k S f lG d yg? xdkt&mrsm;onf xHk;xrf;pOfvmrsm;/ ,Ofaus;r_ESifh bmoma&;usifh0wfapmifhxdef;p&mrsm;tjzpf wnf&Sdae vsu&onf? Oyrm- trsKd ;orD;rsm; wuUovrwuf&[k tpd;k &utrde@f xwxm;jcif;udk trsKd ;orD;tcGita&; f dS kd f k f hf csdK;azmufr_tjzpfjrifomaomfvnf;trsdK;orD;rsm;ynmwwfjzpfp&mrvdk[lI tcsKd@,Hk=unfvufcHxm;aom ,Hk=unfr_udk trsdK;orD;rsm;tay:tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_[k rjrifEdkifombJ ,Ofaus;tpOftvmyHkpHrsdK;jzifh ESpaygi;f rsm;pGmwnf&aewwfonf? xd@k jyif tpd;k &rsm;udk State-actors [kac:+yD; tpd;k &r[kwaomfvnf; tpd;k &udk f dS f tm%mðzwfcs&ef zJ@G xm;aomtzJ@G (tpd;k &r[kwf vlxvnf; r[kw) udk Non-state Actors [kac:onf// ‚if;(Non- k f state Actor)wd@k . csK;azmufruvnf; tpd;&uJo@kd yif vl@tcGita&; csK;azmufr_ (Human Rights Violation) d _ kd k h hf d [kac:onf// EdkifiHrsm;. vl@tcGifhta&;av;pm;vdkufemr_udk tqifh (3) qifhjzifh wdkif;wmavh&Sdonf? xdktqifhrsm;rSm- yxrtqif h (1) EkdifiHwum vl@tcGifhta&; pmcsKyfrsm;trsm;pkudk vufrSwfa&;xkd;xm;+yD; xkdEkdifiH. EkdifiHawmfzGJ@pnf;ykH tajccHOyaxJwGif xdkvl@tcGifhta&; pHcsdefpH!Gef;rsm; yg0iftouf0ifvsuf&Sdjcif;/ (2) vlr_ywf0ef;usiftwGif;wGif yg0ifaomvlwdkif;twGuf vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_rsm;udk umuG,fwm;qD; ay;onfh EkdifiHawmffOyarsm;jyXmef;xm;jcif;/ (cGJjcm;zdESdyfr_rsm;udk umuG,fwm;jrpfonfh Oyarsm;) (3) vGwfvyfonfh vl@tcGifhta&; apmifh=uyfa&;vkyfief;rsm; wnf&Sdaejcif;/ (4) vl@tcGifhta&;umuG,fa&;ESifh wdk;wufjrifhrm;a&;vkyfief;pOfrsm; vkyfaqmifvsuf&Sdjcif;/ (5) pmoifausmif;rsm;wGif vl@tcGifhta&; ynmay;vkyfief;udk t"dubmom&yftjzpf owfrSwfoif=um; vkyfaqmifvsuf&Sdjcif;? k w d , tqif h (1) Ekiiwumvl@tcGita&; pmcsKyfrsm;udk a&G;cs,vufrwf a&;xd;k xm;+yD; tawmfrsm;rsm;wGif ¹cGi;f csuxm; dfH hf f S f vufrSwfa&;xkd;xm;jcif;/ (2) vl@tcGifhta&;umuG,fay;onfhtcsufrsm; EkdifiHawmfOyarsm;xJwGif r&Sdjcif;/ (3) vl@tcGifhta&;ynmay;r_rsm;udk tenf;i,f (okd@r[kwf) vkyfaqmifr_r&Sdjcif;/ (4) jynfolvlxku vl@tcGifhta&;udpPrsm;udk tav;rxm; *±krpkdufjcif;/ (5) vl@tcGifhta&; v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk tm;ay;tm;ajr‡mufrðybJ vl@tcGifhta&;awmif;qkdr_rsm;udk jynfolvlxk t=um; aumif;usKd;ray;aom toGifrsKd;jzpfvmap&ef vkyfaqmifvsuf&Sdjcif;/ wwd , tqif h (1) vl@tcGifhta&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk wm;jrpfonfh EkdifiHawmfOyarsm; pepfwusjyXmef;xm;jcif;/ (2) vl@tcGifhta&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk zdESdyftjypfay;ta&;,ljcif;/ (3) EkdifiHwum apmifh=unfhta&;qkdr_rsm;udk “jynfwGif;a&;&mudk 0ifa&mufpGufzufr_”[kqkdum vkdufem&ef jiif;qkdvsuf&Sdjcif;/ o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 95hre pack.pmd 95 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 96. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf (4) vl@tcGifhta&;v_yf&Sm;awmif;qkdr_rsm;udk tpkd;&.owif;Xmersm;/ oif±kd;!Gef;wrf;rsm;uwqifh vlxk tjrifrSm;ap&ef 0gjzef@wkdufckdufvsuf&Sdjcif;/ Deepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;.vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h E_ d i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) apmxl ; .Zmwf v rf ; touf (13) ESp&+dS yDjzpfwhJ apmxl;[m u&ifvrsKd ;jzpf+yD; aus;&Gmw&GmwGif aexdicojl zpfygw,f? olaexdif f l k f hJ k wJh&Gm[m u&ifawmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;&Sdaomae&meJ@eD;pyfwJhtwGuf etzppfwyfawG ppfa=umif;vSnfhwmudk r=umc%óuHawG@&ygw,f? ppfa=umif;awG&mxJ0ifvmwdi;f aus;&Gmom;awG ydiwypPn;f awGukd twif;t=uyf G k k f hJ vk,l/ vlawGudk¶dkufESuf/ awmfvSefa&;orm;awGeJ@qufoG,fw,fqdk+yD; zrf;qD;wmvJ c%c%ygbJ? +yD;cJhwJhESpfrSmjzpfcJhwJh tjzpftysufuawmh apmxl;twGuf tqdk;qHk;tjzpftysufbJvdk@ajymvdk@&ygw,f? olwdk@&Gmtygt0if teD;tem;u&Gmaygif; (14)&Gmudk etzwyfawGu u&ifawmfvSefa&;tzJG@awGeJ@ qufoG,f w,fq+kd yD; wyf&if;em;u+rdK@uajymif;a&G@ci;f ygw,f? oH;k &uftwGi;f t+yD;ajymif;+yD; wu,fv@kd rajymif;&if w&GmvH;k kd kd rD;¶_@d ypfr,fv@kd +cdr;f ajcmufygw,f? oH;k &ufajrmufwae@rmawmh ppfa=umif;&GmxJ0ifvm+yD; useaeao;wJ&mom; hJ S f h G awGutm;vH;k pkxm;ygw,f? apmxl;wd@k rom;pkuawmh awmxJu0ifajy;vd@k vGwom;ayrJh olw@kd tud&@J rdom;pk kd d kd f G k uawmh ppfwyfuzrf;cHxom;ygw,f? aemufwae@ ppfwyfawGjyefxuom;t+yD; &GmxJujkd yef0ifawmh aoaewJh d G G f G olwdk@tudkrdom;pktygt0if tjcm;&Gmom;awG/ rD;&_d@zsufpD;cHxm;&wJh tdrfawGbJawG@&ygw,f? usefwJh&Gmom; awGvnf; ae&mtES@H xuajy;uke=f u+yD; apmxl;wd@k rom;pkuawmh &GmteD;tem;rSmbJ yke;f atmif;aexdicygw,f? G f d k f hJ olw@kd teD;tem;ppfom;awGjzwfom;&ifxuajy;/ rvGww&mom;tcsKd @uawmh ppfwyfuay:wmzrf;+yD; owfypf G G f f hJ G kd avh&Sdygw,f? apmxl;wdk@armifESrawGtygt0if awmxJykef;atmif;aewJhuav;awGrSm usef;rma&;twGuf aq;0g;eJ@ynma&;twGufausmif;awGr&Sdygbl;? olwdk@&J@u&if¶dk;&myJGawmfawG/ bmoma&;yJGawmfawGqdkwma0;rS a0;aygh? +yD;cJhwJhESpfubJ apmxl;[m u&ifppfwyfxJ0ifcJhygw,f? u&ifwyfrawmfu ol@udka&S@wef;awmhrxGuf cdkif;ygbl;? gayrJhetzowif;axmufvSrf;wmrsdK;awG/ rdkif;axmifcdkif;wmrsdK;vkyfcdkif;ygw,f? apmxl;taeeJ@ olaxmifxm;wJhrdkif;xdrdvdk@ xdcdkufoGm;wJh etzppfom;awGudkawG@&if t&rf;auseyfrdygw,f? gayrJh ola&m DvdkrsdK;rdkif;eif;rd&if b,fvdkjzpfrvJqdkwJha=umufpdwfeJ@ tdyfrufqdk;awG c%c%rufavh&Sdygw,f? 0g0g. Zmwf v rf ; touf (11) ESp&whJ 0g0g[m jrefrmtrsKd ;orD;i,fav;wa,mufjzpf+yD; yJc;l òrd@rmrlvwef;txd ausmif; f dS S oif=um;cJhbl;ygw,f? ol@&J@zcif[mjyifypuf¶HkwckrSm pufarmif;orm;tjzpftvkyfvkyfcJh&if; tvkyfcGiftwGif; xdcu%f&m&vd@k ajcaxmufwzufjywfc&ygw,f? ol@tazvkywpuf¶rm vHòk cHa&;twGuf aoaocsmcsmjyif kd f hJ f hJ kH S qifxm;wmr&Sv@kd tckvjkd zpf&wmyg? ajcaxmufjywfom;wJtwGuf aq;¶Hy@kd ay;wmuvJv@kd tjcm;bmrSunD d G h k G l ay;r_r&Sdygbl;? aq;¶HkcudkvJ udk,fhzmomudk,fuko&ygw,f? aq;¶Hkuqif;awmhvJ bmepfema=u;rS ray;bJ tvkyfuxkwfypfvdkufygw,f? gudkta&;,lzkd@ wkdif=um;EdkifwJh tvkyform;tpnf;t¶Hk;awGvnf;r&Sdygbl;? ga=umifh 0g0g[mausmif;uxGuvu&+yD; &yfuuem;u txnfcsKyfpuf¶rm 0ifvy&ygw,f? touf f kd f G f kH S k f i,fwJhtwGufol@udk vkyfcavsmhay;ygw,f? olvkyf&wJhtvkyfcef;[m tvif;a&mifvJenf;/ av0ifavxGuf vJr&SwtwGuf 0g0gw@kd vkd uav;awG[m c%c%aeraumif;jzpf=uygw,f? aeraumif;vJ tem;,lcir&SbJ d hJ G hf d em;&iftvkyfxkwfr,fqdkvdk@ rem;&JbJ tvkyfvkyf&ygw,f? +yD;cJwo;kH vrSmawmh 0g0gw@kd puf¶u touf 11 ESpe@J 15 ESpt&G,f 0g0gtygt0if aumifrav;ajcmuf h hJ kH f f a,mufukd puf¶yi&i&@J oi,fcsi;f u xdi;f zufrmtvkyvyz@kd ajymygw,f? xdi;f rSmqdk tvkyaumif;aumif;&+yD; kH kd f S f l k S f kf k f vcvJaumif;w,fvdk@ajymygw,f? vkyf&r,fhtvkyfu txnfpuf¶HkrSmvdk@ajymygw,f? gudktm;us+yD; 0g0gwdk@ (6)a,muf xdi;f zufuvuvmcJygw,f? vrf;rSm&Je@J ppfwyfu rSwywifawmif;ayrJh ygvmwJou aiGxway; k kd kd f h f kH h l k f 96 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 96 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 97. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf vd@k tqifajyygw,f/ e,fpyfa&mufawmhvJ xdi;f &Jwa,mufuaiGay;vduwtwGuou rJaqmuf+rKd @ukd ud,wif k kd k f hJ f l k f kd vkdufydk@ay;ygw,f? rJaqmufa&mufawmh qdkifwqdkifudkac:oGm;ygw,f? vdkufydk@wJhta: }uD;u c%apmifhqdk+yD;tcef;xJrSm olwdk@udkxm;oGm;ygw,f? ol@udkaemufxyfrawG@&awmhygbl;? aemufwae@a&mufawmh qdkif&Sifxdkif;trsdK;orD; u t0wftpm;opfawGay;+yD; wa,mufwcef;cJGxm;ygw,f? 0g0gtcef;xJaewkef; xdkif;vl}uD; wa,muf0if vm+yD;0g0guapmfum;ygw,f? Dawmhrovu&wm ac:vmwJta: }uD;u 0g0gw@kd tm;vH;k udk a&mif;pm;oGm;+yD kd S d kd f h qdwmygb/J qdi&iu 0g0gw@kd ukd wa,muf ESpaomif;eJ@0,fvuwmjzpfwta=umif;/ vmor#{nfonfawGukd k kf Sf f kd f hJ h aiGauswtxd qufqay;&rSmjzpfwta=umif;ajymygw,f? xGuajy;zd@k vy&if owfypfr,fv@kd +cdr;f ajcmufygw,f? hJ H hJ f kf ti,fq;kH jzpfw0g0gu@kd q&if {nfonfawGukd aumif;aumif;rqufqv@kd q+kd yD; c%c%¶duygw,f? wcgwav hJ kd h H k f xrif;rau|;bJxm;ygw,f? tjyifxGufcGifhray;bJ tcef;xJrSmt+rJxnfhxm;ygw,f? Ð apmxl;ESifh 0g0gwdk@.ta=umif;oifcef;pm (Case study) udk oifwef;om;rsm;tm; ay;zwfyg? yg0ifaom csKd;azmufr_rsm;/ csKd;azmufolrsm;udk azmfxkwfcdkif;yg? Ð xdk@aemuf vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufcH&onfhtwGuf b,fvdktusKd;qufrsm; jzpfvmEdkifrvJ [laom ar;cGef;ar;yg? Synthesis (rnf u J h o d k @ vk y f a qmif / umuG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f o nf u d k tajz&S m vk y f a qmif a pjcif ; ) vl@tcGifhta&; csKd;azmufr_ avsmhenf;vmatmif bmawGvkyfoifhovJ[laom ar;cGef;rsm;ar;I ajz =um;vmaomtajzrsm;udk vl@tcGifhta&;vkyfief;pOftydkif; (3) ydkif;wGif ae&mwusjyefpDay;yg? v_@H aqmfr_ (Advocacy) rSwfwrf;wifr_ ynmay;r_(Education) (Documentation) vl@tcGifhta&; csKd;azmufr_rsm;udk avsmhenf;oGm;atmif vkyfaqmif&mY vufawG@wGif ynmay;±Hkouf oufjzifh rvkyaqmifEionfuawG@&onf? csK;d azmufrrsm; avsmenf;vmatmif ta&;,lr_rsm;jzifh aqmif&uom; f dk f kd _ h G f G Eki&ef v_@H aqmfEi&rnfjzpfonf? xkcsK;d azmufrrsm;ukd azmfxw&efvtyfouJo@dk trSew&m;twGuf owif;tcsuf df dk f d _ k f dk h f tvufrsm; pkaqmif;&efrSmvnf;vkdtyfygonf? okd@rSom rodao;aomolrsm;udk today;Ekdifjcif;a=umifh EkdifiHwum todkif;t0dkif;rSygod&Sdvm+yD; xkduJhodk@ v_H@aqmfr_rsm;rSwqifh ta&;,lr_rsm;ukd aqmif&GufoGm;Edkifrnfjzpfonf? ynmay;r_ (Education)/ tcsutvuf pkaqmif;jcif;(Monitoring or Documentation)ESihf pnf;±k;H v_@H aqmfr_ f (Advocacy) wk@d udk [efcsunnD vkyaqmifom;&efrm tvGeta&;}uD;onf? tb,fa=umifqaomf csK;azmufaeaom f D f G S f h dk d tpd;k &ukd ta&;,laqmif&uEi&eftwGuf EkiiwumrS yg0if+yD; EkiiwumOyarsm;jzifh udiw,aqmif&uom;&ef G f kd f dfH dfH kf G f G f G txl;vdktyfonf? xdk@twGuf tpdk;&.csKd;azmufr_rsm;onf rnfonfhOyaESifh+idpGef;aeonf/ rnfhonfhEkdifiHwum Oyarsm;udk udkifwG,fI rnfonfhae&mwGif wdkif=um;Edkifonftp&Sdonfh EdkifiHwumv_H@aqmfr_rsm;udk vkyfaqmif ae&jcif;jzpfonf? vlxkuvl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_ta=umif;rsm;udkod&Sd+yD;/ ouffaotaxmuftxm;rsm;cdkifcdkif vkHvkH&Sdaomfvnf; EkdifiHwumrSrod&Sdv#ifvnf; xdktpdk;&ukd rnfokd@rSta&;,laqmif&GufI &rnfr[kwfyg? xkdokH;rsKd;wGif wrsKd;pDtvkduf u|rf;usifr_&dS&eftwGuf vdktyfonfrsm;rSm - Ð ynmay;a&;vkyfief;twGuf ynmay;enf;vrf;rsm;/ aphpyfaqmf=oolaumif;t&nftcsif;rsm;vkdtyfonf? Ð owif;tcsutvufpaqmif;a&;twGuf awG@qar;jref;jcif;qdi&mtwwfynmu|r;usirrsm;vktyfonf? f k kH kf f f _ d Ð wdkufwGef;v_H@aqmf&eftwGuf EkdifiHwumpmcsKyfrsm;/ Oyarsm;ta=umif; em;vnf&efvdktyfonf? xkd@tjyif o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 97hre pack.pmd 97 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 98. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf etzrS rnfonfhpmcsKyfrsm;ukd vufrSwfa&;xkd;xm;onf/ rnfonfhtcGifhta&;rsm;udk csKd;azmufaeonf/ rnfonfrsm;udk jyif;xefqdk;0g;pGm csKd;azmufaeonfrsm;ukdyg od&Sdxm;&efvdktyfonf? vd k t yf a om ypP n f ; ud & d , mrsm; jyifqifxm;aom Z,m;uGufrsm;ESifh pm&Gufrsm;/ Zmwfvrf;rsm;/ (apmxl;/ 0g0g/ oDwmwdk@. Zmwfvrf;rsm;udk oifhawmfovdkajymif;vJoHk;Edkifonf?) avh v m&ef - Ð Violation ESihf Abuse t"dym,frsm;/ ` Ð vl@tcGifhta&;ynmay;vkyfief;/ tcsuftvufpkaqmif;jcif;/ EdkifiHwumvl@tcGifhta&;oabmwl pmcsKyfrsm;. t"dy`m,fESifh tcef;u¾rsm; (vltcGifhta&;vufpGJpmtkyf/ tcef; 4/ 10/ 11/ 12) rSwfcsuf Ð ta=umif;t&moifcef;pm Case study ESpcvyp&mrvdbJ tpd;&.csK;azmufra&m/ tpd;&r[kwf olu fk k f k k d _ k csK;d azmufryg yg0ifonfh ta=umif;t&m wckxuvnf;ay;Ekionf? Oyrmudk atmufwiazmfjyxm;ygonf? _ J kd df Gf oDwm&Jhtjzpftysuf touf (15)ESpf&SdwJhoDwm[m awmifilòrd@&Sd qifajczHk;&yfuGufwckrSm rdom;pkESifhwuGaexdkifygw,f? armifEr (5)a,mufxrS kw,ajrmuforD;jzpfwowm[m ynmwydi;f wpeJ@ausmif;uxGu/f rdom;pkukd tdrazmf S J d hJ D k f tvkyvy+f yD; &wJaiGav;eJ@axmufyae&ygw,f? olrwd@k &tazu rsK;d ¶d;k pOfquf v,f,mtvkye@J om toufarG; f k h hH hJ f 0rf;ausmif;ðywJtwGuf wjcm;bmtvkyurS r,fr,f&&rvkywwfygb;l ? vGecw(2)ESpavmufu rdom;pkp;D yGm; h f kd f f hJ hJ f a&;tusytwnf;ukd rajz&Si;f EdiawmhwtwGuf aemufq;kH v,fua&mif;vdu&ygw,f? rdryif v,fajrr&Sawmh f kf hJ kd k f d kd d wJaemufyi;f v,fvyief;rStjyif wjcm;tvkyrvkywwfwtwGuf v,fuvb0a&mufom;&ygw,f? olr&J@ h kd k f f f hJ l D G taru tpm;tpmtm[m&rjynf0/ aoG;tm;enf;+yD; use;f rma&;csK@d wtwGuf aemufq;kH om;i,fukd rD;zGm;pOf h hJ twGi;f qH;k oGm;ygw,f? pD;yGm;a&;=uyfwnf;r_/ ynmoifp&dwf }uD;rm;wJtwGuf ynmoifcsewefaewJn/D nDri,f h df h wa,mufudkrS ausmif;rxm;EdkifcJhyg? touf (16) ESpausmausmom&Sao;wJh oDwm&Jtpfuvnf; &xm;blwmrSmukewifuecstvkyf vkyae f f f d h kd f kf f csdefrSmbJ ppfom;rsm;u ppfom;opfpkaqmif;&eftwGuf 0ifa&mufzrf;pD;vdkufwJhtcsdefup+yD; tckxufxd b,f a&muf/ b,faygufrSef;rod bmowif;rSr=um;&awmhygbl;? ga=umifh armifESrxJu t}uD;qHk;jzpfwJh oDwmu “tpfr}uD;awmhtrd&m” qdkovdk armifi,f/ nDri,fawGudk ðypkapmifha&Smuf&wJhtjyif tdrfazmftvkyfygwzuf rem;raevky&ygawmhw,f? tdr&iuvnf; olrtvkyvywm aoaooyfoyfr&Sb;l vd@k q+kd yD; oabmruswi;f f f Sf f k f d kd t+rJwrf;qly}l udr;f armif;aeygw,f? wcgwavtdr&iru om;orD;csi;f ud,csi;f rpm/ em;rcHomatmif atmf[pf fSf k f qJa&;wdkif;xGmvkyfwJhtjyif/ olr&Jha,musfm;uvnf; tysKdazmf0ifpoDwmudk xduyg;&duyg;vkyfavh&Sdw,f? xdktvkyfudkrvkyfcsifaomfvnf; wjcm;rdom;pk0ifaiG&wJhtvkyfr&SdwJhtjyif armifi,f/ nDri,frsm;udk iJhn‡m oem;wJtwGuf atmift;D +yD;vkyae&ygw,f? wcgwav tdr&iu tvkyaumif;aumif;rvkyb;l [kq+kd yD; rdom;pk h h f fSf f f twGufravmufriS vpmav;udkawmifavsmhvdkufao;w,f? olrtwGuf tajctae =umavydkqdk;avjzpfwJh twGuf onf;nnf;rcHEdkifwJhaemufqHk; tvkyfuxGufzdk@ qHk;jzwfvdkuf&ygw,f? tdrazmftvkyuxGu+f yD; wywft=umavmufrm &yfuuxu aqGruif;rsK;d ruif;xJu ta:wa,muf f f S G f J u oDwmwd@k &rom;pk pD;yGm;a&;=uyfwnf;aewJta=umif; pdwraumif;pGm=um;&wJtwGuf owif;ar;wJtaeeJ@ hJ d h f h h olrwdk@tdrfudk a&mufvmygw,f? wcgrStvnfrvmzl;wJhta: vmvnfwJhtwGuf olrtaeeJ@axGaxGxl;xl; rcHpm;&ayrJh armifi,f/ nDri,fawGuawmh rke@f z;kd &wJtwGuf tvGeaysmae=uygw,f? rdom;pktwGuf bmquf h f f vkyfrvJvdk@ ta:uolrudkar;awmh tckxufxdbmtvkyfrSr&wJhtwGuf bmqufvkyf&rSef;rodbl;vdk@jyefajz 98 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 98 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 99. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf vduw,f? ta:u oDwmvufcr,fq&if oufawmifoufomjzpfr0ifaiGaumif; aumif;&wJtvkyu&may; k f H kd h hJ h f kd S r,fvdk@ajym+yD;awmh Dòrd@xJutrsKd;orD; awmfawmfrsm;rsm;udk oltvkyf&Smay;wJhtwGuf 0ifaiGaumif;aumif; &ae+yD; olw@kd rom;pkawGukd yHreaxmufywtwGuf wcsK@d q&ifwuawG/ um;awGe@J awmifjzpfae+yDv@kd oDwmudk d k S f hH hJ kd kd f pdwf&Snfvuf&SnfeJ@ qufvuf&Sif;jyygw,f? aemufESpf&uft=umrSm oDwmwdk@aexdkif&mòrd@rS tjcm;e,fòrd@wòrd@odk@ ta:ESifhtwl um;eJ@oGm;ygw,f? xdke,fòrd@rSmwntdyf+yD; aemufwae@eHeuftapm}uD; oDwmeJ@rwdrf;r,drf; tjcm;trsKd;orD;i,f ESpfa,mufESifh twl e,fpyfòrd@wòrd@o@kd xGucmoGm;=uygw,f? awmifwufvrf; twuftqif;=urf;wrf;wJtwGuf c&D;a0;wcgrS fG h roGm;zl;wJh oDwmtwGuf tvGeyifyrf;vGe;f vSygw,f? gtjyifvrf;wav#mufv;kH (oH;k ay w*dwe;D yg;) ppfwyf/ f h f &J/ v0u/ taumufce/f rD;owf/ }uHz@HG tzG@J 0ifrsm;&Jh ppfaq;ar;jref;csursm;udk olrwd@k o;kH a,mufpvH;k twGuf G h f ta: }uD;udkifcHajz=um;ay;ovdk rSwfyHkwifawmif;vmv#ifvnf; ta: }uD;uyJ ydkufqHay;vdkufvdk@ tqifajy oGm;ygw,f? e,fpyfa&mufawmh xdi;f &JuaiGay;vdu+f yD; olurJaqmuftxd vduy@kd ay;ygw,f? rJaqmufa&muf k kd k k f awmh olwdk@udkqdkifwqdkifac:oGm;+yD; ta: }uD;u tcef;wcef;xJrSmxm;oGm;ygw,f? ol@udkaemufxyfrawG@& awmhygbl;? aemufwae@a&mufawmh xdkif;qdkif&Sif trsKd;orD;}uD;u t0wftpm;opfawG0wfcdkif;+yD; wa,muf wcef;pDcxm;ygw,f? oDwmtcef;xJrm&Saewke;f vl}uD;wa,mufu0ifvm+yD; olrudapmfum;ygw,f? DawmhrS JG S d k olwdk@wawG a&mif;pm;cHxdrSef;odvdkuf&ovdk/ qdkif&Sifuvnf; oDwmwdk@wa,mufudk ESpfaomif;eJ@0,fvdkuf w,fv@kd ajym+yD;/ DaiGawGauswtxd vmwJ{nfonfawGe@J twlwtyay;&r,f/ aiGwjym;rSvnf; ray;bl;vd@k ajym hJ h h l df ygw,f? xGuajy;&if owfypfr,fv@kd v+J cdr;f ajcmufygw,f? ti,fq;kH jzpfwhJ oDwmudvnf; {nfonfawGukd aumif; f k h aumif; rqufqv@kd q+kd yD; c%c%±kuwtjyif wcgwavxrif;rau|;bJxm;ygw,f? tjyifrxGu&bJ tcef;xJrm H d f hJ f S t+rJxnfhxm;ygw,f? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 99hre pack.pmd 99 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 100. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf vlYtcGifhta&;oifcef;pm(8) Ediiwum Ediiom;ESihf Ediia&;tcGita&;qdi&m oabmwlpmcsKyf k f H k f H k f H hf k f International Convenant on Civil and political Rights ( ICCPR) &nf & G , f c suf Ð EdkifiHom;ESifh EdkifiHa&;tcGifhta&;ta=umif;udk tao;pdwfavhvmod&Sdap&ef? Ð xdktcGifhta&;rsm;tm; rdrdb0wGifrnfr#av;pm;vdkufemr_cH&a=umif;udk avhvmqef;ppfrdap&ef? Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) oifwef;om;rsm;udk tkyfpki,frsm;cGJ+yD; EkdifiHwum EkdifiHom;ESifh EkdifiHa&;tcGifhta&;qkdif&moabmwlpmcsKyf . tyd(27) ydukd tao;pdwazmfjyxm;onfh pm&Gursm;udk a0ay;yg? xdpm&Guxwif tcGita&;rsm;udk wydcsi;f pD kf kf f f k f J G hf kf tao;pdwfazmfjyxm;onfhtjyif rdom;pk/ ywf0ef;usifESifh EdkifiHawmf[lI Z,m;uGufyg&Sdonf? ICCPRwGifygaomtxl; td r f ywf 0 ef ; usif ausmif ; tvk y f c G i f tcG i f h t a&;rsm; tydf (1) k wOD ; .tusd K ;ES i f h y wf o uf a om qH;k jzwfcsuukd vGwvwvyfvyf f f G f csrSwfEdkifjcif;/ wOD;.qH;k jzwfcsuuav;pm;jcif;/ f kd tjcm;olrsm;tm; rxdcuapbJ kd f qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk csrSwfjcif;/ tydf (2) k vdiujGJ ym;r_/ tv$m/ bmoma&;/ f wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkESifhtjcm; ta=umif; t&mrsm;a=umifcjGJ cm; h jcif; r&SbJ vlwi;f wef;wlpmESihf d kd G w&m;r#wpGm qufqc&jcif;/ HH vlwOD;. tajctaeESihf tqifh twef;tm;tcsewi;f wGiav;pm; d f kd f cH&jcif;/ vlenf;pkrsm;udk av;pm;jcif;/ tydf (3) k vlwi;f usm;§r uJjG ym;jcif;r&SbJ kd d wef;wlqufqHcH&jcif;/ 100 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 100 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 101. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf b0.tpdwtydi;f u¾tm;vH;k wGif f k usm;§rcJjG cm;jcif;r&Sbwef;wlquf d J qHcjH cif;/ usm;§r t=um; wef;wlav;pm; jcif;udk usio;kH jcif;/ hf tydf (4) k ta&;ay:umvtwGi;f tcGihf ta&;rsm;udk qufvufcpm;ydifH k cGi&jdS cif;/ hf ta&;ay:umvtwGif;Yom tcGifhta&;rsm;udk jyif;jyif;xef xefuef@owfjcif;cH&+y;D tjcm;tcsef d rsdK;wGifpdwfxifovdkuef@owfjcif; rsdK;r&Sdjcif;/ tydf (5) k a=umuf±GH@r_r&SdbJ tcGifhta&; rsm;udk usio;kH cGi&jdS cif;/ hf hf vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;udk wm0ef&Sdol tm%mydkifrsm;uav;pm;r_&Sdjcif;/ tydf (6) k vlwOD;wa,muf.b0onf +cdrf;ajcmufr_vHk;0r&SdbJ vHkòcHr_&Sd onf[k cHpm;&jcif;/ ao%fray;onfh ay:vpDcsrSwfxm;jcif;/ vl o m;wd k @ b0ud k rnf o nf h tE W&,fay;jcif;/ +cdrf;ajcmufjcif; wdk@r&SdbJ umuG,fay;cH&jcif;/ tjcm;olrsm;.b0udk+cdrf;ajcmuf jcif;tm; wm;qD;xm;jcif;/ tydf (7) k &ufpuf=urf;óuwfpGm/ vlrqef pGmESihf vl@oumusqif;apaom d Q ESdyfpufr_/ tjypfay;r_rsdK;rS uif;vGwfjcif;/ ±kyyi;f / pdwyi;f ESitjcm; vlrqef f kd f kd hf aom tjypfay;r_rsm;udk tm%m ydirsm;u a&Smif=uOfjcif;/ kf o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 101hre pack.pmd 101 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 102. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf vlwOD;. ±kyyi;f / pdwyi;f / cHpm;& f kd f kd r_tydi;f tm;vH;k tay: av;pm;ay; k cH&jcif;/ tydf (8) k vkyftm;apcdkif;jcif;rSuif;vGwfcGifh &Sjd cif;/ qENrygbJ vkytm;apcdi;f jcif;tm; f k wm0ef&Sdolrsm;u a&Smif=uOfjcif;/ tjcm;olrsm;. vkyftm;udk av; pm;jcif;/ tydf (9) k rdrdcHpm;ae&aom vGwfvyfcGifhESifh vHòk cHaer_w@kd aysmufu,q;kH ±_;H oGm; G f rnfudk rpdk;&drf&jcif;/ vlom;rsm;. vGwvyfciEivòkH cHr_ f G fh S hf wdk@tm; tumtuG,fay;onhf Oyarsm; jyXmef;xm;jcif;/ vl w OD ; uwef z d k ; xm;aomvG w f vyfrEivòkH crw@kd urqH;k ±_;H &efw&m; _ S hf H _ kd OyavkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;&Sdjcif;/ tydf (10) k w&m;pJGqdkolESifh w&m;pJGqdkcH&ol ESpfOD;pvHk;udk vlom;qefpGm av; av; pm;pm;qufqc&jcif;/ HH tydf (11) k ta=u;G rqyfEiojzifvwa,muf kd f h l tm; axmifrcsEijf cif; kd tydf (12) k e,fajrwcktwGi;f vGwvyfpm 0if f G a&muf/ xGucmEdijf cif;/ fG k vdktyfoifhawmfojzifh Oyat& uef@owfxm;onftem;vSnvnf h fh oGm;vmcGi&jdS cif;/ fh tydf (13) k wdkif;jynfrS ESifxkwfcH&rnfh wdkif; wjcm;om;tm; bma=umifhjzpf a=umif ; tcsuf t vuf r sm;tm; today;jcif;/ 102 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 102 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 103. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf tydf (14) k tjypfr&Sd[k vufcHxm;Edkifjcif;/ vsifjref/ w&m;r#w+yD; vltrsm; =um;emEdkifaom w&m;pD&if&Edkif jcif;/ vkHavmufaom w&m;a&;tul tnDukd &&SEijf cif;/ d kd pGypoukd &ifqiEijf cif;/ f GJ l kd f kd w&m;pD&ifcsuudk od&SdEdkifjcif;/ f tydf (15) k usL;vG e f c J h p Of u w&m;r0if r _ r[kwf aomfvnf;aemufydkif;wGif w&m;r0if[kowfrSwfvmcJhaom tr_rsKd ;a=umiftjypfay;cH&r_r&Sjd cif;/ h tydf (16) k Oyat&tumtuG,ay;cH&aom f tcGifhta&;&Sdjcif;/ w&m;pJyiciEihf w&m;pJcyicirsm; G kd f G hf S G H kd f G hf &Sjd cif;/ tydf (17) k vlwOD;.yk*vuqufo,rtay: ~ d G f_ av;pm;jcif; vlwOD;.cdem;&maetdrtm; av; k f pm;jcif;ESifh umuG,ay;jcif;/ f vl w OD ; . *k % f E S i f h o d u Q m tay: wduf cdujf cif;udk umuG,ay;jcif;/ k k f tydf (18) k bmoma&;tm; vGwvyfpm ud;k f G uG,ciEihf rud;k uG,citm; usihf f G hf S f G hf oHk;Edkifjcif;/ tjcm;olrsm;ESifhuJGjym;aom ,Hk =unfrtm; qkwuixm;ydiciukd _ f kd f k f G hf av;pm;jcif;/ wOD;.,H=k unfu;kd uG,rukd vGwf f _ vyfpm usio;kH Ekijf cif;/ G hf d o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 103hre pack.pmd 103 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 104. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf tydf (19) k owif;rsm;udk tvG,fwul&&SdEdkif jcif;/ wOD;. cHpm;csufESifhxifjrif,lq csuf r sm;ud k vG w f v yf p G m wif j y Edijf cif;/ k tjcm;olrsm;ESifh uJGvJGaomt,l tqrsm;udk vGwfvyfpGmwifjyEdkif jcif;/ tydf (20) k rkef;wD;r_jzpfapaom a[majym r_rsm;ESihf ppfv@H_ aqmfaom0gjzef@r_ rsm;tm;cGifhrðyjcif;/ tydf (21) k qENjyyJGrsm;ESifh vlxkpDwef;vSnfh vnfyrsm;wGif yg0ifEijf cif;/ vlxpk GJ kd k a0;yJrsm;udvwvyfpmpDpOfEijf cif;/ G k G f G kd tydf (22) k tvk y f o rm;or*~ u d k tvk y f orm;rsm;u vGwfvyfpGmzJG@pnf; yg0ifEdkifjcif;/ tzJG@tpnf;rsm;ESifh tkyfpkrsm;udk vlwi;f vGwvyfpmzJ@G pnf;cGi&jdS cif;/ kd f G hf tydf (23) k rnf o l @ ud k rnf o nf h t csd e f w G i f vufxyfrnfuvwvyfpma&G;cs,f kd G f G Edijf cif;/ k vufrxyfbJ aeEdijf cif;/ k vufxyfxr;f jrm;xm;olrsm;onf d wef;wltcGita&;/ wm0efEicpm; hf S hf H cGirsm;&Sjd cif;/ hf tydf (24) k uav;rsm;tm; umuG,fay;&ef vdktyfaomtcGifhta&;rsm;tm; vH;k udk &&Scpm;Edijf cif;/ dH k uav;rsm;onf Ed k i f i H o m;jzpf cGi&jdS cif;/ hf uav;rsm;tay:cJjG cm;zdEyrr&Sjd cif;/ dS f _ 104 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 104 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 105. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf tydf (25) k acgi;f aqmifrsm;udk a&G;cs,ci&jdS cif;/ f G hf vl x k v k y f i ef ; rsm;wG i f yg0if v k y f aqmifci&jdS cif;/ G hf v#Kd@0SufaomrJay;r_jzifh rJqENay; cGi&jdS cif;/ hf tydf (26) k vlwOD;wa,muftm;rsuEmvduf fS k onfhae&mwGifOyaudk toHk;r ðyjcif;/ vlwOD;wa,muftm; tusKd;rJh atmif vkyaqmif&mwGif Oya udk f toHk;rðyjcif;/ tydf (27) k wdi;f &if;om;/ bmoma&;ESihf bm k ompum; uJGjym;aomvlenf;pk rsm;udk ‚if;wdk@. vlrsdK;jzpfr_/ bm omw&m;/ bmompum;wdk@tm; qufvufusifhoHk;cGifhðyxm;jcif;/ vlenf;pkrsm;. wdkif;&if;om;jzpf r_rsm;/ bmompum;rsm;ESifh udk; uG,fonfh bmomw&m;rsm; r aysmufysufoGm;atmifumuG,f ay;onfhóud;yrf;r_rsm;vkyfaqmif jcif;/ Discussion (tjyef t vS e f a qG ; aEG ; jcif ; ) (1) oifwef;om;rsm;udk xdkZ,m;uGufrsm;xJwGif rdrdwdk@óuHawG@ cHpm;ae&onfh Ediia&;ESihf Ediiom; tajctaersm;udk wOD;csi;f kfH kfH pOf;pm;apItqifrsm;owfrway;&efjzpfonf? owfrw&rnfh h S f S f tqifhrsm;rSm- Ð tjynfht0av;pm; vdkufemcH&onf[kqdkv#if --- (&DarmaeaomrsufESm) Ð auseyfavmufatmifav;pm;vdkufemcH&onf[kqdkv#if-- (òyH;aeaomrsuEm)f S Ð wcsKd@w0ufav;pm;vdkufemr_&Sdonf[kqdkv#if-- (w0ufòyH;aeaomrsufESm) Ð vH;0av;pm;vduemay;jcif;r&S[qv#i- (rJaeaomrsuEm) k k f d k kd f h fS o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 105hre pack.pmd 105 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 106. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf (2) wOD;csif;tvdkuf tqifhowfrSwfay;+yD;ygu vlOD;a&tvdkuftkyfpkrsm;jyefcJGay;yg? wzJG@v#if av;a,mufxuf rydkygapESifh? EkdifiHwum EkdifiHom;ESifhEkdifiHa&;tcGifhta&;qkdif&moabmwlpmcsKyf. tydkfrsm;udk oifhawmfovdk xdktkyfpkrsm;xH cJGa0ay;yg? wzJG@v#if (6)ydkfrS (9)ydkf txdcJGa0ay;Edkifonf? (3) cJa0+yD;ygu tzJ@G rsm;&&Sxm;aomtydrsm;udk tzJ@G vutqifrsm; jyefvnfowfrway;&rnf? xdo@kd owfrwf G d k f kd f h S f k S &mwGif tzJG@Yyg0ifaomolrsm;tm;vHk;ESifh waoGrwdrf; tqifhwl&efrjzpfEdkifI trsm;qHk;oabmwlnDEdkifonfh tqifhudk óud;pm;owfrSwfay;&ef wdkufwGef;&rnf? (4) xdo@kd wzG@J csi;f pD oabmwlowfrw+f yD;aomf tkyp}k uD;xHjyefvnfwifjyapyg? usetzG@J rsm;. wifjycsursm;wGif k S f f f r&Sif;aomtcsuf/ ar;jref;p&mrsm;udk jyefvnfar;jref;apyg? oifwef;yd@k csou atmufygar;cGe;f rsm;ar;I oifwef;om;rsm; aqG;aEG;tm;aumif;vmatmifvyaqmifyg? l k f Ð tydkfawG&J@ owfrSwfcsufawGxJrSm bmawGowdxm;rdovJ? Ð b,ftydkfawGu trsm;qHk; av;pm;cHae&ovJ/ bma=umifhvdk@xifovJ? Ð b,ftydkfawGu trsm;qHk;av;pm;rcH&bl;vJ? bma=umifhvdk@xifovJ? Ð rdom;pk/ ywf0ef;usie@J Ediiawmfrm b,fae&mawGu trsm;qH;k av;pm;ay;wmawG@&vJ? b,fae f kfH S &mawGu trsm;qH;k csK;d azmufaeovJ? Ð tckawG@&wJh tqihowfrwcsuawGu bmawGazmfjyaeovJ? f S f f Input (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) Ed k i f i H w um Ed k i f i H o m;ES i f h E d k i f i H a &;qd k i f & m oabmwl p mcsKyf International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) Ð 1966 ckEp/f DZifbmv (16) &ufae@witwnfðycJonf? k S Gf h Ð 1976 ckEp/f rwfv (23) &ufae@wif touf0ifvmonf? S G Ð tykdf (53) ykdfyg0ifonf? Ð tykf (6 -27) txdonf tcGita&;rsm;jzpfonf? d hf Ð tydf (28 - 53) txdonf vl@tcGita&;aumfrwD. wm0efrsm;jzpfonf? k hf Ð 2002 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dvtxd (148) EdkififiH twnfðyvufrSwfa&;xdk;xm;onf? Ð y%mr vufrSwfa&;xdk;xm;aom EdkifiH(7) EkdkifiH&Sdonf? aemufqufwGJpmcsKyfrsm; aemufqufwGJpmcsKyf(1) aemufqufwGJpmcsKyf(2) Ð 1966/ DZifbm (16)&ufjyXmef; Ð 1989 ckESpfwGifjyXmef; Ð 1976/ rwfv (23) wGiftouf0ifvm Ð 1991/ Zlvif (11) wGif touf0ifvm dk Ð 2002ck/ azaz:0g&D txd (101) Ekiitwnfðy dfH Ð 2002/ azaz:0g&Dd txd (46) Ekiitwnfðy dfH Ð y%mr (4)EkdifiH vufrSwfxdk; Ð y%mr (7)EkdifiH vufrSwfxdk; Ð wOD;csif;wkdif=um;jcif;udk vufcH Ð ao%fay;r_ zsuor;f apa&;/ f d 106 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 106 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 107. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf vl @ tcG i f h t a&;aumf r wD EkdifiHwum EkdifiHom;ESifh EkdifiHa&;tcGifhta&;qkdif&m oabmwlpmcsKyfaumfrwdDudk vl@tcGifhta&;aumfrwD [kac:onf? vuffrSwfa&;xkd;xm;aom tzGJ@0ifEkdifiHrsm;rS u|rf;usifol (18) OD;jzifh zGJ@pnf;xm;onf? vk y f i ef ; wm0ef r sm; - Ð ekdifiHrsm;rStpD&ifcHpmrsm;udk zwf±_avhvm&jcif;/ (yxrtpD&ifcHpmudk yxrwESpftwGif;/ ykHrSeftpD &ifcHpmudk (5) ESpfw}udrf wifoGif;&onf?) Ð okH;oyf/ qkH;jzwfcsufcsrSwfjcif;/ Ð wOD;csif;wkdif=um;r_ ppfaq;jcif;/ Ð xdkekdifiHtpD&ifcHpmrsm;udk tpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,fwOD;rS trsm;=um;emaom ae&mwGifzwfjy&jcif;/ Ð EdkifiHudk,fpm;vS,frsm;u odvdkonfrsm;udk jyefvnfar;jref;jcif;/ Ð tpkd;&r[kwfaom tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rSwifjyaom tpD&ifcHpmrsm;udkyg xnfhpOf;pm;jcif;/ Ð tpkd;&r[kwfaom tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;onf w&m;0ifwifjycGifhr&yJ/ aumfrwD0ifrsm;xHtcsuftvufay;ydk@ Edkifjcif;/ Ð EdkifiHtay:qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;csrSwfI oufqdkif&mEdkifiHudktoday;jcif;/ Ð Oyaoufa&mufapaom tm%m/ ta&;,lEionfh tm%mr&Sjd cif;/ (Enforcement Power) kd f Ð wOD;csif;wkdif=um;r_rsm;ukd vufcHEkdif/ rEkdif t&ifqkH;jzwfonf? qkH;jzwf+yD;v#if oufqkdif&mEkdifiHokd@ ta=umif;=um;onf? Ð wOD;csif;wkdif=um;r_rsm;onf pmcsKyftzJG@0ifEdkifiH.csKd;azmufr_udk wdkif=um;jcif;jzpf&rnf// aumf r wD u avh v mppf a q;r_ a jrmuf a om wd k i f = um;jcif ; ud p P j zpf & ef r S m atmuf y gtcsuf r sm;ES i f h ud k u f n D r _ & S d & rnf ? (1) tr_wi=f um;aomol (od@k ) wdi=f um;olrsm;onf trnfrazmfvaomol rjzpf&? aemufqufwpmcsKyftzG@J kd k dk JG 0ifEdkifiH. w&m;pD&ifxHk;rsm;ESifh tóuH;0ifoljzpf&rnf? (2) csK;d azmufc&olu,wif (od@k ) ud,pm;vS,jf zpfouwdi=f um;&rnf? od@k aomf xdcsK;d azmufc&ol ud,wif H kd f kd k f l k k H k f kd rwdi=f um;EdionftajctaersK;d &Sv#if xdu,pm;wdi=f um;r_ukd aumfrwDuvufcpOf;pm;rnfjzpfonf? k kf h d k dk f k H (3) wdi=f um;r_onf oabmwlpmcsKyfwif yg0ifaomtcsursm;ESihf udunr&&rnfjzpf+yD; aemufqufwpmcsKyf k G f S k f D _ dS JG . wdkif=um;cGifhudk tv$JoHk;pm;vkyfI wdkif=um;jcif;rjzpfap&? (4) xdktr_udpPonf tjcm;aom EdkifiHwumvkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;t& udkifwG,fajz&Sif;ae&ef pOf;pm;oHk;oyf aeaom udprjzpfap&? P (5) wdkif=um;olonf EdkifiHawmftqifhwdkif=um;r_rsm;udk vkyfaqmif+yD;jzpfaomfvnf; auseyfr_r&aomtr_ rsK;d jzpf&rnf? Deepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;.vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h E d _ i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) oifwef;yd@k csouEdiiwif tpd;k &.tm%mESihf jynfow@kd .tcGita&; cseciv#mnDr#rEihf ywfoufI o±kyf l kfH G l hf dfGf _S azmfyo;kH yHukd atmufygtwdi;f jyoI&Si;f jyyg? vl@tcGita&;v_y&m;awmif;qdaeolrsm;taejzifh tpd;k &wGiom tm%m kH k k hf fS k f tjynfh&Sdaom tm%m&Siftpdk;&yHkpHrsKd;ESifh tcGifhta&;rsm; w&m;vGefawmif;aeaom rif;rJhp±dkufrjzpfatmif owdðy oifha=umif; axmufjyyg? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 107hre pack.pmd 107 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 108. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf tpdk;&yg0g jynfolwdk@. tcGifhta&;rsm; yHkpH(2) tpdk;&yg0g jynfolwdk@. tcGifhta&;rsm; yHkpH(3) jynfolwdk@. tcGifhta&;rsm; tpdk;&yg0g Synthesis (rnf u J h o d k @ vk y f a qmif / umuG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f o nf u d k tajz&S m vk y f a qmif a pjcif ; ) oifwef;OD;aqmifolrS rdrdtwGuf oufawmifhoufomjzpfrnfhae&mwGif wdwfqdwfpGmxdkifap+yD; atmufyg twdi;f vkyaqmifom;&ef oifwef;om;rsm;tm;ajymqdyg? om,m+idranmif;aom aemufcaw;*Dw wD;vk;H ukd zGiay; k f G k hf H hf xm;yg// Ð rsufpdrdSwfI tm±kHa=umrsm;udk ajzavsmh+yD; at;at;aq;aq;xdkifum aemufcHaw;*DwwD;vkH;rS zGifhay;xm; aomoDcsif;udkcHpm;yg? Ð tckudk,fa&S›rSm awmufyonfh tvif;wef;}uD;jrifae&onf? Ð 4if;xJufkd xdk;azmuf0ifaevdkufyg? Ð tJrm cspjf cif;arwWm/ *±kpurrsm;jynfaeaom tdrwtdr&onf? tJae&mrSmrif;uk,wif b,fae&mrSm D S kd f _ h f f dS D d f dk ygovJudk cHpm;=unfhyg? Ð ywf0ef;usif/ vl@todkif;t0kdif;wGif D+idrf;csrf;a&;/ w&m;r#wa&;rsm;jynfhae/ rdrdb,fae&mrSm yg0ifovJ? Ð pmoifausmif;awG@ae+yD/ vGwfvyfaysmf&GifpGm pmoifae=uw,f/ rdrdb,fae&mrSm &SdaevJaocsmpGmjrif atmif=unfhyg? Ð tvkyfcGifxJa&mufae+yD/ wDxGifzefwD;r_udktm;ay;aom zGH@òzd;wkd;wufonfh tvkyfcGifjzpfonf? wOD;csif; wefzdk;udk todrSwfðy/ yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_&Sdonf? xkdtvkyfcGiwGif oifudk,fwkdif b,fae&mrSmygaevJ? f Ð wkdkif;jynfwckudk jrifatmif=unfhyg? xkdwkdif;jynfonf +idrf;csrf;r_rsm;/ ºuG,f0csrf;omr_rsm;jzifh jynfh0aeonfh oift+rJwrf;waeaom EkdifiHwckjzpfonf/ xkdEkdifiHwGif oifrnfonfhae&mwGifyg0ifaeygvJ? 108 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 108 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 109. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf Ð w&m;r#w/ nDr#/ vGwfvyf/ vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;jzifh jynfh0aeaom urBm}uD;udk jrifatmif=unfhyg? tJDrSm oifudk,fwdkif b,fae&mrSm &Sdaeonfukd jrifatmifcHpm;=unfhyg? Ð ukd,fudkukd,f ar;cGef;xkwfyg/ DykH&dyfrsm; trSefwu,fjzpfEdkif&J@vm;? rSdwfxm;aomrsufvHk;rsm; jyefzGifhapyg? vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm; jyifqifxm;aom EdkifiHom;ESifh EdkifiHa&;tcGifhta&;qdkif&mZ,m;uGufESifh pm&Gufrsm;/ zwf¶_avhvm&ef tjynfjynfqdkif&mvl@tcGifhta&;Oya/ EdkifiHom;ESifh EdkifiHa&;tcGifhta&;qdkif&moabmwlpmcsKyf (vufpGJpmtkyf tcef;-4)/ owdðy&ef - Ð EkdifiHwum EkdifiHom;ESifh EkdifiHa&;tcGifhta&;qkdif&m oabmwlpmcsKyftykdfrsm;udk tkyfpkvdkufcJGa0&mwGif oifwef;om;ta&twGuftvkduf oifhawmfovdkcJGa0Edkifonf? tkyfpktwGif;vlenf;ygu ydkItqifajyEdkif onf? Ð rdom;pk/ ywf0ef;usi/f Ediiawmftpm; tvkyci/f tzJ@G tpnf;/ ausmif;ponfjzifh oifavsmovdk ajymif;Edif kfH fG h f k onf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 109hre pack.pmd 109 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 110. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf vlYtcGifhta&;oifcef;pm(9) EdiiwumpD;yGm;a&;? vlra&;ESi,Ofaus;rItcGita&;qdi&m oabmwlpmcsKyf k f H I hf hf k f International Convenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) &nf&G,fcsuf Ð pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;ESifh,Ofaus;r_qdkif&mtcGifhta&;rsm;udk tao;pdwfavhvmod&Sdap&ef/ Ð rdrdwdk@vufawG@b0ESifhqufpyfI E_dif;,SOfoHk;oyfrdap&ef/ Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) oifwef;om;rsm;tm; tkyp(6)pkc+JG yD; tao;pdwZ,m;jzifh azmfjyxm;aom pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra&;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_ f k f _ qdkif&mtcGifhta&; tydkfrsm;udk wzGJ@wpHkpDa0ay;yg? (1) vlwdkif; udk,fydkifqHk;jzwfydkifcGifh&Sdonf? rdrd. EdkifiHa&;tqifhtwef;udk vGwfvyfpGm qHk;jzwfydkifcGifh&Sdovdk pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_ zGH@òzd;wdk;wufr_wdk@ESihf ywfoufI vGwfvyfpGm aqmif&GufcGifh&Sdonf? Ð vGwfvyfpGm a&G;cs,fydkifcGifh &Sdygovm;? Ð rdrdwdk@ESifhoufqdkifonfha&;&mrsm;udk vGwfvyfpGm qHk;jzwfydkifcGihf&Sdygvm;? Ð vlenf;pkrsm;onf rdrdwdk@.&nf&G,fcsufrsm;udk &&SdatmifvkyfEdkifcGihf&Sdygovm;? Ð rdrd,Ofaus;r_udk vGwfvyfpGmusifhoHk;cGifh &Sdygovm;? (2) tpd;k &rsm;onf rdrwi&aom t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk tpGr;f uketoH;k ðyI TtcGita&;rsm;udk tjrifrm;qH;k d G f dS f hf h wajz;ajz;a&muf&SdcHpm;Edkifatmif tqifhqifhvkyfaqmifay;&rnf? Ð tpd;&onf pD;/vl/,Of tcGita&;rsm;wd;jrifvmatmif vHavmufpm vkyaqmifay;vsu&ygovm;? k hf k h k G f f dS Ð pD;/vl/,OftcGita&;rsm;wd;wufvm&ef Ediiawmfbwf*suukd vHavmufpm toH;ðyxm;yg ovm;? hf k kfH f k G k Ð Ediiawmf. &if;jrpfrsm;udk toH;ðy&mwGif vl@tcGita&; vrf;!Gecsursm;ESitnD vkyaqmifygovm;? kfH k hf f f hf f (3) TpmcsKyfygtcGifhta&;rsm;udk usm;/r cJGjcm;jcif;r&SdbJ wef;wlcHpm;Edkif&ef tpdk;&uwm0ef,laqmif &Guf&rnf? Ð trsKd;om;ESifh trsKd;orD;wdk@t=um; wef;wlnDr#aom qufqHr_&Sdygovm;? Ð trsK;orD;rsm;. vdtyfcsuukd wm0ef,l jznfqnf;ay;rnftpDtpOfrsm;tm; tpd;&u vHavmufpm d k f h h k k G axmufyay;ygovm;? Hh (4) tpd;k &onf Dru&ufwpfv@l abmif&dS jynforsm;. taxGaxGvrb0wd;k wufapa&;&nf&,csujf zifh kd l l _ G f uef@owfEdkifonfhobm0&Sdaom tcGifhta&;rsm;udkom uef@owfaumif;uef@owfEdkifonf? Ð tpdk;&onf pD;/vl/,OftcGifhta&;rsm;udk EdkifiHom;rsm;cHpm;Edkif&eftwGuf vHkavmufaom ta&;,l aqmif&urrsm; vkyaqmifay;ygovm;? G f _ f (5) TtcGifhta&;rsm;tm; tpdk;&jzpfap/ tkyfpkwpkujzpfap/ vlwa,mufujzpfap zsufqD;jcif;r&Sdap&? Ð tpdk;&udk,fwdkif T pD;/vl/,OftcGifhta&;rsm;tay: csKd;azmufaeygovm;? 110 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 110 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 111. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf Ð tjcm;tpdk;&r[kwfaomtzJG@rsm;ua&m TtcGifhta&;rsm;udk wdkuf±kdufjzpfapoG,f0dkufIjzpfap csKd;azmufaeygovm;? (6) vlwdkif; cJGjcm;jcif;r&SdbJ tvkyfvkyfcGifh/ tvkyfa&G;cs,fydkifcGifh&Sdonf? ta=umif;rJhtvkyfxkwfjcif;/ t"rR vkyfcdkif;jcif;rS umuG,fay;&rnf? Ð tvkyfrsm;&&Sd&ef vG,fulygovm;? Ð vGwfvyfpGmtvkyfa&G;cs,fEdkifygovm;? Ð jynfolrsm;udk tvkyftvG,fwul&&Sd&ef ulnDonfhtpDtpOfrsm; &Sdygovm;? Ð tvkyf&&Sd&ef t[ef@twm;jzpfaponfh tpdk;&.ay:vpDrsm;&Sdygovm;? (7) vlwkdif; rdrdESifh rdrdom;pk. vlr_b0zlvHk&eftwGuf vdktyfaomoifhwifhonfhvpmjzifh oifhavsmfaom vkyief;cGiukd &&Sci&onf? wef;wltvkytwGuf wef;wlvpm&&rnf? use;f rma&;ESiuun+D yD; vHòk cHaom f f d G hf dS f hf kd f vkyfief;jzpf&rnf? wef;wltvkyfwdk;wufcGifh&Sd&rnf? tyef;ajztem;,lcGifh &Sd&rnf? Ð &&Sdaomvpmonf vlwef;aphaexdkifEdkifaomvpm jzpfygovm;? Ð vkyf&aomtvkyfESifh vpmr#wygovm;? Ð vkyf&aom vkyfief;cGifonf usef;rma&;ESifh nD!GwfI vHkòcHr_&Sdygovm;? Ð tvkyfrS ta=umif;rJhrxkwf&ef umuG,fay;r_&Sdygovm;? Ð t"rRvkyftm;apcdkif;r_ &Sdygovm;? Ð tvkyform;rsm;onf vkyfcESifhcGifh,lEdkifygovm;? (8) vlwdkif; tvkyform;or*~rsm; zJG@pnf;cGifh/ yg0ifcGifhESifh qENjycGifh&Sdonf? Ð tvkyform;or*~rsm; zJG@Edkif/ 0ifa&mufEdkifygovm;? Ð tvkyform;rsm;onf vdkvm;csufrsm; twGuf qENjyoydwfarSmufEdkifygovm;? Ð EdkifiHwumtvkyform;tzJG@rsm;ESifhqufoG,fI nDvmcHrsm;wGif wufa&mufwifjyEdkifygovm;? (9) vlwdkif; vlr_b0zlvHka&; tmrcHjcif;tygt0if vlr_zlvHka&; cHpm;cGifhrsm;&Sdonf? Ð tpdk;&onf tvkyform;rsm;. aexdkifr_ tqifhtwef;aumif;rGefatmifvkyfaqmifay;r_ &Sdygovm;? Ð aexdkifraumif;jzpfygu aq;ukoEdkifonfh aq;cef;rsm;&Sdygovm;? Ð vkyfief;cGifwGif xdcdkufygu avsmfa=u; &&Sdygovm;? vpmtjynfhESifh cGifhcHpm;Edkifygovm;? Ð tvkyfrSxkwfypfygu avsmfa=u;cHpm;cGifh&Sdygovm;? Ð tvkyform;rsm; tmrcHxm;Edkif/ cHpm;Edkifygovm;? (10) tpdk;&onf rdom;pkrsm;tay:rlwnfI umuG,fay;r_rsm;ESifh tultnDrsm; axmufyhHay;&rnf? vufxyfxdrf;jrm;jcif;onf ESpfOD;oabmwljzpf&rnf? rdcifrsm;udk txl;umuG,fapmifha&Smufay; &rnf? uav;rsm;tm; zdESdyfcJGjcm;jcif;r&Sdap&ef txl;umuG,fapmifha&Smufay;&rnf? uav;rsm;ESifh vli,frsm;tay: pD;yGm;a&;tjrwfxkwfr_rS umuG,fay;&rnf? t&G,fra&mufao;aomolrsm;tm; tE W&m,f&Sdaomvkyfief;cGifwGif tvkyfapcdkif;jcif;tm; wm;qD;ydwfyifay;&rnf? Ð rdrdvufxyfrnfholudk rdrda&G;cs,fydkifcGifh&Sdygovm;? Ð rdcifESifhuav;rsm;. vdktyfcsufrsm;twGuf tpdk;&utpDtpOfrsm; vHkavmufpGmvkyfaqmifay;yg ovm;? Ð uav;rsm;tm; rw&m;apmfum;jcif;tay: wm;qD;tjypfay;r_&Sdygovm;? Ð uav;rsm;tm; tE W&m,f&Sdaomvkyfief;cGifrsdK;wGif apcdkif;r_rsKd;&Sdygovm;? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 111hre pack.pmd 111 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 112. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf (11)vlwdkif;onf rdrdudk,fwdkifESifh rdrd.rdom;pktwGuf pm;0wfaea&;tygt0ifvHkavmufoifhwifhaom vlaer_tqifhtwef; cHpm;cGifh&Sdonf? vlwdkif;qmavmifiwfrGwfr_rS uif;a0;cGifh&Sdonf? Ð vlwdkif; iwfrGwfr_rS uif;=uygovm;? Ð vlwdkif;t[m&jynfhaom tpm;tpmrsm; &&SdEdkifygovm;? Ð vlwdkif; aetdrfrsm;jzifh aexdkifEdkif=uygovm;? Ð vlwdkif; tajccHpm;0wfaea&;zlvHk=uygovm;? Ð vlwdkif; oef@&Sif;aoma&&=uygovm;? (12)vlwdkif; pdwfydkif;qdkif&mESifh ±kyfydkif;qdkif&musef;rma&;udk tjrifhrm;qHk;ESifh twwfEdkifqHk; &&SdcHpm;cGihf&Sd onf? Ð vlwdkif; vHkavmufaom usef;rma&; tultnDrsm; &&SdcHpm;Edkifygovm;? Ð vlwdkif; tajccHusef;rma&;ESifh oGm;zufqdkif&musef;rma&; tultnDrsm; &&SdcHpm;Edkifygovm;? Ð arG;uif;puav;rsm;ESifh &ifaoG;i,frsm;tm; óudwifumuG,fEdkifaoma&m*grsm;rjzpfatmif umuG,fxm;ygovm;? Ð vlwdkif;. pdwfydkif;ESifh±kyfydkif;usef;rma&; aumif;ap&eftwGuf xda&mufaom usef;rma&;apmifh a&Smufrpepf &Sygovm;? _ d (13) vlwdkif;ynmoif=um;cGifh&Sdonf? tajccHynma&;onf roifrae&tcrJhjzpf&rnf? Ð tajccHynma&;onf tcrJhESifh roifrae&jzpfygovm;/ Ð tajccHynmoif&rnfh t&G,f&Sdaom uav;rsm;tm;vHk; ausmif;wufaeygovm;/ Ð t&nfaoG;&Sdaom tajccHynma&; &Sdygovm;? Ð ausmif;rwuf&aom vli,frsm;twGuf txl;ynma&;tpDtpOfrsm; &Sdygovm;? Ð ynma&;pepfonf uav;rsm;ESifh vlr_b0twGuf toHk;csEdkifaompepfrsKd; jzpfygovm;? Ð ouf}uD;rsm;twGuf (t)oHk;vHk;tpDtpOfrsm; &Sdygovm;? Ð tqifhjrifhynma&;onf vlwdkif;wufa&mufEdkifaom taetxm;&Sdygovm;? Ð ausmif;wufuav;rsm;twGuf jyXmef;pmtkyfrsm;/ taxmuftulypPnf;rsm;vHkavmufr_&Sdygovm;? Ð uav;rsm;twGuf vHkavmufaomausmif;/ pmoifcef;rsm;&Sdygovm;? Ð t&nftcsif;jynfhaom q&m/ q&mr rsm;&Sdygovm;/ Ð ausmif;y&0k%frsm;onf usef;rma&;ESifhudkufnDI vHkòcHr_&Sdygovm;? (14) tpdk;&rsm;onf tajccHynmudk tcrJhESifhroifrae& oif=um;Edkifap&ef pDrHudef;rsm;jzifh taumif txnfazmf&rnf? Ð tpdk;&onf ynma&;twGuf vHkavmufaombwf*sufcsrSwfI toHk;ðyygovm;? (15)vlwdkif; ,Ofaus;r_b0wGifyg0ifcGifh&Sd+yD; acwfrSDody`Hynm. wdk;wufr_tusKd;aus;Zl;rsm;wGif yg0ifcHpm; ydkifcGifh&Sdonf? Ð vlwdkif;odyH`ynm.xGef;um;r_rsm;udk vlwdkif;cHpm;Edkifygovm;? Ð tEkynmudk vlwdkif;toHk;csEdkifygovm;? Ð rdrd,Ofaus;r_rsm;udk vlwdkif;xdef;odrf;Edkif/ wdk;wufatmifjr‡ifhwifEdkifygovm;? 112 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 112 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 113. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf Discussion (tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;) xdk@aemufwydkfcsif;. t"dy`m,fudk rnfodk@em;vnfa=umif; tkyptvduf aqG;aEG;ap+yD; xdtcGita&;rsm;udk rdrw@kd ywf0ef; f k k k hf d usifwGif&&SdcHpm;&r_&Sd/ r&Sdudk jyefvnfwifjyapyg? tqiftvduf h k (1)rS(10)trSway;&ygrnf? useorsm;udvnf; 0di;f 0ef;qef;ppfci;f yg? f f l k k kd oifwef;om;rsm;tm;vHk; ydkrdkaqG;aEG;vm+yD; oabmaygufvm ap&ef wydcsi;f tvduf atmufygar;cGe;f rsm;ar;I oifye;f wGif k f k k Z,m;uGufcsIrSwfwrf;wifyg? Ð wydkfcsif;tay: b,fvdkem;vnfygovJ? Ð tpdk;&u b,fvdkqifajcay;I rvdkufemwmrsKd;&SdwwfygovJ? Ð b,fvrsK; csK;azmufr_ OyrmawG&ygovJ? kd d d dS tm;vHk;aqG;aEG;+yD;ygu EdkifiHwumwGif xdktcsufrsm;ESifhywfoufI pmcsKyfay:aygufvmyHk/ vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;udk qufvufwifjyyg? Input (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) EdkifiHwumpD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_tcGifhta&;qdkifoabmwlpmcsKyf ( ICESCR ) Ð 1966 ckwif jyXmef;cJonf? G h Ð 1976 ck/ ZEM0g&v (3)&ufae@wif touf0ifvmcJonf? D G h Ð 2002ck/ azaz:0g&Dvtxd twnfðyaomEdkifiH (145) EkdifiHjzpfonf/ Ð y%mr vufrSwfxkd;xm;aom EkdifiH(7) EkdifiH&donf?S Ð tykdfaygif; (31)ykdfyg0ifonf? Ð tydkf (1-5) txdonf t"dy`m,fzGifhqkdcsufrsm;jzpfonf? Ð tykdf (6-15) txdonf tcGifhta&;rsm;jzpfonf? Ð useftydkfrsm;rSm aumfrwD. wm0efrsm;jzpfonf? pmcsKyf a umf r wD Ð aumfrwD0if (18) OD;&S+d yD;/ oufwrf; (4)ESpjf zpfonf? Ð yxrtpD&ifcHpmudk (2) ESpftwGif;wifoGif;&ef/ Ð ykref tpD&ifcpmudk (5) ESpw}udrwifoi;&ef/ H S H f f Gf Ð aumfrwDonf ukvor*~&Sd pD;yGm;a&;ESifh vlr_a&;aumifpD.atmufwGif&Sdonf? aumf r wD . wm0ef r sm;rS m - Ð EkdifiHESifhywfoufonfh tpD&ifcHwifoGif;vmr_rsm;twGuf ar;cGef;rsm;udkjyifqif&onf? Ð wifoGif;vmaom tpD&ifcHpmrsm;ukdavhvmonf? Ð qkH;jzwfcsufr_=urf;rsm; a&;qGJ+yD;/ qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;udk csrSwf&onf? Ð tpkd;&r[kwfaomtzGJ@rsm;rS tpD&ifcHEkdifaomfvnf; tpD&ifcHpmay;ydk@±kHoufoufomjzpf+yD; 0ifa&mufajym qkcir&Syg/ d G hf d TpmcsKyf . xl ; jcm;csuf r S m - Ð ykHrSeftpD&ifcHpm (5) ESpfjzpfaejcif;I tpD&ifcHr_tcsdef=umjrifhvGef;onf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 113hre pack.pmd 113 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 114. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Ð EkiitcsK@d u tcse,jl znfqnf;&efvonf? wki;jynf. a&/ ajr/ t&if;tjrpfrsm;jzifh udun+D yD; wajz;ajz; dfH d f h kd df k f vkyfaqmifoGm;&eftwGuf tcsdefvdkonf[k qifajcay;wwffonf? Ð wOD;csif;wkdif=um;r_udk vkyfaqmifEkdif&ef aqmif&Gufaeaomfvnf; rjzpfao;yg? wcsKd@u tcsuftvuf/ okawoersm; vkyfaqmif&rnfjzpfI wOddD;csif;wkdif=um;&efrSmrjzpfEkdif[kajym+yD; tcsKd@ujzpfEkdifonf[k ajymqdae=uaomfvnf; ,cktcg wOD;csi;f wdi=f um;r_ucijhf yKEdirnfh pmcsKyfr=l urf; (Draft) jyifae+yD jzpfonf? k k kd G k f xdk@aemuf pmcsKyfygtcsufrsm;udk rnfr#txd em;vnfr_&Sdonfudk qufvufavhvm&eftwGuf tkyfpki,frsm; jyefcJGygonf? Deepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;.vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h E d _ i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) tkyfpkwckcsif;udk &Gmom,m.tjzpftysufygaom pm&Gufw&GufpDay;um - Ð bmtcGifhta&;awG csKd;azmufcHae&ovJ/ Ð csKd;azmufcH&olawGu b,folvJ/ Ð b,folawGu csKd;azmufwmvJ ponhfar;cGef;rsm;udk tkyfpkvdkufaqG;aEG;apyg? Case study (ta=umif;t&moifcef;pm) &G m om,mta=umif ; EdiiwEdiiwif &Gmom,m[kac:wJh &Gmw&Gm &Scygw,f? xd&mrSmaexdiwoawG[m ±k;d &m,Ofaus;r_rsm;eJ@ kfH kfH G d hJ kG k f hJ l aysm&ipmaexdi=f uolrsm;jzpf+yD; ±k;d &m"avhyawmfawGukd pkaygi;f usi;f yaysm&iavh&ygw,f? trsm;pkrm bd;k bGm; f $f G k JG f $f dS S yditr,mrsm;ESihf v,f,majrrsm;rSm v,f,mvkyief;eJ@toufarG;=uwJh awmifov,form;rsm;jzpf=uygw,f? kf d f f l r=umao;rDu xdEiirm tpd;k &opfwufvmcJ+h yD; Edii&@J p;D yGm;a&;ay:vpDrsm; ajymif;vJcygw,f? EdiijH cm;eJ@ k kd f H S kfH hJ kf wdkif;&if;om;vkyfief;&Sifrsm;[m &Gmom,m&GmteD;tem;rSm tpdk;&&J@cGifhðycsufeJ@ puf¶HkopfawG vma&mufwnf aqmufvmcJhygw,f? trsm;jynfoltyef;ajztem;,lavh&SdwJh &Gmuyef;+cH/ tm;upm;uGif;/ v,f,majrESifh tdrf,mtcsKd@udk puf±kHwnfaqmufzdk@ tpdk;&trdef@eJ@z,f&Sm;cJhygw,f? puf±kHawGzGifhvSpf+yD; tjcm;aou ynm&Sifrsm;yg xdk&GmrSmvma&mufaexdkifcJhwJhtwGuf ukefaps;E_ef;vnf; t&ifuxuf tqrwefjrifhwufoGm; cJhygw,f? puf¶HkawGuxkwfv$wfvdkufwJh tnpfta=u;/ pGef@ypfypPnf;awGa=umifh ajrqDv$mawGysufpD;vm+yD; oD;ESHrsm;ygysufpD;oGm;vdk@ vlxkrSmpD;yGm;a&;=uyfwnf;ukefygw,f? xdkpuf±HkawGrSmvnf; aocHjynfolawGudk t"dutvkycef@tyfwmr&SbJ vkytm;cavsmay;vd@k &wJh trsK;d orD;awGe@J toufrjynfao;wJuav;awGuom f d f h h h kd vkyftm;cenf;enf;eJ@ tvkyfcef@vsuf&Sdygw,f? wu,fvdk@ tvkyfvkyf&if; udk,f0ef&Sdvm&if cGifhray;±kHomru tvkyuawmifxwypfavh&ygw,f? puf¶rm tvkyvyoawG[m use;f rma&;twGuf tE &m,f&whJ "gwaA f k f dS kH S f kf l W dS k aq;awGeJ@ ae@pOftvkyfvkyfudkif ae&vsuf&Sdygw,f? trsm;pkrSm usef;rma&;csKd@wJhaevsuf&Sd+yD; tpdk;&uvnf; vdktyfonfhaq;0g;rsm;udk axmufyHhay;wmawGr&Sdygbl;? DvdkpD;yGm;a&;=uyfwnf;vmwJhtwGufa=umifh tdrfaxmifwGif;&Sd trsKd;om;awGu tjcm;aoodk@ oGm; a&muf+yD; tvkytudi&mazGz@kd xGucmvsu&ygw,f? tdraxmifptwGi;f trsm;qH;k usecoawG[m ouf}uD; f kf S fG f dS f k f hJ l &G,trsm;/ uav;i,frsm;eJ@ trsK;d orD;rsm;omjzpfygw,f? pD;yGm;a&;=uyfwnf;r_a=umifh rdbrsm;u &ifaoG;i,frsm; f kd tm;vHk;udk ausmif;rydk@Edkif=uyg? ghtjyif puf±kHteD;tem;rSmzGifhvSpfxm;wJh azsmfajza&; vkyfief;rsm;xJrSmvnf; trsKd;orD;i,fawGudk tvkyfvkyfzdk@pnf;±kH;odrf;oGif;vsuf&Sdygw,f? ±kd;&m"avhudk jrwfEdk;wJhouf}uD;&G,ftdkawGu xdkazsmfajza&;vkyfief;awGudk rESpfoufayrJhvnf; tcsKd@trsKd;orD;i,fawGrSm rvGJombJ xdkvkyfief;awGxJrSm vkyfudkifae&vsuf&Sdygw,f? 114 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 114 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 115. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf tzJG@vdkufwifjy+yD;aomtcgwGif tESpfcsKyfudk oifykef;wGifrSwfwrf;wifI ‚if;csKd;azmufcH&r_rsm;tay: tpdk;&taejzihf bmvkyfay;oifhovJqdkaomar;cGef;udk 0dkif;0ef;aqG;aEG;ygap? Synthesis (rnfuJhodk@vkyfaqmif/ umuG,fwm;qD;Edkifonfudk tajz&Smvkyfaqmifapjcif;) oifwef;om;rsm;udk tkyfpkav;pkcGJonf? tkyfpktvdkuf tydkfrsm;cJGay;I tzJG@tvdkuf xdkta=umif;t&m rsm;ESifhywfoufI rdrdem;vnfoabmaygufr_udk oDcsif;/ uAsm/ oHcsyfrsm;pyfqdkygap? avhvm&ef vl@tcGifhta&;vufpJGpmtkyf tcef;-4 ESifh wydvuf &Si;f vif;csursm;udk enf;jyvufprsm;wGif avhvm&ef/ k f kd f GJ rSwfcsuf Ð tydkfwykfcsif;udk oifwef;om;rsm;jyefvnfwifjy&mwGifoifwef;ydk@csoltaejzifhvdktyfaomt"dy`m,f rsm;/ Oyrmrsm;/ tpdk;&ay;avh&Sdaomqifjcifrsm;udk vdktyfovdk axmufjyay;Edkifygonf? Ð TtcGifhta&;rsm;udk csdK;azmufolrsm;rSm tpdk;&oufoufomr[kwfbJ pD;yGm;a&;ukr`%Drsm;/ EdkifiHw umaumfydka&;&Sif;rsm;yg0ifonfhtcsufudk axmufjy&efvdktyfonf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 115hre pack.pmd 115 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 116. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf vlYtcGifhta&;oifcef;pm(10) vltcGita&;vkyief;rsm;aqmif&ujf cif; Y hf f G (Human Rights Action) &nf&G,fcsuf Ð wOD;csif;vkyfaqmifaeaom vl@tcGifhta&;vkyfief;rsm;. tm;aumif;csuf/ tm;enf;csufrsm;udk jrifomap&ef/ Ð vl@tcGifhta&;vkyfaqmifaeolrsm; wOD;csif;ðyjyif&ef vdktyfcsufrsm;udk jrifIjyifqifwwfap&ef/ Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) oifwef;om;rsm;udk tzJG@(6)zJG@cJGapI tzJG@wzJG@pDudk ,cifupdwful;,OfpOf;pm;xm;ovdk vl@tcGifhta&;/ +idrf;csrf;a&;/ w&m;r#wr_ESifh vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;xGef;um;aom rdom;pk/ ywf0ef;usif/ tvkyfcGif/ ausmif;/ EdkifiHESifh urBmwdk@udk pm±Gufay:wGif a&;om;yHkazmfapyg? xdo@kd yazmfxm;aomta=umif;t&mrsm;udk tzJ@G vujf yefvnf&i;f jyI pm±Gursm;udk tcef;wae&mwGif wef;pD k kH kd S f xm;yg? xdae&mudypfrwrsm; (Targets) [ka&;om;I aemufwae&mwGif tprsO;f (Starting Line) [ka&;om;xm;yg? k k S f xdae&mESpct=um;wGif (1) rS (5) txd tpDtpOfvua&;om;xm;yg? oifwef;om;rsm;udk tprsO;f wGif wef;pD&yf k fk kd f ap+yD; óud;wacsmif;pDay;xm;yg? ypf r S w f tdrf ywf0ef;usif ausmif; tvkycif fG EdiiH kf urBm 5 4 3 2 1 tprsOf ; oifwef;om;rsm; xdaemuf rdom;pk/ ywf0ef;usi/f tvkyci/f ausmif;/ EdiiEiurBmwd@k wif vl@tcGita&;xGe;f um;a&;twGuf k fG k f H S hf G hf rdrdóud;yrf;vkyfaqmifr_tvdkuf óud;qJGtrSwftom;vkyfcdkif;yg? tedrfhqHk;vkyfEdkifv#if xdkóud;udk (1)ae&mwGif xm;&+yD; trsm;qHk;vkyfEdkifygu (5)wGifxm;apyg? rdrdóud;yrf;vkyfaqmifcJhr_tvdkuf tqifhrsm;ajymif;vJrSwfom;apygonf? tm;vHk;+yD;oGm;aomtcg vdkif;rnDr#aom óud;rsm;jzpfay:vmrnfjzpfygonf? Discussion (tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;) Ð oifwef;ydk@csolu xdkóud;rsm;udk=unfhI Ð rnfonfhtcsufrsm;ay:aeovJ? Ð b,fae&mawGrSm ukd,hf&J@vkyfaqmifcsuftm;aumif;wmrsm;ovJ? Ð b,fae&mawGrSm vl@tcGifhta&;vkyfaqmifolrsm; tm;enf;aewmawG@&vJ? Ð bmawGuud,uowday;aeovJ ponfjzifar;jref;yg? k hf kd h 116 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 116 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 117. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf I nput(ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) oifwef;ydk@csolu oifykef;ay:wGif yGifhcsyfajcmufcsyfygaom yef;yGifhyHkudk atmufygtwdkif;qJGjyyg? yGicsyajcmufcsyonf wckEihf wckqufo,ae+yD; hf f f S G f vSyaom yef;wyGifhjzpfaeovdk vlom;wdk@.b0wGifvJ cE<mud,f k pdwf (Mind) ta&;}uD;aomtpdwftydkif;ajcmufck&Sdygonf? xdktpdwf (Body) tydkif;ajcmufckpvHk; [efcsufnDzdk@&eftwGuf txl;ta&; }uD;vSygonf? jyifyurBm tyef ; ajzr_ (World) (Play) xdktpdwftydkif;ajcmufckrSm? ? cE<mudk,f (Body)- vlom;wdk@. cE<mudk,fusef;rma&;rSm ta&;}uD;ygonf? aygif;oif;qufqHr_ tvk y f udk,f cE<musef;rmygrS rdrdwdk@vkyfvdkonfhvkyfief;rsm;udk (Relationship) (Work) vkyfaqmifEdkifrnfjzpfonf? pdwf(Mind) - tu,fIcE<mudk,fom rusef;rm ygu pdwfudkygxdcdkufvmayvdrfhrnf? pdwfomr=unfvif jyif y urB m (World) - vl o m;wd k @ onf jyif y ygu b,ftvkyfrSvJ vkyfcsifpdwf&Sdawmhrnfr[kwfyg? urBmrS tjzpftysufrsm;udkavhvmI oifcef;pm,lavh&Sd xdk@a=umifh pdwf.usef;rma&;rSmvJ ta&;}uD;ygonf? onf? xdk@a=umifh jyifyurBmESifh rsufacsrjywfzdk@vJ txl; tyef;ajzr_ (Play) - pdwfESifh udk,fusef;rma&; ta&;}uD;onf? jyifyurBmrStjzpftysufrsm;onf rdrdwdk@ twGuf vli,fvl}uD;wdkif;onf tyef;ajzzdk@vdktyfonf? wOD;csi;f pD. cE<mud,/f pdw/f tvkyEihf aygi;f oif;qufqr_ k fS H tm;upm;jzpf tyef;ajztem;,ljcif;r&SbJ ud,pwEprsKd ; d k f d f S f wd@k tay: oufa&mufrtrsm;}uD;&SonhtwGuf jyifyurBm _ d f vHk; usef;rma&;udk &&SdEdkifrnfr[kwfacs? tyef;ajzr_r&SdbJ onfvnf; b0.ta&;}uD;aom tpdwftydkif;wckjzpf tvkyfoufoufvkyfaqmifaeygu rdrdwdk@. udk,fpdwf onf? usef ; rma&;ud k x d c d k u f v mEd k i f r nf ? uk e f q H k ; oG m ;aom yef;yGifh.tv,fwGif&Sdaomt&mrSm pdwf"mwf OD;aESmuf/ udk,fcE<mtm;tifrsm;udk jyefvnfjznfhwif;Edkif tiftm;(Spirit)yifjzpfonf? rdrdwdk@vkyfudkifor# t&m &eftwGuf tyef;ajzr_vdkudkvdktyfonf? tm;vH k ; twG u f vd k t yf a omcG e f t m;rsm;&,l o nf h tvkyf (Work)- rdrw@kd wi&aom pGr;f &nfrsm;udk d G f dS ae&mjzpfonf? pdwf"mwftiftm;aumif;avav rdrdwdk@ toH;k csEi&eftwGuf vlwi;f tvkyvy&onf? tyrf;ajz kd f kd f k f vkyfaom tvkyfrsm;aumif;avavjzpfonf? tem;,lcsdefomrsm;ae+yD; tvkyfvkyfonfhtcsdefr&Sdjzpf yef;yGifhwdkif;twGuf aea&mifjcnfvdktyfonf? aeyguvJ xdotwGuf bmrSw;kd wufr&awmhrm r[kwyg? k l _ dS S f aea&mifjcnfjzifh pGr;f tm;rsm;tm;aumif;vmjcif;jzpfonf? vlom;wdkif;onf wdk;wuf&ifhusufr_ESifh udkufnDaom vl o m;wd k @ wG i f v J vl @ b0wck v H k ; twG u f tm;aumif ; tvkyfrsm;udk vkyfudkifwwf&ef ta&;}uD;onf? atmifvyaqmifay;aeonft&mrsm;rSm rdrw@kd . ,H=k unf kf h d aygif;oif;qufqHr_ (Relationship)- vlom; csufrsm;yifjzpfonf? rdrdwdk@,Hk=unfcsufrsm;rSm bmom wdk@onfwOD;wnf;aeIr&ay/ rdom;pkESifhjzpfap ywf0ef; w&m;/ arwWmw&m;ponfwdk@jzpfavh&Sdovdk vl@tcGifh usiftodkif;t0dkif;ESifhjzpfap aygif;oif;qufqH&onf? ta&;udk trSewu,fvvm;olrsm;twGuf ,H=k unfcsuf f kd tcsi;f csi;f aygi;f oif;qufq&if;apwem/ arwWm.uln±i;f H D kd rSm vl@tcGifhta&;yifjzpfonf? yif;r_rsm; aygufzGm;vmum tcsif;csif;aygif;oif; qufqH vl@tcGifhta&;ynmay;olrsm;taejzifh rdrdwdk@ a&;aumif;rGevmonf? tvkyoufoufvy+f yD; tjcm;ol f f k udk,fydkifyef;rsm;udk tcsdK;tpm;nDnDvSyaeatmif vkyf& rsm;ESifh aygif;oif;qufqHr_r&Sdawmhygu xdkoltwGuf rnfjzpfonf? rdrdwdk@udk,fydkifyef;rsm;om rvSygu rdrdwdk@ tqd;k rsm;omjzpfapawmhonf? aygi;f oif;qufqa&;e,f H vrf;!$efay;aeaomtjcm;olrsm;. yef;rsm;udkvnf;vS y,fus,jf yef@av/ rdrw@kdvyief;rsm;twGuf taxmuftul d kf atmifulnD Edkifrnfr[kwfyg? jzpfavjzpfojzifh aygi;f oif;qufqrrmvJ ta&;}u;D onf? H_S o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 117hre pack.pmd 117 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 118. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Deepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;.vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h E d _ i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) Ð oifwef;om;rsm;tm; rdrd.vwfwavmtajctaeudk udkf,fpm;ðyaom tpdwftydkif; (7) ckygaom yef;w yGipukd qJci;f yg? hf D G kd Ð xdkyef;rsm;udk wOD;csif;tkyfpk}uD;wGif jyefvnfwifjyapyg? Ð vlwOD;csif;. yef;yGifhrsm;udk=unfhI rdrd. b0tpdwftydkif;rsm; [efcsufnDnDESifh vSyr_&Sdr&Sd jyefvnfqef; ppfapyg? Synthesis (rnf u J h o d k @ vk y f a qmif / umuG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f o nf u d k tajz&S m vk y f a qmif a pjcif ; ) Ð rdr. yef;yGiyudk ydrvyvmatmif b,ftydi;/ b,fvaqmif&uom;rvJqwmudk aqG;aEG;apyg? d hf kH k kd S kf kd G f G kd 118 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 118 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 119. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf vlYtcGifhta&;oifcef;pm(11) ynma&;wef;wlnrQrI D (Rights to equal Education) &nf&G,fcsuf Ð ynma&;.pHowfrwcsursm;udk EdiiwumzGiq&i;jycsuEihf rdrw@kd vufawG@b0wGif rnfo@kd uGmjcm;csu&dS S f f kfH hf kd S f f S d f onfudk Ed_if;,SOfavhvmEdkifap&ef? Ð rddrdywf0ef;usifwGif jzpfysufaeaom ynma&;qdkif&mtajctaersm;udk avhvmazmfxkwf wwfvmap&ef? Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) oifwef;om;rsm;tm; twef;vdkufrwfwyf&yfapI óudwifjyifqifxm;aom ynma&;qdkif&mar;cGef;rsm;udk zwfjyyg? xdkar;cGef;rsm;rSm - Ð rdrd. rdom;pkxJ bGJ@&olwOD;&Sdv#if a&S›wvSrf;wdk;yg? Ð txufwef;ynmoif&oljzpfcJhv#if a&S›wvSrf;wdk;yg? Ð aumvdyfwufcJhbl;v#if a&S›ESpfvSrf;wdk;yg? Ð rdrdoif,lxm;aomynmESifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;ðyEkdifv#if a&S›wvSrf;wdk;yg? Ð ynma&;twGufrdom;pkrS tjynfht0axmufyHhr_&cJholjzpfv#if a&S›ESpfvSrf;wdk;yg? Discussion (tjyeftvSef aqG;aEG;jcif;) xdk@aemuf tkyfpk}uD;jyefxdkifI ar;cGef;rsm;ar;yg? Ð aemufrSmusefcJhaom olrsm;twGufb,f vkd cHpm;&ovJ? Ð Dvdkbma=umifhjzpfvm&ovJ? Ð ynma&;t& DvdkuGm[r_rsm;jzpfonfh twGuf “ynma&;qdonfrm b,fvkd jzpfoifv/J k S h jzpf&rvJ//” Input (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) ynma&;qdkonfrSm b,fvdkjzpfoifhonf[k aqG;aEG;+yD;ygu ynmoif,lcGifhudk EkdifiHwumwGif rnfodk@ t"dy`m,fzGihfqdkxm;onfudk avhvmzdk@vdkonf? ynma&;ESifhywfoufI tjynfjynfqdkif&mvl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;. tydkf (26)/ trsKd;orD;pmcsKyf tydf (10)/ uav;pmcsKyftydf (28/ 29) / EdiiwumpD;yGm;a&;/ vlra&;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_tcGita&;qdi&moabm k k kfH _ hf kf wlpmcsKyf tydf (13/ 14) wd@k wif azmfjyxm;onf? k G ynma&;.pH o wf r S w f c suf r sm;rS m - Ð yxrtaejzifh tcrJh roifrae& ynma&;rsK;/d Ð kw,taejzifh ynma&;. t&nftaoG;(ykp) d H H o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 119hre pack.pmd 119 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 120. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Ð &&SEir_ (Availability for all) d fdk f Ð vufvr;rSEir_ (Accessibility) S f D dk f Ð vufcEir_ (Culturally appropriate) H dk f Ð jyefvnftoH;csEir_ (Applicability) k dk f ynma&;&&S d y d k i f c G i f h . taxG a xG & S i f ; vif ; csuf r sm; - Ð &&SdEdkifr_ (Availability) vlwi;f &&SEiaom ynma&;jzpfap&eftwGuf txl;tpDtpOfrsm;csrwvyaqmifay;jcif;/ Xmersm;twGuf kd d kd f S f k f vdtyfaom taqmuftOD;rsm;wnfaqmufjcif;/ use;f rma&;ESiuunaom ywf0ef;usijf zpfapjcif;/ acwfrw;kd k hf kd f D D wufaom oif±dk;!Gef;wrf;rsm;ESifh vdktyfaomoif=um;r_taxmuftulðyypPnf;ud&d,mrsm; vHkavmufr_&Sdjcif;/ t&nftcsif;jynfhrSDaom q&m/ q&mrrsm;ESifhwuG ‚if;wdk@twGuf vHkavmufonfhaxmufyhHr_&&Sdapjcif;/ jyify A[kokwrsm;twGuf pm=unfhwdkuf/ tjcm;owif;qufoG,fa&;enf;vrf;rsm; ponfwdk@yg0ifrnfjzpfonf? Ð vufvSrf;rSDEkdifr_ (Accessibility) ynma&;onf vlwdkif;twGuf vufvSrf;rSDEdkifatmif atmufygtcsuftvufrsm;ESifh tusKH;0ifonf? wef ; wl n D r #r_ & S d j cif ; ynma&;wGif usm;/ r wef;wlnDr#r_ (Gender equality) jzpf&ovdk roefpGrf;olrsm;/ wdkif;&if;om; vlrsKd;pki,frsm;/ Xmaewdkif;&if;om;rsm;/ qif;&Jom;rsm;/ tvkyform;vlwef;pm;rsm;ponfh vlom;tm;vHk; twGuf tusKH;0ifonf? ±k y f y d k i f ; qd k i f & mvuf v S r f ; rS D E d k i f j cif ; ? ynma&;onf vlwdkif;wufa&mufEdkif&eftwGuf ±kyfydkif;qdkif&mt& tE W&m,fuif;aom yx0Dtae txm;/ oifwifavsmufywfaomae&mtuGmta0; (Oyrm- ywf0ef;usif teD;tem;&Sausmif;) / vlO;D a&ESihf h h d ausmif;ta&twGur#wr_&jdS cif;/ oif=um;r_enf;pepfopf tpDtpOfvyaqmifjcif; (Oyrm- ta0;oif oif=um; f kf r_ tpDtpOf) pojzifhyg0ifonf? pD ; yG m ;a&;t&vuf v S r f ; rS D E d k i f j cif ; ? ynma&;onf vlwi;f wufa&mufoif=um;Ediaom ynma&;jzpf&rnf? rlvwef;/ txufwef;ESihf tqifh kd kf jrifynma&;tygt0if vlwi;f yg0ifwufa&mufEiatmif tpd;k &rsm;u pDpOfaqmif&uay;&rnf? vlwi;f roif h kd kd f G f kd rae&ynma&;pepfESifh tedrfhqHk;rlvwef;ynmudk tcrJhjzpfap&rnf? txufwef;ESifh tqifhjrifhynma&; rsm;udkvnf; vlwdkif;yg0ifoif=um;Edkifatmif tpdk;&taejzifh aps;E_ef;csKdompGmrSwqifh tcrJhynma&;jzpfvm atmif wjznf;jznf;wqifhcsif;wqifh pDpOfaqmif&Gufay;&rnf? Ð vufcHEkdifr_ (Culturally appropriate) tpdk;&ynma&;jzpfap/ yk*~vduynma&;jzpfap/ pmoifausmif;ynma&;jzpfap/ jyifyynma&;jzpfap rdrdwdk@ oif=um;aeaomynma&;onf “vl@*%oumqdi&m” ud,&nfu,aoG; zG@H òzd;wd;k wufvmap&efomru rdrw@kd k f d Q kf k f kd f d ,Ofaus;r_t&ESifhvnf; udkufnD&rnf? tpdk;&rsm;taejzifh uav;rsm;twGuf bmoma&;ESifh pdwfydkif;qdkif&m usifh0wfqdkif&mynma&;udk av;pm;vdkufem&rnf? ausmif;rsm;wGif tpdk;&ucsrSwfxm;onfh (odk@r[kwf) vufcH xm;onfh tedrfhqHk; pHcsdefpH!ef;rsm;udk wlnDr_&Sdap&ef owfrSwfay;&rnf? G Ð jyefvnftoHk;csEkdifr_ (Applicability) 120 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 120 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 121. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf ynma&;onf wdk;wufajymif;vJaeaom vl@tzGJ@tpnf;ESifhtodkif;t0dkif;. vdktyfcsufrsm;ESifh wom; wnf;us+yD; uGJjym;jcm;em;onfh vlr_a&;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_tajccHrsm;tay:rlwnfonfh vdktyfcsufrsm;udkvnf; jznfhqnf;ay;Edkif&rnf? t&nftcsif;jynfhrSDaomynma&;ESifh udk,f&nfudk,faoG; zGH@òzd;wdk;wufvmap&efomru b0tmrcHcsufay;Edkif+yD; vufawG@wGif jyefvnftoHk;csEdkifonfh ynma&;rsKd;jzpf&efvdktyfonf? Deepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;.vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h Ed _ i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) EdkifiHwumzGifhqdk&Sif;jycsufESifh vufawG@b0 bmuGmjcm;csuf&SdvJqdkwm avhvmEdkif&ef rddrdywf0ef;usifwGif jzpfysufaeaom ynma&;qdkif&mtajctaersm;udk tkyfpkvdkufcJGI o±kyfazmfapyg? o±kyfazmfwifquf+yD;ygu- Ð bmawGwifqufoGm;ovJ/ Ð bma=umifh tckvrsK;jzpf&wmvJ? kd d Ð b,foawGrm wm0ef&ovJ? l S dS Ð tckvdkrsKd;rjzpfatmif rdom;pk/ ywf0ef;usif/ Ediiawmftqifrm bmawGvyz@kd vtyfrvJ? kfH h S k f kd Synthesis (rnfodk@vkyfaqmif/ umuG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f o nf u d k tajz&S m vk y f a qmif a pjcif ; ) vlwa,mufudk za,mif;wdkif wwdkifpDay;yg? vlwdkif;ynmoif=um;Edkif&eftwGuf rdrdudk,fwdkifbm awGvyEif rvJqwmudk E_wrajymI za,mif;wwdif k f kd kd f S k pwifxGef;!‡dcdkif;yg? ajym+yD;ygu xdkza,mif;wdkifudk puf0dkif;tvnfwGifpdkufyg? wOD;csif;tvSnfhus vkyf aqmifcdkif;yg? vd k t yf a omypP n f ; rsm; za,mif;wdkif avh v m&ef pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_oabmwlpmcsKyfyg ynma&;qdkif&mpmydkf. taxGaxG&Sif;vif;csuf/ rS w f c suf f v_yf&Sm;r_wGif vdkif;rvkyfvdkygu tkyfpk(2)pkcGJIo¶kyfaqmifwifqufr_ vkyfcdkif;Edkifonf? yxrtkyfpku rdom;pk twGif; ynma&;r&&SdEkdifaom tajctae/ kwd,tkyfpku rdom;pktwGif; ynma&;&&SdEkdifonfh tajctaewdk@udk o±kyfazmfcdkif;yg? xdko¶kyfazmfr_ESpfckudk=unfhI xkdrdom;pkESpfpk. tusKd;uGmjcm;r_udk oifwef;om;rsm; aqG;aEG;Edkif&ef ar;cGef; rsm;ar;ay;yg? Ð ‚if;tjzpftysufawGufdk=unfh+yD; b,fvdkcHpm;&ovJ? Ð bma=umifh Dvjkd zpf&wmvJ? Ð b,fvaumif;usK;/ qd;usK;awGjzpfEiovJ? kd d k d kd f Ð rdrd&J@ynma&;rSma&m b,fvdktcuftcJ awG@óuHcJh&ovJ// o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 121hre pack.pmd 121 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 122. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf vlYtcGifhta&;oifcef;pm(12) vHavmufaomtpm;tpm&&Scihf k d G (Rights to Food) &nf&G,fcsuf Ð vHkavmufaom tpm;tpm&&SdcGifh. t"dy`m,fudk od&Sdvmap&ef/ Ð wOD;csif;rSpI tpdk;&tqifhtxd vkyfaqmif&rnfhwm0ef0wW&m;rsm;udk od&Sdvmap&ef? Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) (1) oifwef;om;rsm;tm; 0dkif;xdkifap+yD; tqifoifhjyifxm;aom vBufokwfyef;uefrsm;udk wcsdK@olrsm;xHay; xm;yg? (2) xdk@aemuf oDcsif;zGifh+yD; ay;xm;aomvBufokwfyef;uefrsm;udk rdrd.nmzufrS wa,muf+yD;wa,mufvuf qifhurf;apyg? (3) vufqifhurf;aepOf oDcsif;ydwfvdkufyg? oDcsif;ydwfvdkufcsdefwGif vBufyef;uefvufxJa&muf&Sdaeoludkom vBufokwfudk pm;cGifhðyyg? usefolrsm;udk rpm;cdkif;yJ Dtwdkif;=unfhxm;cdkif;yg? xdkuJhodk@oHk;}udrfcef@vkyfyg? Discussion (tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;) oifwef;om;rsm;udk cef;rwGifjyefxdkifcdkif;+yD; atmufygar;cGef;rsm;ar;I aqG;aEG;cdkif;yg? Ð vufzufpm;&pOfb,fvdkcHpm;&ovJ Ð vufzufrpm;&pOfb,fvdkcHpm;&vJ? Ð Tv_y&m;r_onf vufawG@b0udk b,fvxif[yf f S kd apovJ/ Ð b,fvtajctaersKd ;awGrm tckvkd tpm;tpm kd S ravmufiwmrsKd ;jzpfEiovJ? bma=umifjh zpfwmvJ? S kd f xdo@kd ravmufijS cif;onf obm0ab;wd@k a=umifh jzpfEif k kd ovdk/ vlom;wdk@vkyfaqmifr_a=umifhvnf; jzpfEdkifonf? rnf onfh ta=umif;a=umifhjzpfap tpm;tpm&&SdrS/ tpm;tpm jynfhpHkrSom vlom;wdk@onf vl@*k%foduQm&Sd&Sd aexdkifEdkifrnf jzpfonfhtwGuf tpm;taomufvHkavmufpGm&&Sda&;rSmvnf; vl@tcGifhta&;w&yfyifjzpfaeonf? Input (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) vH k a vmuf a omtpm;tpm&&S d c G i f h . t"d y ` m ,f vHkavmufaom tpm;tpm&&SdcGifh. t"dy`m,fudk pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;ESifh,Ofaus;r_ tcGifhta&;qdkif&mpmcsKyf tydf (11)ESihf taxGaxG t}uHðycsuf trSwf (12) wd@k wif atmufygtwdi;f azmfjyxm;onf? k G k vHavmufaom tpm;tpm&&Sciqonfrm iwfrwrEihf tm[m&csK@d wrw@kd rS uif;a0;jcif;jzpf+yD; trsK;d orD;/ k d G hf kd S G f _ S hJ _ trsKd;om;/ uav;vli,fra&G; vlom;tm;vHk;cHpm;cGifh&Sdaom tajccHvl@tcGifhta&;w&yfyifjzpfonf? xdk@jyif tpm;tpm[kqdk&mY 122 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 122 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 123. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf Ð t&nftaoG; aumif;rGef+yD; tm[m&&Sdaom tpm;tpmjzpf&ef/ Ð vHkòcHr_&Sd+yD; tE W&m,fuif;aom tpm;tpmjzpf&ef/ Ð ,Ofaus;r_ESifh udkufnDaom tpm;tpmjzpf&ef/ Ð vufvr;f rSEir_ (aiGa=u;t& wwfEir) &Saomtpm;tpmjzpf&ef ponfw@kd ukd qdvonf// S D kd f kd f _ d k kd vH k a vmuf a omtpm;tpm&±S d c G i f h u d k a zmf j yxm;onf h Ed k i f i H w umoabmwl n D c suf r sm; Ð tjynfjynfqdkif&mvl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;tydkf(25)wGif vlom;wdkif;onf rdrdESifh rdrdwdk@rdom;pk use;f rma&;ESiwuG ud,pwEpjf zm at;csr;f pGmaexdiEia&;twGuf vdtyfaom tpm;tpm/ t0wf hf k f d f S k f kd f k tpm;/ td;k tdr/f aq;0g;/ tjcm;vdtyfaomvlaer_ taxmuftyHrsm;ESihf oifwifavsmufywfonfh vlrl k h h h tqiftwef;&,lcpm;cGi&onf[k a=unmpmwrf;. tydf (25) tydi,f (u)wGif azmfjyxm;onf? h H hf dS k k f Ð iwfrwrEifh tm[m&csK@d wjhJ cif;wd@k yaysmufa&;qdi&m tjynfjynfqi&ma=unmpmwrf;t& vlwi;onf G f_S kf kd f kd f ‚if;wd@k . pdwyi;f / ±kyyi;f qdi&m zG@H òzd;wd;k wufr_ jynf0pGm&&SEkdi&ef iwfrwrEifh tm[m&csK@d wjhJ cif;wd@k rS f kd f kd k f h d f G f _ S uif;vGwfcGifh&Sdonf? Ð 1996ckESpf ±krf; urBmhpm;eyf&duQm nDvmcHa=unmpmwrf;tydkf(1)wGif vlwdkif;vlwdkif;Y tm[m&&Sd+yD; vHkòcHpdwfcs&aom tpm;tpm&&SdcGifh&Sdonf? qmavmifiwfrGwfjcif;rSuif;vGwfcGifhonf vlwdkif;&&Sd oifhaomvHkavmufaom tpm;tpm&&SdcGifhqdkif&m tajccHtcGifhta&;jzpfonf? Ð &D,dkajrurBmnDvmcHa=unmpmwrf;rl0g(8)wGif vlom;wdk@. aexdkifr_b0tqifhtwef;jrifhrm;a&;ESifh rudkufnDaomxkwfvkyfr_/ 0,f,lpm;oHk;r_rsm;avsmhenf;atmif tpdk;&uvkyfaqmif&ef qdkxm;onf? bD * sif ; urB m h t rsd K ;orD ; nD v mcH a =unmpmwrf ; trsdK;orD;rsm; qif;&Jr_rSuif;vGwfI oifhwifhavsmufywfaom t[m&rsm;&&SdcHpm;ap&ef tpdk;&rsm;udk awmif;qdkxm;onf? Ð uav;tcGifhta&; pmcsKyftydkf (27)/ tydkfi,f (3)wGif tcGifhta&;rsm;udk EdkifiH. tajctaersm;ESifh owfrSwfxm;csufrsm;jzifhtnD uav;rsm;&&Sdap&eftwGuf ±kyfydkif;qdkif&mtaxmuftyhHrsm; ulnDr_ tpDtpOfrsm;/ txl;ojzifh tm[m&/ t0wftpm;/aetdrfrsm;ESifhywfoufI rdbrsm;ESifh tjcm; wm0ef&Sdolrsm;tay: ulnDr_rsm;udk pmcsKyftzGJ@0ifEdkifiHrsm;u oifhavsmfovdk vkyfaqmif&rnf? Ð vlrsKd;a&;cGJjcm;zdESdyfr_rsm;tm;vHk;yaysmufa&;qdkif&m oabmwlpmcsKyf tykdf(5) Ð kuQonftqifhtwef;qdkif&m oabmwlpmcsKyf tydkf(21)wGifpmcsKyftzGJ@0ifEdkifiHrsm;onf aetdrfESifh ywfoufI kuQonfrsm;tay: owfrSwfqufqHaeaom qufqHr_onf olwdk@ESifh tajctaewlonfh tjcm;wdkif;wyg;om;rsm;tay: a,bk,s qufqHr_ŒxufravsmhbJ qufqH&rnf? Ð a&$@ajymif;tvkyform;qdkif&m EdkifiHwumoabmwl pmcsKyftydkf(43)a&$@ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;onf vlr_oufomacsmifcsda&;/ zlvHka&;/ aetdrftpDtpOfwGif yg0ifcHpm; Edkifjcif;ESifh tdrfiSm;cESifh ywfoufI tjrwfxwapmfum;r_rS umuG,ay;jcif;wd@k tygt0if aetdr&&SciEihf ywfoufonfh ta=umif;t&m k f f f d G hf S rsm;udk xdkEdkifiHwGif&Sdaeaom EdkifiHom;rsm;ESifhwef;wl &&SdcHpm;ydkifcGifh&Sd&rnf? tpk d ; &wm0ef r sm; Ð av;pm;&ef (EdkifiHom;wdk@. &duQm&&SdEdkifr_tcGifhtvrf;udk wm;qD;jcif;rðyvkyf&ef) Ð umuG,fay;&ef(tjcm;olrsm;uEdkifiHom;rsm;. &duQmrsm;udktE W&m,fjzpfatmifvkyfjcif;rS umuG,ay;jcif;) f Ð jznfhqnf;ay;&ef (tpm;tpmrsm;ukd axmufyhHay;&ef/ vHkavmufatmif óudwifaqmif&Guf&ef) o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 123hre pack.pmd 123 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 124. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf tpm;tpm&&S d c G i f h tay:tpd k ; &. csKd ; azmuf r _ r sm;yH k p H r sm; Ð tpm;tpm&&SdcGifhudk qufvuf&&Sd&eftwGuf r&Sdrjzpfvdktyfaom Oyarsm;udk&yfqdkif;jcif; odk@r[kwf ±kyfodrf;vdkufjcif; Ð &nf&G,fcsufjzifhjzpfap/ w&m;Oyat&jzpfap wpHkw&maom vlyk*~dKvfrsm;/ tkyfpkrsm;. tpm;tpm &&SdEdkifr_udk cJGjcm;jcif; odkŒr[kwf jiif;y,fjcif;/ Ð jynfwGif;yËdyuQrsm;wGif odk@r[kwf tjcm;ta&;ay:tajctaersm;wGif vlom;csif;pmemaxmufxm; aom tpm;tpm tultnD&&Sdr_udk wm;qD;jcif;/ Ð tpm;tpm&&SdcGifhESifhywfoufI rl&if;&Sd+yD;om; w&m;0ifwm0ef0wW&m;rsm;ESifh roiffhawmfravsmuf ywfaomOyarsm; odk@r[kwf rl0grsm;csrSwfjcif;/ Ð tpm;tpm&&SdcGifhudk wm;qD;onfhtaejzifh vlyk*~dKvfrsm;/ tkyfpkrsm;. vkyfief;rsm;ESifh pDrHcef@cJGr_rsm;udk ysufjym;apjcif;/ Ð tjcm;aom EdkifiHtpdk;&rsm; odk@r[kwf EdkifiHwumtzJG@tpnf;rsm;ESifh oabmwlnDr_rsm;jyKvkyf&mwGif tpm;tpm&&SdcGifhESifh ywfoufonfh EdkifiHwumOyaqdkif&mwm0efrsm;usifhoHk;&efvpf[if;jcif;/ D eepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;. vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h E_ d i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) tpdk;&u csdK;azmufavh&Sdaom txufygOyrmrsm;udk=unfhI tzJG@vdkuf udk,fawG@tjzpftysufrsm;udk wifjyap+yD; oifykef;ay:wGif rSwfwrf;wifyg? Synthesis ( rnf o d k @ vk y f a qmif u muG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f r nf u d k tajz&S m vk y f a qmif a pjcif ; ) tpm;tpm&&SdcGifhESifhywfoufI tpkd;&rS vufawG@csdK;azmufr_rsm;udk avhvmI xdktpm;tpm&&SdcGifhudk av;pm;&ef vkyfaqmifoifhaom tpdk;&.vkyfief;pOfrsm;ESifh rdrdwOD;csif;vkyfaqmifEdkifaom tcsufrsm;udk tkyfpkcJGI aqG;aEG;apyg? xGufay:vmonfhtcsufrsm;udk atmufygtwdkif;Z,m;jznfhyg? tpdk;&vkyfaqmif&ef av;pm;&ef umuG,f&ef jznfhqnf;&ef rdrdvkyfaqmifEdkifaomtcsuf avh v m&ef vHkavmufaom tpm;tpm&&SdcGifh taxGaxG&Sif;vif;csuf(12)/ tjcm;oufqdkif&mpmcsKyfrsm;. tydkfyg ta=umif;t&mrsm;/ rS w f c suf v_y&m;r_wif vBuowtpm; xdaowGif fS G f k f k &&SdEdkifaomvltrsm;cHkrifpGmpm;aomufonfh tpm; tpm wrsdK;rsdK;udk tpm;xdk;oHk;pJGEdkifonf// 124 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 124 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 125. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf vlYtcGifhta&;oifcef;pm(13) tjcm;enf;jzifh oefpr;f olrsm;qdi&m tcGita&; G k f hf &nf & G , f c suf - tjcm;enf;jzifhoefpGrf;olrsm;ta=umif;udk od&Sdem;vnfvmI pmemwwfvmap&ef? - tjcm;enf;jzifhoefpGrf;olrsm;ESifh qdkifaom oabmwlpmcsKyfta=umif;udk od&Sdvmap&ef? Activity I (v_yf&Sm;r_ 1) oifwef;om;rsm;tm; tkyfpk}uD;wGif udk,ft*gFcsdK@wJholrsm;udk rdrdwdk@ywf0ef;usifwGif rnfuJhodk@ ac:a0:=u ovJ[I ar;I tajzrsm;udk oifye;f wGif csa&;yg? l k Discussion (tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;) xdkolrsm;onf bma=umifhroefpGrf;olrsm;jzpf&wmvJ? Activity II (v_y&m;r_ 2) f S xdk@aemuf oifwef;ydk@olu ukd,ft*gFcsdK@wJholrsm;taejzifh olwdk@. b0wGif b,fvdktcuftcJrsm;}uHKawG@ &onfukd cHpm;Edkif&eftwGuf v_yf&Sm;r_wckvkyfaqmif=urnf[k today;yg? oifwef;om;rsm;tm;vHk;udk oufawmifhoufomtaetxm;rsdK;jzifh xdkifap+yD; rsufpdrSdwfcdkif;xm;yg? rdrd ywf0ef;usiwif rdroaom ud,t*gcsKd @waomolwa,mufukd pdwxwijf rifa,mifatmif pOf;pm;cdi;f yg? oifwef;yd@k cs f G d d k f F hJ f J G k oluajymaomtajctaeudk pdwful;wGifyHkazmfI xdkol. ae&mwGif 0ifa&mufcHpm;=unhfcdkif;yg? rdrd}uHKzl;olwpfa,mufudk pdwfxJrSmykHazmf=unfhyg/ tJDvdkvlrsKd;jrif+yDqdk&if ol@ae&mrSmcHpm;=unfhyg/ olukd wjcm;vlawGukd b,fvkd ac:a0:=uovJ/ Dvdkac:wJhtwGufa=umifh olb,fvkdcHpm;ovJ/ reuftdyf&mx+yDqkd&if b,fvdktcuftcJrsKd;&SdEdkifvJ/ tjcm;vlawGvdk rdom;pkxJrSm vGwfvyfpGmaysmf&$ifEldifyghrvm;/ tjcm;uav;awGvdkupm;Edkifrvm;/ olb,fvkdcHpm;&rvJ/ oli,fcsif;awGu b,fvkdac:=urvJ/ ausmif;wuf&ifa&m ausmif;rSm b,fvkdtcuftcJawG}uHKEdkifvJ/ tvkyfvkyfwJht&G,fa&mufawmha&m ol@rSm bmtcuftcJ}uHKEdkifovJ/ oifwef;om;rsm;tm; txufygtwdkif;cHpm;pdwful;azmf&if; cHpm;&aom cHpm;csufrsm;/ tjzpftysufrsm;udk wifjyaqG;aEG;cdkif;yg? wif j ycsuf u d k r l w nf I atmuf y gtwd k i f ; aumf v H r sm;cJ G I oif y k e f ; wG i f a &;yg vl a wG u ol w d k @ tay:b,f v d k o abmxm;I quf q H = uovJ ? ud k , f t *gF c sd K @wJ h o l a wG t aeeJ @ b,f v d k r sd K ;quf q H c H c sif = uovJ ? ol w d k @ awG t ay: b,f v d k t E W & m,f a wG u sa&muf E d k i f o vJ ? olwdk@awGtaeeJ@ b,fae&mrsdK;awGrSm wjcm;olawGeJ@ wef;wljzpfzdk@twGuf tcuftcJ&SdEdkifrvJ? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 125hre pack.pmd 125 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 126. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf xdkwifjycsufrsm;udk +cHKiHkaqG;aEG;I atmufygtwdkif;aqG;aEG;zvS,fay;onf? Input I (ta=umif;t&mESifhqufpyfonfh A[kokway;jcif;) urB m ay:&S d tjcm;enf ; jzif h o ef p G r f ; ol r sm;.tajctae urBmvO;D a&. 10 μ (oef; 650)onf tjcm;enf;jzifoefpr;f olrsm;jzpfonf? h l h G urBmay:rSm qif;&Jorsm;. 20μ onf tjcm;enf;jzifoefpr;f oljzpfonf? l h G 80μonf zG@H +zdK;qJEiirsm;wGiaexkionf? dl f H f df trsKd;orD;rsm;onfydkrkdtE W&m,fusa&mufonf? 2004 ckEpf tdE,EkiiH Orissa jynfe,fwif jyKvkycaom ppfwrf;t& xktrsK;d orD;rsm; tm;vk;H onf S dN d f G f hJ d tdrwif ±kuc& 25μonf vdiapmfum;cH&/ 6μonf t"rRom;a=umjzwfc&/ f G d fH f H vrf;ay:a&mufuav;rsm;. 30μ onf tjcm;enf;jzifhoefpGrf;aomuav;rsm;jzpf xkorsm;tay:cGjJ cm;r_tm; umuG,ay;onfh Oya&SaomEdiiH 45 Ediiom&Sonf/ d l f d kf kfH d zG@H +zdK; qJEiirsm;&Sxorsm;. 90μrSm ausmif;rwuf& (UNESCO) kd f H d dk l ppfyrsm;twGi;f uav;wpfa,mufaoqH;k wdi;f kuwjzpfol (3) a,muf&onf? JG k dQ dS tcsKd@EdkifiHrsm;wGif xkdolrsm; okH;ykHwykHonf xdckduf%f&m&r_ESifh t=urf;zufcH&r_a=umifhjzpfonf? Deepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;.vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h E d _ i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) xd k o l r sd K ;rsm;xJ w G i f xl ; c|ef o l r sm;a&m r&S d = ubl ; vm;qd k a om ar;cG e f ; ar;yg? D v d k t ajctae&S d w mawmif xG e f ; ayguf w J h v l r sKd ; awG @ zl ; vm;? Input II (ta=umif;t&mESifhqufpyfonfh A[kokway;jcif;) Convention on the Rights of Persons with disabilities 2006 ckEpZifbm (13) &ufwif jyXmef;cJh (tpd;k &ESihf tpd;k &r[kwaomtzJ@G tpnf;rsm; yg0ifa&;qJaom SfD G f G pmcsKyfjzpfonf) xdkolrsm;udk oem;p&mtjzpfoufoufomr[kwfbJ olwdk@t&nftaoG;rsm; &SdoavmufvkyfaqmifEdkif atmif ywf0ef;usiu tcGita&;rsm; zefw;D ay;&ef a&;om;xm; f fh txl;tcGifhta&;w&yf topfr[kwfbJ cGJjcm;r_rsm;yaysmufI tjcm;olrsm;ESifh wef;wljzpfap&ef? tydaygi;f (50) &Sonf? k f d tydf (1) pmcsKyf.&nf&,csuf k G f tydf (2) pmcsKyf. t"dyg` ,f k tykf (3) rS (33) txd tcGita&;rsm; d hf tydf (34 rS 50) txd aumfrwD. wm0efrsm; k tydkf (1) &nf&G,fcsuf tydf (2) t"dym,f k ` tydkf (3) xkdolrsm;.tcGifhta&;udkav;pm;&ef/ cGJjcm;jcif;r&Sd& ywf0ef;usifwGifyg0if&ef vlom;xJurwlaom vlom;tjzpfvufcH&ef wef;wltcGifhtvrf; wef;wl&,lEldifr_ usm;/ rwef;wljzpf&ef 126 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 126 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 127. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf xkduav;rsm;.zG@H+zdK;wdk;wufr_udkav;pm;&ef? tydkf (4) tpdk;&vkdufem&rnfhtaxGaxGwm0ef tydkf (5) wef;wlr_ESihf cGJjcm;r_r&Sdjcif; tykdf (6) trsKd;orD;rsm;rcGJjcm;a&; tydkf (7) uav;rsm;zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&; tydkf (8) vlxktodtjrifwdk;ap&ef tydf (9) vufvr;f rSr_ k S D tydkf (10) touf&Sif&yfwnfcGifh tydkf (11) ta&;tay:tajctaersm;wGif tultnDay;jcif; tydkf (12) Oyaa&S@wGifwef;wlnDr#r_&SdcGifh tydkf (13) OyatultnDudk&&SdydkifcGifh tydkf (14) vGwfvyfcGifh tydf (15) ESypufrr&Sap& k d f _ d tydkf (16) t=urf;zufr_/ apmfum;r_rcHap& tydkf (17) tjcm;olrsm;ESifhaygif;oif; qufqHcGifh tydkf (18) oGm;vmcGifh/ EdkifiHom;jzpfcGihf/ tydkf (19) trSDtckduif;pGmaecGifhESihf ywf0ef;usifwGifyg0ifcGifh tydkf (20) wpfOD;csif;v_yf&Sm;oGm;vmcGifh tydkf (21) vGwfvyfpGmwifjycGifh/ owif;rsm;&,lcGifh tydkf (22) yk*~vduvGwfvyfcGifh tykdf (23) tdrfESifhrdom;pktm;av;pm;jcif; tydf (24) ynma&; k tydkf (25) usef;rma&;apmifha&SmufcGihf tydkf (26) emvHjyefxla&; tydkf (27) tvkyfvkyfcGifh tydkf (2*) aexkdifrESifh vlr_tumtuG,f _ tydkf (29) EdkifiHa&;wGifyg0ifcGifh tydkf (30) ,Ofaus;r_wGifyg0ifcGifh? tydkf (31 rS 33) tpdk;&.wm0ef (pm&if;aumuf/ EkdifiHwumESifhyl;aygif;/ EdkifiHtwGif;pDrHcsufcs&ef) tydf (34- 50) aumfrwD.wm0ef k aemufqufwGJpmcsLyf (wpfOD;csif;/ tkyfpkvdkufwdkif=um;r_cGifhjyKjcif;) Synthesis (rnf u J h o d k @ vk y f a qmif / umuG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f o nf u d k t ajz&S m vk y f a qmif a pjcif ; ) tzGJ@(5)zGJ@cGJI tjcm;enf;jzifhoefpGrf;olrsm;udk b,fvdkqufqHoifhvJ/ bmawGvkyfay;oifhvJqdkwmudk tkyfpktvdkuf aqG;aEG;cdkif;yg? tzGJ@(1) rdom;pk tzGJ@(2) ywf0ef;usif/ &yf&Gm tzGJ@(3) tzGJ@tpnf; tzGJ@(4) ynma&;/ ausmif; tzGJ@(5) vkyfief;cGif tzJ@G tm;vH;k wifjy+yD;ygu ,ckoifcef;pmESiywfoufI rdrwOD;csi;f b,fvcpm;&ovJqonftcsuukd tkyp}k uD;wGif hf d kd H kd h f f wifjycdkif;yg? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 127hre pack.pmd 127 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 128. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf vlYtcGifhta&;oifcef;pm(14) kuonftcGita&; © hf (Refugee Rights) &nf & G , f c suf jynfwi;f a&$@ajymif;kuonf (IDP) ESihf kuonfw@kd . t"dym,fujGJ ym;r_ukd od&vmap&ef? G Q Q ` dS kuQonftcGifhta&;rsm; ta=umif;od&Sdoabmaygufvmap&ef? Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) oifwef;om;rsm;tm;vH;k udrwfwyf&yfci;f yg? rvSr;f rurf;wGif pnf;0di;f (2)0di;f 0di;f xm;ay;rnf? oifwef;yd@k csol k kd k k k u tcsuay;vduygu oifwef;om;rsm;onf pnf;0di;f (2)0di;f xJo@kd tjrefq;kH ajy;0if&rnfjzpfonf? od@k aomfpnf;0di;f f k f k k k wpf0i;f wGif (5)a,muf/ aemufwpf0i;f wGif (6)a,mufomvufcEirnfjzpfonf? pnf;0di;f twGi;f vlta&twGujf ynfh kd kd H kd f k oGm;ygu usefolrsm;udkpnf;0dkif;tjyifwGif oyfoyfwtkyfpkxm;yg? puUL&Gursm;/ wdyacGrsm;udk ae&mwae&mwGipxm;yg? pnf;0di;f ESp0i;f wGi&aeaomol ESptypEihf pnf;0di;f f f f k k f kd f dS f k f k S k tjyifwGif&Sdaomtkyfpkwpk pkpkaygif;oHk;pkpvHk;onf xdkypPnf;rsm;udktoHk;jyKI puULtdrfwvHk;pDaqmuf&ef!Gef=um;yg? pnf;urf;csufrsm;rSm- ypPnf;rsm;udk wcg,lv#if wrsdK;om,lEdkifonf? yxrpnf;0di;f wGiygaomolrsm;onf pnf;0di;f xJwiomae&rnfjzpf+yD; tjyifxucirjyK&yg? ypPn;f vdcsiygu k f k Gf G f G hf k f jyify&Sd tjcm;vlwOD;OD;udk tultnDawmif;&rnf? vlwOD;wnf;udkom tultnDawmif;cGifhjyK&rnf? xdkolu vnf; tjcm;tvkyfrsm;&Sdonf[kqdkum rulnDbJaeEdkifonf? kw,tkypwiygaomolrsm;onf pnf;0di;f rSxuEionf? od@k aomf =urf;jyifwicsxm;aomay;aom pm&Gursm; d fk Gf k G f kd f Gf f ay:wGifom eif;IoGm;Ekdifonf? pm&Guf. tjyifudkeif;rdygu AHk;aygufuJGrnfjzpfjyD; aemufwcgxGufIr&yg? pnf;0dkif;tjyifwGif&Sdaom tkyfpkudk vGwfvGwfvyfvyf oGm;vmv_yf&Sm;cGifh jyKyg? Discussion (tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;) vGwfvGwfvyfvyfoGm;vmv_yf&Sm;EdkifaomtzJG@rS puULtdrwnfaqmufjyD;ygu v_yf&Sm;r_udk&yfvdkufEdkifonf? f xdk@aemuftm;vHk;udk 0dkif;xdkifapjyD; atmufygtcsufrsm;udkaqG;aEG;apyg? v_yf&Sm;r_rSm bmawGjzpfcJh=uvJ? wzJG@eJ@wzJG@rwlwJhtajctaeawG bm&SdvJ? t&ifjyD;oGm;olawG bma=umifht&ifjyD;oGm;&wmvJ? bma=umifhvJ? vufawG@b0rSm tckvdk vGwfvGwfvyfvyfoGm;EdkifolawGu b,folawGjzpfEdkifvJ? vufawG@b0rSm tckvpnf;0di;f tjyifrxGu&wJou b,foawGjzpfEiv? (‘kuonf’ refugee [lonhf kd k f h l l kd f J Q tajzxGufvmonfhtxd OD;aqmifaqG;aEG;oGm;Edkifonf?) vufawG@b0 tckvkd AH;k eif;rdrma=umuf&jyD; puULrsm;tay:wGiomoGm;&wJoawGu b,foawGjzpfEirvJ? f S f h l l kd f ( IDP jynfwGif;a&$@ajymif;kuQonf [lonfhtajzxGufvmonf txdqufvufaqG;aEG;om;Edkifonf? ) kuQonf ESifh jynfwGif;a&$@ajymif;kuQonf bmawGwl+yD; bmawGuGmjcm;vJ? Input (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) IDP ESihf kuonf t"dyg` ,ziqcsuf Q f G hf kd EdkifiHwum kuQonfpmcsKyfta=umif; xdkpmcsKyfudk xdkif;EdkifiHvufrSwfrxdk;xm;a=umif; ESifh rnfodk@aomuef@owfcsuf vkyfEdkifvJ? 128 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 128 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 129. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf ADGD,dkESifh jynfwGif;kuQonfta=umif;±dkufxm;aom ADGD,dkrsm;jyEkdifonf? Deepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;. vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h Ed _ i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) pnf;0ki;f xJrS b,frroGm;Ediaomtkypk kuonfrsm;taejzifh b,fvcpm;&rvJ? bmtcuftcJawG&ifqi& d S kf f Q kd H kd f r,fvdk@xifovJ? rdi;f rsm;0di;f aeaomtkypk jynfwi;f a&$@ajymif;kuonfrsm;taejzifh b,fvcpm;&rvJ? bmtcuftcJawG&if k k f G Q kd H qdkif&r,fvdk@xifovJ? Synthesis (rnf u J h o d k @ vk y f a qmif / umuG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f o nf u d k t ajz&S m vk y f a qmif a pjcif ; ) Duae@ em;vnfvdkufwJhtcsufwcsufudk wOD;csif;ajymcdkif;yg? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 129hre pack.pmd 129 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 130. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf vlYtcGifhta&;oifcef;pm(15) vltcGita&;t"dym,f Y hf Ü &nf & G , f c suf vl@tcGifhta&;t"dy`m,fodap&ef Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) &GH w;kH oH;k jcif; (ta&mifEpa&mif,) h Sf l &GHyxrta&mifwGif vlqdkonft&mukd b,fvdkem;vnfvJ ±kyfyHkðyvkyfcdkif;? rdrd±kyfyHkubmudkqkdvdkovJ&Sif;jycdkif; b,fvdkjrifovJ/ vleSifhb,fvdkoufqkdifovJ? =udK;0dkif;twGif;rSm&Sdonfht&mrsm;r&SdvsSifvlwdk@. b,ft&mudkxdcdkufoGm;ekdifovJ kwd,&GHta&mifudkvlwdk@*k%foduQm&Sd&Sdaexdkifekdif&eftwGuf b,ft&mawGuyHhydk;ay&efvdktyfovJ (±kyfyHkjyKvkyfcdkif;) rdrd±kyfyHkubmudkqkdvdkovJ&Sif;jycdkif; =udK;0dkif;tjyifbufut&mudkb,fvdkac:qdkEdkifrvJ Discussion (tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;) b,fvtcuftcJawG &vJ kd h twGif;ESifhtjyifb,fvdkqufpyfaevJ? twGif;ESifhtjyifESpfckaygif;jyD;b,fvdkt"dy`m,fazmfrvJ tjyifbufrSmwpfckckr&Sdv#if b,fvdkjzpfoGm;rvJ tcGifhta&;udkb,fvdkem;vnfovJ Input (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) vl @ tcG i f h t a&;. tajccH t csuf r sm; 1 ? vl@tcGita&;onf vlwi;f twGuf arG;&mygtcGita&;jzpfonf? (Human Rights are inherent.) hf kd hf vl@tcGifhta&;udk 0,f,lIr&? vJ$ajymif;Ir&// vlwdkif;onf vlom;jzpfaeaom tcsufa=umifh vl@tcGifhta&;ukd &,lydkifqdkifcGifh&Sdonf 2 ? vl@tcGita&;onf vlom;tm;vH;k ESioufqionf? (Human Rights are universal.) hf hf kd f tom;ta&mif/ vlrsK;d / uk;d uG,onfbmom/ Ekiia&;/ vlra&;/ tawG;tac:/ vdiujJG ym;r_ra&G; f h dfH _ f vl@tcGifhta&;onf vlom;tm;vHk;tay: wef;wlnDr#r_&Sdonf? vlom;tm;vHk; arG;zGm;vmonfrSpI vGwfvyf+yD;wef;wlnDr#aom vl@*k%foduQmESifh tcGifhta&;&Sdonf? 130 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 130 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 131. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf 3 ? vl@tcGita&;ukrnfour# ,laqmifor;f yduIr&? (Human Rights are inalienable.) hf d l d k f vl@tcGifhta&;udk rnfolur# ,laqmifodfrf;ydkufcGihfr&Sd? vlwa,muf. arG;&mygtcGifhta&;ukd xkdol. Ekiiawmftpk;d &ESihf Oyarsm;u todtrSwrðyonfwif xdvwif vl@tcGita&;cHpm;cGi&onf? xdo@kd dfH f h kd k l G hf hf dS k todtrSwfrðyjcif;onf xdkoltay: vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_jzpfonf? 4 ? vl@tcGita&;rsm;onf wckEiwck tjyeftvSequfpyfaeonf? (Human Rights are indivisible.) hf S hf f vl@*%oumESitnD aexditouf&iEi&eftwGuf vlom;wdi;f vGwvyfci/fh vHòk cHci/hf &Sovdk vHavmuf k f d Q fh kf S f dk f k f G G d k aomvlaer_b0rsm;udk vkdufavsmnDaxGpGmcHpm;cGifh&Sdonf? rnfonfhtcGifhta&;ukdrS tjcm;tcGifhta&; xufyIta&;}uD;onf[k ajymIr&? vl@tcGita&;wck csK;d azmufc&jcif;onf tjcm;tcGita&;rsm;ukyg kd hf H fh d xdcdkufaponf? xdk@twGuf vl@*k%foduQmonf vl@tcGihfta&;ESifhqufpyfaeonf? vl@tcGihfta&;ukd z,f&Sm;Ir&? vl@tcGifhta&;ukd rcHpm;&jcif;/ z,f&Sm;jcif;onf vl@tcGihfta&;udk csKd;azmufjcif;jzpfonf? vl@tcGita&;qdonfrm wOD;ESiwOD;av;pm;r_/ vl@*%oumukd todtrSwðf yr_/ wef;wlnwðl yr_jzpf+yD; hf k S hf k f d Q D cGJjcm;jcif;/ apmfum;jcif;r&Sdap&yg? tcsKd@ae&mrsm;wGif Oyaudkav;pm;&efvdktyfovdk tcsKdŒOyaonf vl@tcGita&;csK;d azmufaom Oyarsm;jzpfaewwfonfukd owdðy&rnf Oyarsm;onf vl@tcGita&;rsm; hf hf csKd;azmufovm;/ av;pm;ovm;ukd =unfh&efvdkonf? tu,fI vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufaeaom Oyarsm;&Sdonfh EkdifiHrsm;jzpfygu rdrdtcGifhta&;qHk;¶_H;r_ukd EkdifiHwumESifh ukvor*~odk@ vl@tcGifhta&; csK;d azmufa=umif;wifjy jcif;onfjynfytm;ud;k jcif;r[kw/f rdrtcGita&;qH;k ¶_;H r_udk wifjyEkiaomae&mod@k d hf df wifjyjcif;omjzpfonf? urB m h u k v or*~ . vl @ tcG i f h t a&;t"d y ` m ,f z G i f h q d k c suf vl@tcGita&;onf wurBmvH;k &Sd vlom;tm;vH;k ESioufqi+f yD; wOD;csi;f ESitypvuf tajccH vGwvyf hf hf kd hf k f k kd f cGirsm;ESihf vl@*%oumtwGuf tmrcHay;aomt&mrsm;jzpfonf? vl@tcGita&;Oyarsm;udk tpd;k &ud,f hf k f d Q hf k wdkifuav;pm;vdkufemaqmif&Guf&efwm0ef&Sdovdk tjcm;olrsm;rcsKd;azmufap&efudkvJ umuG,fay;aom t&mrsm;jzpfonf? vl@tcGita&;. ta&;}uD;aom oGijf yifvuQ%mtcsK@d rm atmufygtwdi;f jzpfonf? hf S k vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;onf - Ð EdkifiHwumESifhqdkifaom tmrcHr_ay;jcif;/ Ð w&m;enf;vrf;uspGm tumtuG,fay;jcif;/ Ð vlom;wdk@. vl@*k%foduQmtay:wGifomwnfrSDaejcif;/ Ð wOD;csif;jzpfap/ tkyfpkvdkufjzpfap tumtuG,fay;jcif;/ Ð tpdk;&ESifh tpdk;&tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;udk wm0efay;tyfjcif;/ Ð vufvGwfqHk;¶_H;jcif;ESifh ,laqmifodrf;ydkufjcif;rðyEdkifjcif;/ Ð wef;wlnDr#jcif;ESifh tjyeftvSeftrSDðyjcif;/ Ð vlom;tm;vHk;ESifhoufqdkifjcif; wdk@jzpf=uonf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 131hre pack.pmd 131 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 132. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Deepening oif w ef ; om;rsm;. vuf a wG h t jzpf E d _ i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; oifwefom;rsm;udk tkyfpki,frsm;cJGI atmufygacgif;pOfrsm;udk aqG;aEG;cdkif;yg? vl htcGifhta&;onf urBmay:rSm&Sdaomvlom;wdkif;ESifhoufqdkifr_&Sdovm;? bma=umifhvJ? vl htcGifhta&;udkvlwdkif;arG;&mygtcGifhta&;jzpfygovm;? Synthesis rnfuJhodk@vkyfaqmifumuG,fwm;qD;Edkifonfudk tajz&Smvkyfaqmifjcif; oifwef;om;rsm;taejzifh ,ae@avhvmvdkufaom vl@tcGifhta&;udk udk,fpm;jyKazmfjyEdkifonfh oauFwckpDudk a&;qJGapI rnfonfht"dy`m,fjzifha&;qJGxm;a=umif; wOD;csif;&Sif;jycdkif;yg? 132 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 132 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 133. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf vlYtcGifhta&;oifcef;pm(16) twif;t"r®v,f,mNcHajrodr;f qnf;cH&jcif; (Land Confiscation) &nf & G , f c suf twif;t"rRv,f,mjcHajrodr;f qnf;cH&r_onf vl@tcGita&;csKd ;azmufrj_ zpfa=umif; oabmayguvmap&ef/ hf f xdkodrf;qnf;cH&r_rsm;ESifhywfoufI vkyfaqmifEkdifaomt&mrsm;udk odjrifvmap&ef/ Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) t"rRv,f,modrf;qnf;cH&onfhta=umif; rSwfwrf;wifADGD,dkjyyg? Discussion (tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;) ADGD,dkjyjyD;aomtcg atmufygar;cGef;rsm;ESifh oifwef;om;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;apyg? b,folawGvkyfavh&SdvJ/ b,folawGcH&vJ bm&nf&G,fcsufeJ@ajr,mawGudkodrf;qnf;avh&SdvJ? rdrdaotwGif;rSm b,fvdktjzpftysufawG&SdvJ/ Input (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) rG e f j ynf e ,f a otwG i f ; rS m tod r f ; cH & wJ h a jr/ {u/ tjzpf t ysuf r sm; pG e f @ v$ w f o l v ,f , majruk d wpf u G u f o k H ; od e f ; jyef v nf a &mif ; csaejcif ; ? bk & m;yk & 0k % f a jray:rS ewv ±k H ; ajrae&m o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 133hre pack.pmd 133 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 134. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf rG e f j ynf o pf y gwD ausmif ; uG i f ; xJ r S m etz pk a ygif ; &k H ; vuf & S d j ref r mEk d i f i H w G i f ppf t pk d ; &u Ed k i f i H a wmf z G H @ +zd K ;wk d ; wuf a &;twG u f jynf o l v l x k y k d i f v,f , majr+cH {uaygif ; ajrmuf r sm;pG m twif ; t"rR o d r f ; qnf ; aeygonf ? rGejf ynfe,f&dS a&;+rdK@e,ftajctae? 1995 rGefjynfopfygwDESifh etz +idrf;csrf;a&;,l+yD;aemufykdif;rSm pwifIodrf;qnf;vmonf? 1997 ESihf 1998 ckEpf S {u 3000 ausmf 1999 ckEpf S {u 1500 ausmf 2000 ckEpf S {u 100 ausmf 2001 ckEpf S {u 2000 ausmf 2002 ckEpf S {u 1500 ausmf 2003 ckEpf S {u twdtus razmfjyEdkif? 2004 rS 2005 {u 400 ausmf pkpkaygif; {u 8500 ausmf 134 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 134 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 135. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf 1995 rS 2005 txd rGejf ynfe,f0urm todr;f qnf;cHc&aom {upkpaygi;f kd f S hJ k (12670) ausmf &Sonf? d ,KQtcsdefxd qufvufI odrf;qnf;aeqJjzpfonf? v,f , majrrsm; t"rR o d r f ; ,l j cif ; rsm;onf vl @ tcG i f h t a&;csd K ;azguf r _ j zpf o nf ? - UDHR tydkf (17)t& vlwdkif;ypPnf;OpPmykdifqkdifcGifh&Sdonf[kaz: jyxm;onf? - ICCPR tydkf(17)t& vlwpfOD;csif;pD. udk,fa&;udk,fwmykdifqdkifr_rsm;/ aetdrfrsm;/ pmay;pm,lrsm;tm; w&m;r0if 0ifa&mufpuzufjcif;r&S&[k qdxm;onf? G f d k - ICESCR tyk(11)t& vlwi;f vHavmufr#waom vlaer_tqiftwef;&&Sa&;twGuf tpd;k &uvkyaqmif df kd k h d f ay;&rnf? xdtxJwiaexdip&mtdr,mpDrue;f wd@k tm;vH;k t}uHK;0ifonf? k Gf kf f H d Deepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;. vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h Ed _ i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) t"rRajr,mrsm;odr;f qnf;r_a=umifh jzpfay:vmEdiaom aemufqufwGJ tusKd ;qufrsm;ta=umif; tkyp(4)pk fk f f k cJGI oifwef;om;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;apyg? tkyfpk(1) ESifh (2) - a&wdktusdK;qufrsm;rnfodk@jzpfvmEdkifygovJ? tkyp(3) ESihf (4) - a&&Snrm b,fvtusKd ;qufawGjzpfvmEdiv? f k f S kd kf J oifwef;om;rsm;. aqG;aEG;csufrsm;udk oifwef;OD;aqmifolrS rSwfwrf;wifxm;yg? Synthesis (rnf u J h o d k @ vk y f a qmif / umuG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f o nf u d k tajz&S m vk y f a qmif a pjcif ; ) oifwef;om;rsm;taejzifh (Education, Advocacy, Documentation) ponfu¾rsm;wGif rnfonftcef; h h u¾rS rnfodk@yg0ifvkyfaqmifEdkifonfudk aqG;aEG;apyg? t"rR a jr,m od r f ; qnf ; jcif ; Awareness/ Advocacy/ Documentation/ Education Campaign/ lobby Research oifwef;om;rsm;udk tjcm;EdkifiH/ yk*~dKvf/ tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. v_yf&Sm;r_rSwfwrf;acGrsm;vnf; jyoEdkifonf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 135hre pack.pmd 135 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 136. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf 136 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 136 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 137. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf tcef;(4) trsKd;orD;tcGifhta&; oifcef;pmrsm; o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 137hre pack.pmd 137 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 138. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf oifcef;pm(1) vdiujJG ym;rIEihf vdiujJG ym;rIay:tajccHjyKonftjrifrsm; f S f h (Sex and Gender) &nf&G,fcsuf Ð vdifuJGjym;r_ESifh vdifuGJjym;r_tay:tajccHI cGJjcm;onfhtjrifrsm;udk uJGjym;pGmod&Sdem;vnfap&ef? Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) Ð oifykef;wzufwcsufwGif trsdK;om;ESifh trsdK;orD;yHkrsm;uyfxm;yg? vlóudufrsm;aom rif;om;rif;orD;yHk rsm;vJ uyfEdkifonf? Ð oifwef;om;wa,mufudk ta&mifrwlaom pm&Gufydkif;ESpfckpDay;yg? Ð yxrpm&GufwGif a,musfm;[kajymvdkufonfESifh rdrdpdwfxJwGifay:vmaom a,musfm;. trlt,m/ pdwf taetxm;/ tðytrlrsm;udk a&;om;cdkif;yg? Ð kw,pm&Guwif trsKd ;orD;[kajymvduonfEihf rdrpwwiay:vmaom trsKd ;orD;. trlt,m/ pdwtae d f G k f S d d f Gf f txm;/ tðytrlrsm;udk a&;om;cdkif;yg? Discussion (tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;) Ð tm;vH;k a&;+yD;ygu wOD;pDrra&;xm;aom pm&Gursm; d d f udk tkyfpk}uD;a&S@wGif xGufzwfI &Sif;jycdkif;yg? Ð usefolrsm;udk tm¶Hkpdkufem;axmif&eftm;ay;yg? xdkpm&Gufrsm;ukd usm;/ r tvdkuf oifykef;wGif uyfay;yg? Ð tm;vHk;+yD;ygu oifykef;wGifuyfxm;aom pm&Guf rsm;udk oifwef;om;rsm;tm; zwf¶_avhvmap+yD; rnfonfhtcsufrsm;onf t+rJwrf;rrSefEdkifbl;vJ[k oifwef;om;rsm;tm; pOf;pm;aqG;aEG;cdkif;yg? tu,fIpwif&efcufcJaeygu oifwef;ydk@csolu pm&GufwGifa&;om;xm;aom ta=umif;t&mxJrS wckudka&G;I vrf;a=umif;ay;Edkifonf? Oyrm- trsdK;orD;rsm;onf pdwftajymif;tvJjrefonf [laomtcsufonf t+rJrSefygovm;qdkI pwifay; Edkifonf? Ð oifwef;om;rsm;. aqG;aEG;csufrsm;rS t+rJrrSefbJ ESpzufpvH;k wGijf zpfEiaompm&Gursm;udk [dzuf Dzuf f kd f f k ajymif;Iuyfyg? Ð xdkuyfxm;aompm&Gufrsm;xJwGif [dkzufDzufajymif;I r&aompm&Gufrsm; bmusefovJ[k oifwef;om; rsm;udkar;yg/ trsm;tm;jzifh uav;arG;jcif;/ udk,f0efaqmifjcif;/ uav;Edk@wdkufjcif; wdk@jzpfvdrfhrnf? xdkpm&Gufrsm;udk oyfoyfxm;xm;yg? Ð xdk@aemuf ajymif;I&aompm&Gufrsm;ESifh ajymif;Ir&aompm&Gufrsm; bmuGmjcm;ovJ[kar;Ioifwef;om; rsm;udk aqG;aEG;cdkif;yg? xdkaqG;aEG;csufrsm;udk oifykef;wGifrSwfwrf;wifyg? 138 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 138 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 139. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf Ð xdk@aemuf ajymif;I&aom pm&Gufrsm;ESifh ajymif;Ir&aompm&Gufrsm;udk b,fvdkac:=uovJqdkonfh ta=umif;udk aqG;aEG;=urnfajymI A[kokwrsm;ay;yg? xdkodk@A[kokwrsm;ay;&mwGif oifwef;ydk@csol wa,mufxJu a[majymoGm;jcif;rsdK;r[kwfbJ oifwef;rsm;xHrS Oyrmrsm;/ tawG@tóuHrsm;udk xkwfazmf ajymqdkvmatmif ar;cGef;rsm;ar;I oifwef;om;rsm;yg0ifvmatmif vkyfaqmif&rnf? Input (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) vdifuGJjym;r_ (Sex) vdiujJG ym;r_ (Sex) qdonfrm - f k S Ð cE<maAt& zGJ@pnf;xm;r_ uJGjym;jcif;jzpfonf/ Ð wurBmvkH;ESifh tusKH;0ifonf// Ð t+rJwaprSefuefr_ &Sdonf? Oyrm - trsKd;orD;rsm;onf ukd,f0efaqmifjcif;/ uav;arG;jcif;vkyfaqmifEkdif+yD;/ trsKd;om;rsm; udk,f0ef aqmifIr&yg? TonfrSm acwftqufqufrSefuefr_yifjzpfonf? Ttcsufrsm;onf ,cifuuyfxm;aom pm&Gufrsm;xJu ajymif;vJIr&aom pm&Gufrsm;jzpfonf? Gender (vd i f u G J j ym;r_ t ay: cG J j cm;onf h t jrif ) Ð ,Ofaus;r_wcktwGif;wGifjzpfap/ wckESifhwckt=um;wGifjzpfap uGJjym;r_&Sdonf? Ð wcsdfefESifh wcsdefrwlnDyJ ajymif;vJoGm;onf// Ð vlr_a&;/ pD;yGm;a&;ay:wGif odompGmwnfrSdDvsuf&Sdonf? Oyrm - &ifaoG;ESiywfoufaom t&mrsm;onf trsK;d orD;rsm;. wm0efjzpfonf? cufcyifyef;pGm vky&aom hf J f tvkyfrsm;onf trsKd;om;rsm;. wm0efjzpfonf[lI owfrSwfxm;csufrsm;jzpfygonf? [dkzufDzufajymif;vJ I&aompm&Gufrsm;onf ,ckowfrSwfcsufrsm;jzpfonf? ,Ofaus;r_wckESifhwckrwlnDr_t& uGJvGJaeaomusm; rtay: owfrSwfcsufrsm;/ ,Ofaus;r_wckxJrSmyif uJGvJGaeaomusm;rtay:owfrSwfcsufonf wcsdefESifh wcserwlbJ ajymif;vJaeavh&onf? oifwef;om;rsm;. vufawG@b0wGif b,fvowfrwf csursm;&S+d yD; b,fvkd df dS kd S f ajymif;vJr_rsm;&Sda=umif; aqG;aEG;&efar;cGef;ar;IaqG;aEG;cdkif;yg? urB m OD ; acwf rd c if t k y fp d k ; aomumv (Women Era) urBmOD;tpY urBm}uD;wGif rdciftkyfpkd;aomumv&SdcJhzl;onf? vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wckvHk;. tkyfcsKyfr_,E W&m; rsm;tm;vkH;ukdk trsKd;orD;rsm;uaqmif&GufcJhonf// xdktcsdefY jidrf;csrf;+yD;ppfyGJrsm;r&Sdjcif;/ tpm;tpmrsm; aygºuG,f0jcif;a=umifh vlrsm;.pdwfwGifykdifqdkifvdkr_rsm;r&SdbJ tvGefom,mcJhonf? xkdpOfu trsKd;orD;wOdD; tysKazmf0ifv#if aysmy&iyrsm;ðyvkyI vl@tzG@J tpnf;. rdcifavmif;wa,muftjzpf 0di;f 0ef;f }udKqdc=hJ uonf? d f JG $ f JG f k k aemufykdif;wGif urBm}uD;Yrkd;acgifa&&Sm;jzpfvm+yD; tpma&pmrsm;&Sm;yg;vmaoma=umifh ta0;&Sdawmawmif udkoGm;I tpm;tpmrsm; oGm;a&muf&SmazGcJh=u&onf// xdktcg trsKfd;orD;rsm;onf cE<maAwnfaqmufykH t& ukd,f0efaqmifae&jcif;/ uav;arG;Edk@wdkuf&jcif;rsm;=umifh ‚if;tvkyfudk vkyfaqmif&efftwGuf tcuf tcJrsm;&Svm+yD; trsK;d om;rsm;u t"duoGm;a&muf&mazGc&onf? TonfrpI a,musm;rsm;pdwwif ‚if;wd@k . d S hJ S f f G vkyfaqmifvm&r_rsm;a=umifh yg0grsm;jrifhvm+yD; ykdifqdkifvdkpdwfrsm;/ twWpdwfrsm;rsm;jym;vmcJhonf? rdef;r/ om;r,m;rsm;udk ykiqivpwrsm; jzpfay:vm+yD; ‚if;wf@dk .twWpwrsm;a=umifh ppfyrsm;vnf;jzpf ay:vmcJonf? d f dk f kd d f d f JG h xdk@tjyif aemufykdif;wGifay:vmaomtawG;tac:&Sifrsm;rSmvnf; a,mufsm;rsm;om jzpfvmjcif;wkd@a=umifh trsdK;orD;rsm;."rRwm(&moDvm)r_rsm;udk,cifu aysmf&GifpGmóudqkdcJhaomfvnf; aemufykdif; ‚if;udk &GH&Smp&m/ &Sua=umufp&mwckvkd owfrwvmcJonf// a,mufsm;rsm;. ykiqivr_ twWrsm;a=umifh ,cifutrsKd ;om;ESihf f S f h d f kd f kd trsKd ;orD;vufwazmf (partnership) ykprS ydiqir_ (Ownership)ykpjH zpfvmonf? trsKd ;om;rsm;. ydiqivrt& JG H H k f kd f H k f dk f dk _ o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 139hre pack.pmd 139 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 140. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf tkyfpkrsm;jzpfvm+yD; ppfyGJrsm;jzpfvmonf? ,cifu rde;f rewfb&m;rsm;udk ud;k uG,conftpOftvm&Sconf// trsKd ;orD;rsm;onf pdwwefc;kd pGr;f tm;/ k f hJ h d hJ f todynmpGrf;tm; twwfynmpGrf;tm;rsm;&SdcJhonf? xdkodk@aom pGrf;tm;rsm;&Sdonfh rddef;rrsm;udk pkef;rrsm;/ raumif;qd;k 0g;rsm;[kpypum okwoifowfjzwfc+hJ yD; a,musm;rsm;rSyg0gvr;f rd;k cJra=umifh a,mufsm;bk&m;rsm;/ G f JG f f $ h _ a,mufsm;rsm;omjrifhjrwfonf[laom t,ltqrsm;jzpfvmonf? Deepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;.vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h E d _ i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ;) Ð oifwef;om;rsm;tm; tkyfpkvdkufcJGapI rdrdywf0ef;usifwGif ,ciftcsdefESifh ,cktcsdef rwlawmhbJ ajymif;vJvmaom trsKd;om;ESifh trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: owfrSwfr_awG bmawG&SdovJ[lIaqG;aEG;ap+yD;jyef vnfwifjycdkif;yg? xdktcsufrsm;udk oifykef;ay:wGif usm;zufwjcrf;/ rzufwjcrf;rSwfwrf;wifa&;om;yg? Synthesis (rnf u J h o d k @ vk y f a qmif / umuG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f o nf u d k tajz&S m vk y f a qmif a pjcif ; ) Ð TuJhodk@ ,cifESifh,ck uGmjcm;aom trsKd;om;ESifh trsKd;orD;tay: owfrSwfcsufrsm;udk oifwef;om;rsm; b,fvkdokH;oyfrdovJ? Ð b,ftcsufawGu ajymif;vJzdk@vG,fovJ/ b,ftcsufawGu rvG,fbl;vJ? bma=umifhvJ? ponfh ar;cGef; rsm;udk qufvufar;jref;I ed*Hk;csKyfyg? owdjyK&ef Ð trsKd ;om;/ trsKd ;orD;yHuuyfI trsKd ;om;/ trsKd ;orD;wd@k . pdwxm;/ trlt,m/ tvkyrsm;udk pm&Guf k kd f f ay:wGia&;cdi;f ygu oifye;f wGia&;cdi;f jcif;xuf pm&Guay:a&;cdi;f um oifye;f wGiuyfci;f jcif;u ydaumif; f k k f k f k k f kd k onf? xdkuyfxm;aompm&Gufrsm;udk [dkzufDzuf tvG,fwula&$@ajymif;I uyfEdkifonf? Ð xdkenf;twdkif;r[kwfbJ trsdK;orD;. ¶kyfyHk/ trsdK;om;. ¶kyfyHkrsm;udk yuwdtwdkif;a&;qJGcdkif;Edkifonf? odk@aomf oifwef;om;rsm;t=um; trsdK;om;trsdK;orD;rsm;a&maESmaeygu xdkenf;rSmatmifjrifEdkifrnf r[kwfyg? Ð vdifuJGjym;r_udktajccH+yD;cJGjcm;onfh tjrifrsm;/ t,ltqrsm;udkwifjy&m wGifoifwef;om;rsm;. vuf awG@b0rsm;xJrS odomxif&Sm;aom ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk oifwef;ydk@csolu avhvmxm;&efvdktyf onf? odk@rSom oifwef;om;rsm;tm; xdkta=umif;t&mrsm;udkaxmufjyI tjcm;ta=umif;t&m rsm;udkaqG;aEG;vmap&ef vrf;a=umif;ay;Edkifrnf? Ð vdifuJGjym;r_tay:tajccHonfhcJGjcm;r_rsm;udk wifjy&mwGif tjcm;,Ofaus;r_rsm;/ EdkifiHwumta=umif; t&mrsm;udajymjyonfy@kd csjcif;xuf rdrywf0ef;usiwijf zpfysuaeaomta=umif;t&mrsm;rS xdtcsuf k h d f G f k rsm;ESifh udkufnDonfht&mrsm;udk a&G;xkwfajymjywwf&ef txl;ta&;}uD;onf? oDtdk&Doufoufay; onfhol yHkpHrsdK;raygufoGm;atmif txl;*¶kpdkufyg? 140 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 140 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 141. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf oifcef;pm(2) usm;? r tcef;u@ (Gender Role) &nf&G,fcsuf Ð rdom;pk/ ywf0ef;usif/ EkdifiHawmfponfh tqifhwdkif;wGif trskKd;om;ESifh trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: owfrSwfay; xm;aom uJGjym;onfhtcef;u¾rsm;udk jrifomvmap&ef/ Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) (1)oifwef;om;rsm;tm; tkyfpkoHk;pkcGJ+yD; rdom;pk/ ywf0ef;usif/ EkdifiHawmfwdk@wGif trsKd;om;ESifh trsKd;orD;rsm; vkyfaqmifavh&Sdaom tvkyfwm0efrsm;/ tcef;u¾rsm;udk wzJG@v#ifwrsKd; aqG;aEG;apygonf? (2)trsKd;om;rsm;. tvkyfwm0efrsm;udk pm&Gufpta&mifwckY wckv#ifwrsKd;a&;cdkif;yg? trsdK;orD;rsm;. tvkyfwm0efrsm;udkvJ pm&Gufaemufwa&mifjzifh wckwrsKd;a&;cdkif;yg? (3)xdk@aemuf pm&Guf}uD;ay:wGif puf0dkif;yHkESpfxyf atmufygtwdkif; a&;qGJxm;yg? (4)xdkpuf0dkif;ay:wGif rdom;pk/ ywf0ef;usifESifh EkdifiHawmf[lI okH;ykdif;cGJxm;yg? (5)tzJG@vdkufwifjyvmaom aqG;aEG;csufpm&Gufrsm;udk tydkif;vdkufuyfay;yg? trsKd;om;wm0efrsm;onf twGif;puf0dkif;/ trsKd;orD;wm0efrsm;udk tjyifpuf0dkif;wGifuyfay;yg? rdom;pk EdkifiHawmf ywf0ef;usif Discussion (tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;) xdkZ,m;uGufudk oifwef;om;rsm;tm; avhvmap+yD; - Ð ,ckZ,m;uGufrSm bmxl;jcm;csuf&SdovJ? bmowdxm;rdwJh tcsuf&SdovJ? Ð vufawG@b0rSm bmawGxif[yfjyaeovJ? Ð b,ftvkyfrsKd;udk tvkyf[k owfrSwfxm;avh&SdovJ? Ð b,ftvkyfrsKd;udk tvkyf[k rowfrSwfcH&bl;vJ[laom ar;cGef;rsm;jzifh aqG;aEG;cdkif;yg? oifwef;ydk@csolrS trsKd;orD;rsm;onf rdom;pktwGif;Y t0wfav#mf/ xrif;csuf/ om;orD;udpPrsm;udk vkyf aqmifjcif;ponhf odytodtrSwðf yrcH&aom tvkyrsm;udk vkyuiae=u&ovdk ywf0ef;usijf yifyY =unfjh yefv#ivnf; f f f kd f f oef@&Sif;a&;/ aps;onfrponfhtvkyfrsm;udk vkyfudkifae=uonfhtjyif EdkifiHawmftqifhYvnf; tvSr,frsm;/ wDADG a=umfjimr,frsm;/ ausmif;q&mrrsm;ponftvkyrsm;Yom ae&m&vkyuiae=u&onf? Ttvkyrsm;onf OD;aESmuf h f f kd f f jzifh odypOf;pm;p&mrvdaom tvkyrsm;jzpfonf? xdo@kd trsK;d om;ESihf trsK;d orD;rsm;. ,lae&aom tcef;u¾rwlnD f k f k r_a=umifh trsK;d orD;rsm;onf rem;raetvkyf vkyae&aomfvnf; todtrSwðf yjcif; rcH&onftjyif ‚if;wd@k .tvkyf f h o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 141hre pack.pmd 141 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 142. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf tay:av;pm;jcif;vnf; rcH=u&ay? Todk@jzpfaejcif;onf jrefrmEdkifiHYomru urBmtESH@tjym;wGifvnf; xdkuJhodk@ jzpfaeaoma=umifh urBmhtrsKd;orD;rsm;. tajctaeonf tvGefqdk;&Gm;aea=umif;udk atmufygA[kokwrsm;jzifh wifjyygrnf? I nput (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) urB m h t rsKd ; orD ; rsm;tajctae Ð urBmay:wGif pmrwwfolaygif; 876 rDvD,H&Sdonfhteuf okH;ykHESpfykHonf trsKd;orD;rsm;jzpf=uonf? Ð trsKd;orD;rsm;onf urBm@vkyftm;. okH;ykHESpfykHudk xrf;aqmifaeaomfvnf; urBm@0ifaiG.q,fykHwykHudkom &&Sdaeonf? Ð ydkifqkdifr_wGif ykdifqkdifr_tm;vkH;. wpf&mcdkifE_H;udkom trsKd;orD;rsm;u ykdifqkdifonf? Ð urBmay:&Sd qif;&Jolaygif; 1³3 rDvD,HwGif 70 &mcdkifE_H;onf trsKd;orD;rsm;jzpfonf// Ð urBmay:&Sd ygvdDreftrwfae&mwGif trsKd;orD;rsm;rSm 10³5 &mcdkifE_H;om&Sdonf// Ð 1995 ckESpftxd tpdk;&0ef}uD;&mxl;udk&&Sdaom trsKd;orD;rsm;ta&wGufrSm 6³5 &mckdifE_H;om&Sdonf// Ð wurBmvkH;wGif trsKd;orD; 60 rDvD,Honf ukd,f0efzsufcsjcif;/ t[m&rjynfh0jcif;/ usef;rma&;apmifha&Smuf r_ r&&Sjd cif;a=umifh aoqk;H ae&onf? Ð urBmhukr`%D}uD;rsm;wGif OdD;aqmifr_wm0efxrf;aqmifaeaom trsKd;orD;rsm;rSm 1 &mcdkifE_H;om&Sdonf/ Ð ESppOf trsK;orD;aygi; ( 585000 ) onf uk,0efaqmifpOfEihf rd;zGm;pOfwif aoqk;vsu&onf// f d f d f S D G H f dS Ð urBm@kuQonf oef;aygif; 30wGif trsKd;orD;rsm;ta&twGufrSm 80 μjzpfonf? Ð urBmajr,mydkifqfkdifr_. 1μudkom trsKd;orD;rsm;u ykdifqdkifonf// 142 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 142 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 143. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf usm; / r wm0ef EdkifiHrsm; ygvDreftwGif; trsKd; tqifhjrifhtrsKd;orD; toufarG;0rf;ausmif;ESifh trsKd;orD;ESifhtrsKd;om; orD;trwfta&twGuf Oyaðyv$wfawmftrwf enf;ynmqdkif&mtrsKd;orD; 0ifaiGcefŒrSef;ajctcsKd; &mcdkifE_ef; rsm;ESifhpDrHcefŒcGJr_&mcdkifE_ef; u|rf;usifol&mcdkifE_ef; b±lEkdif; 16²0 26 43 0²50 b*Fvm;ah&Sf 2²0 8 25 0²56 rav;&Sm; 16²3 20 45 0²40 zdvpfykdif 17²2 58 62 0²59 tifdkeD;&Sm; 8²0 0²51 eDayg 0²50 AD,uferf 27²3 0²69 uarBmD;,m; 10²9 14 33 0²77 vmtkd 22²9 0²65 ygupPwef 20²8 9 26 0²33 tdENd, 9²3 0²38 xdkif; 9²6 27 55 0²61 puFmyl 16²0 26 43 0²50 usm; / r tvkyfwm0efrsm;ESifh tvkyfcsdefcGJa0r_rsm; EdkifiHrsm; tvkyftcsdefcGJa0r_&mcdkifE_ef; jyifypD;yGm;a&; tdrfwGif; jyifypD;yGm;a&; tdrfwGif; b*Fvm;ah&Sf 35 65 70 30 zdvpfykdif 29 71 84 16 tifkdeD;&Sm; 35 65 86 14 eDayg 25 75 67 33 tdENd, 35 65 92 8 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 143hre pack.pmd 143 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 144. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf ynma&;wG i f usm;§r wef ; wl n d D r #r_ r&S d j cif ; t&G,fa&muf+yD;olrsm; vli,frsm;.ynm tajccHynma&; tv,fwef;tqifh txufwef;tqifh . ynmwwfajrmufr_ wwfajrmufr_ wwfajrmufol ynmwwf ajrmuf ynmwwfajrmufol (15ESpfESifhtxuf) (15- 24ESptwGi;f ) f ta&twGuf olta& twGuf pkpk aygi;f 2000§ 2002 ckESpf 2002 ckESpf 2000§01 ckESpf 2000§01 ckESpf 01 ckEpfS rta& usm;ES i f h rta& usm;ES i f h rta& usm;ES i f h rta& usm;ES i f h rta& u s m ; E S i f h EdkifiHrsm; twGuμ E_ d i f ; ,S O f twGuμ E_ d i f ; ,S O f twGuμ E_ d i f ; ,S O f twGuμ E_dif;,SOfyg twGuμ E_i;f ,SOf ygu f f f f f d ygurμ ygurμ ygurμ u r μ r μ usm; usm; 100 usm; 100 usm; 100 usm; 100 100 wGif ra& wGif ra& wGif ra& wGif ra& wGif ra& twGuf twGuf twGuf twGuf twGuf b±lEkdif; 91²4 95 99²3 100 17 1²77 b*Fvm;ah&Sf 31²4 62 41²1 71 88 1²02 46 1²1 4 0²50 rav;&Sm; 85²4 93 97²3 100 95 1²00 73 1²10 28 1²09 jrefrm 81²4 91 91²1 100 82 1²00 34 0²94 15 1²75 zdvpfykdif 92²7 100 95²7 101 94 1²02 62 1²20 35 1²29 tifdkeD;&Sm; 83²4 90 97²6 99 92 0²99 46 0²95 14 0²86 eDayg 26²4 43 46²0 59 66 0²88 2 0²28 AdD,uferf 86²9 93 92 0²94 9 0²76 uarBmD;,m; 59²3 73 75²9 90 83 0²93 15 0²60 2 0²40 vmtkd 55²5 72 72²7 85 79 0²92 28 0²81 3 0²57 ygupPwef 28²5 53 42²0 64 tdENd, 76 0²83 9 0²68 xdkif; 90²5 95 97²8 100 85 0²97 38 1²09 puFmyl 88²6 92 99²6 100 (txufygtcsutvufrsm;onf urBm@use;f rma&;tzG@J WHO, ESihf vl@tcGia&;apmif=h uyfa&;tzG@JG Human f hf Rights Watch / UNDP Human Resource Indicators . tpD&ifcpmrsm;rS aumufEwcsursm;jzpfonf? ) H k f f oif w ef ; yd k @ csol r S txuf w G i f w if j ycJ h a om tcsuf t vuf r sm;onf trsKd ; om;ES i f h trsKd ; orD ; rsm;. tcef;u¾rsm; cGJjcm;r_rsm;a=umifh jzpfay:vmaom urBm@trsKd;orD;rsm;. tajctaejzpfa=umif;&Sif;jyyg? xdktcsuf tvufrsm;udk=unfhI oifwef;om;rsm; bmawGowdxm;rda=umif;udk qufvufaqG;aEG;cdkif;yg? 144 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 144 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 145. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf D eepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;.vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h E d _ i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) Ð oifwef;yd@k csorS oifwef;om;rsm;udk tkypEppcI tacs l f k S f k GJ twifajymqdkjcif; vkyfaqmif&ef!$ef=um;csufay;yg? Ð tzJ@G wzJ@G uxdtqduaxmufcI ajym&rnfjzpf+yD; usef k k kd H tzJG@u xdktqdkudkuef@uGufIajym&rnf? erlemay;xm; aomatmufygacgif;pOfrsm;rS wcsufudka&G;Iajymcdkif; Edkifonf? Oyrm- - trsKd;orD;rsm;onf A[kokwenf;aoma=umifh EdkifiH acgif;aqmifrjzpfEdkif? - trsKd;orD;rsm;onf tm;EJG@aoma=umifh ppfwyfwGif 0ifa&mufjcif;rðyoifh? - trsKd;orD;rsm;onf qHk;jzwfr_tm;enf;aoma=umifh tzJG@tpnf;. ta&;}uD;aomwm0efrsm;udk rxrf; aqmifoifh ponfwdk@jzpfEdkifonf? Ð tzJ@G ukd tzJ@G vujf yifqif&eftcseay;yg? vlwi;yg0ifEi&ef dk df kd f kd f pDpOfaqmif&Gufyg? Ttacstwifajymqdkjcif;rsm; vkyf aqmif&mwGif owdðyoifaomtcsursm;udk Tpmtky. h f f pmrsufESm (60)wGifavhvmEdkifonf? Synthesis (rnf u J h o d k @ vk y f a qmif / umuG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f o nf u d k tajz&S m vk y f a qmif a pjcif ; ) Ð tacstwifajymqdk&mrS rdrdowdxm;/ oabmusrdaomtcsufrsm;udk tzJG@}uD;wGif jyefvnfwifjycdkif;yg? Ð bma=umifh xdktcsufudk oabmusrda=umif;ar;jref;I xdktcsufudk vdifuJGjym;r_ESifhywfoufI vlxkt=um; vH_@aqmf&mwGif b,fvdktoHk;csEdkifrvJ qdkonfudkar;jref;I rSwfwrf;wifyg? rSwfcsuf Ð tacstwifajymqdkonfh acgif;pOfrsm;onf usm;rtvkyfcJGjcm;owfrSwfr_ESifh oufqkdifonfh rnfonfh acgif; pOfurqdk oHk;Ekdifonf? Ð tzJG@cJG&mwGif wzJG@pDwGif trsKd;om;trsKd;orD; ESpfzufpvHk;yg0ifr_&Sdap&ef owdðyyg? Ð tzJG@ESpfzJG@cJGI ajymcdkif;jcif;omru tzJG@av;zJG@cJGI tqdkzufwGifESpfzJG@/ tacszufwGifESpfzJG@yg0ifaomenf; udkvnf; oHk;Edkifonf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 145hre pack.pmd 145 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 146. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf oifcef;pm (3) vdiujJG ym;rItay:tajccHí cGjJ cm;qufqrrsm; f H I (Gender based Discrimination) &nf & G , f c suf Ð vdifuGJjym;r_tay:tajccHI cGJjcm;qufqHr_rsm;udk odjrifvmap&ef/ Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) - rdausmif;/ zg;/ =um&Guupm;enf;? f (1) oifwef;cef;rtwGif; puULrsm;udkcsxm;yg? oifwef;ydk@csolu xdkpuULrsm;onf =um&Gufrsm;jzpfa=umif;/ oifwef;om;rsm;tm;vHk;onf ,cktcsdefrSpI a&uefwGif aysmf&$ifpGm upm;ae=uaom zm;uav;rsm;jzpf a=umif;/ xdka&uefwGif rdausmif;}uD;waumif&Sda=umif;ajymjyyg? (2) xdk@aemuf oifwef;om;rsm;tm; tcef;twGif; vGwfvyfpGmvSnfhvnfoGm;apI acgif;avmif;wD;vdkuf onfESifh xdkpuULrsm;ay:wGif vkwuf&yfcdkif;yg? (3) puULw&GufwGif vlwa,mufom&yf&rnf? a&xJusefaeolrsm;rSm rdausmif;udkufpm;cH&jcif;jzpf+yD; upm; jcif;rS EkwfxGuf&ygrnf? (4) yxrt}udrfwGif puULydkaeatmifcsxm;+yD; wjznf;jznf;avsmhvdkuf&rnfjzpfonf? puULr&olrsm;udk nHhvdk@r &a=umif;/ toHk;rusa=umif; ajymqdkay;yg? (5) kwd,tqifhwGif óud;wacsmif;jzifh0dkif;vdkuf+yD; 0dkif;tv,fwGif rdrda&G;csifaom vltenf;pkudk awmfonf/ ajympum;em;axmifonf ponfjzifhcsD;rGrf;ajymqdk+yD; 0dkif;txJwGifaeygap? (6) puULtrsm;pkudk 0dkif;twGif;xnfhxm;I tjyif0dkif;ywfywfvnfwGif puULtenf;i,fomcsxm;um 0dkif; tjyif&Sdvlrsm;udk t&iftwdkif;jyefvkygap? (7) pnf;urf;csufrSm txJuvlrsm;onf tjyifpuULudkvkEdkif+yD; tjyifuvlu txJ&SdpuULudk oGm;vkIr&yg? xdkenf;jzifh tjyifvltm;vHk; ðywfoGm;onftxd qufvufupm;oGm;cdkif;yg? Discussion (tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;) v_yf&Sm;r_+yD;oGm;ygu oifwef;om;rsm;udk tm;vHk;0dkif; xdkifcdkif;yg? xdk@aemuf atmufygar;cGef;rsm;udkar;I aqG;aEG;yg? Ð v_yf&Sm;r_vkyfaepOfESifh +yD;onfhtcg b,fvdk cHpm;&vJ/ bma=umifh tckvdkcHpm;&ovJ? Ð b,fvdkrsKd;jzpfcJh=uvJ/ v_yf&Sm;r_udk b,fvdkjrif ovJ? bma=umiftvjkd rifwmvJ? h J D Ð b,folawGu tcGifhta&;ydk&aew,fxifvJ? bma=umifhxifvJ? Ð b,folawGu óud;pm;ayrJh,SOfòydifvdk@r&Edkifbl; vJ/ bma=umifv? h J Ð vufawG@b0rSmqdkv#if óud;twGif;u vlawGub,f oljzpfEdkifvJ? bma=umifhvJ? 146 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 146 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 147. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf Ð óud;tjyifzufu b,foawGv/J bma=umifv? l h J Ð t&ifae@u avhvmcsufawGt&qdk&if olwdk@awGu b,folawGjzpfEdkifvJ? Ð vufawG@rSmqdk&if óud;ua&m b,ft&mawGjzpfEdkifvJ? Ð acgif;avmif;udkifxm;+yD; trdef@ay;wJholua&m b,ft&mawGjzpfEdkifovJ? Ð bmawGoifcef;pm&ovJ? v_yf&Sm;r_ vufawGŒb0 twGif;vl tjyifvl óud; acgif;avmif; xdkaqG;aEG;r_rsm;wGif vdifuJGjym;r_tay:tajccHonfh cJGjcm;r_rsm;udk odomjrifomap&ef OD;wnfoGm;&ef vdktyfonf? I nput (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) Ð vlom;wdkif;onf arG;zGm;vmuwnf;u wlnDaom*k%foduQmESifh vl@tcGifhta&;&Sdonfqdkaom tcsufudk vl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;. tykdf (1) ESifh (2) wdk@wGif azmfjyxm;onf? odk@&mwGif vlrsKd;tajccHt& aomfvnf;aumif;/ tom;ta&mif/ udk;uG,fonfhbmomt&aomfvnf;aumif;/ vdifuJGjym;r_t&aomf vnf;aumif;tcsdK@olrsm;rSm b0.u¾toD;oD;wdk@wGif tjcm;olrsm;uJhokd@wef;wlcHpm;cGifhr&SdbJ cJGjcm;cHae &vsuf&Sdonf? Ð trsKd;orD;rsm;jzpfonfhtwGuf u¾toD;oD;wGif txl;ojzifh EdkifiHa&;wGifyg0ifr_Y cJGjcm;owfrSwfcH&r_rsm; udk&ifqdkifcJh&onf? vl@tcGifhta&;ordkif;a=umif;udk jyef=unfhrnfqdkygu pum;vHk;t& cJGjcm;owfrSwfcH&r_ rsm;&SdcJhonfudkawG@Edkifonf? vl@tcGifhta&;. rlvtp[kajymavh&Sdaom jyifopfEdkifiHawmfvSefa&;aemufydkif; wGiay:ayguvmcJaom jyifopftcGita&;a=unmpmwrf;wGif (Declaration of the Rights of Men and f f h hf Citizen)[lIom azmfjyxm;+yD; trsKd;orD;rsm;.tcGifhta&;udk tao;pdwfazmfjycJhjcif;r&Sday? xdk@twGuf a=umifh jyifopfawmfvSefa&;wGif wufºuGpGmyg0ifcJhaom jyifopftrsdK;orD;wOD;jzpfol tdkvrfyDDa*hgonf xdkpmwrf;udktwk,lI trsdK;orD;rsm;ESifh trsdK;orD;EdkifiHom;rsm;tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;udk a=unmcJh onf? odk@aomf trsdK;om;rsm;u vspfvsL±_cJh=uonf? jyifopfawmfvSefa&;t+yD; jyXmef;cJhaomOyawGif vnf; trsKd;orD;rsm; rJay;cGifhudk vspfvsL±_cJhonf? Ð xd@k twl tar&duefEihf t*FvefEiiw@kd wivnf; trsK;orD;rsm;tm; rJay;cGiukd (19) &mpkavmuf txd S kd f H Gf d hf wduy0ifc&onf? trsK;d om;rsm;ESihf wef;wlray;cGitwGuf v_y&m;awmif;qdrrsm; t&Set[kejf rifvm+yD; k f GJ hJ J hf f S k _ d f h trsKd;orD;tm;vHk; todw&m;Ekd;=um;vmcJh=uonf? t*FvefwGif 1860 rS 1890 ckESpfrsm;twGif;wGif trsK;d orD;rsm;tm;vduavsmr_rsm; ay:xGe;f vmcJonf? t*Fvefygvrefwif tdraxmif&itrsK;d orD;rsm;. k f h D G f Sf udk,fydkif ypPnf;xdrf;odrf;cGifhESifh pD;yGm;&SmcGifhwdk@udk Oyajzifh todtrSwfðyvmcJhonf? wuUodkvfrsm;odk@ trsdK;orD;ausmif;olrsm; wufa&mufcGihf&vmonf? 1913 ckESpfwGif tDrDvD0dkufa;Apfqifonf t*Fvef bk&ifp;D aom jrif;a&S@wif vJtytaocH qENjy+yD;rS 1918wGif trsKd ;orD;rsm;rJay;cGiuciðhf ycJonf? yxrydi;f G S df hf kd G h k wGiftrsdK;orD;rsm;rJay;cGifh toufowfrSwfcsufudk touf (30) owfrSwfxm;+yD; aemufydkif;q,fESpf =umrS trsdK;om;rsm;ESifh wef;wltoufajymif;vJowfrSwfay;cJhonf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 147hre pack.pmd 147 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 148. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Ð yxrurBmppft+yD;wGif trsdK;orD;rsm;rJay;cGihfudk todtrSwfjyKaomEdkifiHta&twGuf rsm;vmcJhonf? trsdK;orD;v_yf&Sm;r_rSmvnf; rJay;cGifh&&Sda&;rS tjcm;EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ Oyaa&;e,fy,frsm;wGifcJGjcm; zdEyryaysmufa&;od@k wd;k wufawmif;qdvmcJ=h uonf? 1960ckEpf ywf0ef;usirsm;wGif trsKd ;orD;rsm;onf dS f _ k S f ,cifutrsdK;orD;rsm;ESifh rtyfpyf[kowfrSwfxm;aom jyifyvkyfief;cGifrsm;wGif yg0ifvkyfudkifcJh&onf? odk@aomf trsdK;orD;rsm;jzpfonfhtwGuf tvkyfcJGjcm;jcif;/ cHpm;cGifhrwlnDjcif;ponfhtjzpfrsm;ESifh &ifqdkif óuHawG@&onfhtwGuf vkyfief;cGifwGifwef;wlnDr#a&; awmif;qdkoHrsm;xGufay:vmcJhonf? Ð 1970 ckEp0ef;usiumvrsm;Y trsKd ;orD;rsm;.awmif;qdoonf Ediia&;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;wd@k wif wef;wlnr# Sf f k H kfH G D a&;qdkonfhawmif;qdkoHxuf ydkrdkus,fjyef@vmonfudk awG@&onf? xdku¾rsm;avmufomruawmhbJ tjcm;u¾rsm;wGifyg trsdK;orD;rsm;udk cJGjcm;onfh r[mzdk0gpepf}uD;wckvHk;udk zsufodrf;ypf&ef/ trsdK; orD;rsm;tay: cJjG cm;onftjrifrsm;udk yhy;kd ay;aeonfh vdicjGJ cm;onfh t&mtm;vH;k udk wGe;f vSe&ef awmif; h H f f qdv@H_ aqmfvmcJonf? xdt,ltqxJwif trsKd ;om;rsm;u trsKd ;orD;rsm;. b0tpdwtydi;f tm;vH;k udk k h k G f k olw@kd pwwi;f us jyXmef;owfrway;xm;onf/ trsKd ;orD;rsm;udk vufwazmftaeESirjrifbJ olw@kd vuf d f kd S f GJ hf atmufctqifrsKd ;jzifom jrifa,mifaeonf? xdtpJtjrifrsm;tm;vH;k onf trsKd ;orD;rsm;b0udk edrusap H h h k G hf aom t&mrsm;jzpfonf[onft,ltq xGe;f um;vmonf? trsKd ;orD;rsm;tcGita&;udk csKd ;azmuf&m l h hf wGif tdrfaxmifpktwGif;/ vkyfief;cGiftwGif;ESifh vl@todkif;t0dkif;b0twGif; trsdK;orD;rsm;udk cJGjcm;quf qHjcif;/ tjrwfxwjf cif;rsm;yg0ifonf[k awG;jrifvmcJonf? xd@k twGuf trsKd ;orD;rsm;ESihf trsKd ;om;rsm;. k h pdwxm;rsm;/ tjrifrsm;/ tpJrsm;udk ajymif;vJypf&ef vdtyfa=umif; ,lqvmonf? xdt,ltqrSm Oa&my f G k k ESifh ajrmuftar&duwdkufwdk@wGifomr[kwfbJ urBmtESH@tjym;odk@ jyef@ESH@cJhonf? Ð ,ae@tcgwGif vdifuJGjym;r_a=umifh trsdK;orD;rsm;tay: cJGjcm;qufqHjcif;udk vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_ tjzpfowfrSwfI xdkodk@cJGjcm;r_rsm;csKyf+idrf;ap&ef awmif;qdkwkdufyJG0ifr_rsm; xGef;um;vmonf? trsdK;orD; rsm;tm; pepfwusEypuf!i;f yrf;r_ukd ESypufrypwcktjzpftodtrSwðf y&ef/ rke;f usijhf cif;udk vdit=urf; dS f ‡ df _ kH H d f zufrypwcktjzpf todtrSwðf y&ef/ trsKd ;orD;rsm;tm; jynfwefqmtjzpftoHk;ðyjcif;udk u|eðf yr_ypwck _ kH H h kH H tjzpf todtrSwðf y&ef/ trsKd ;orD;rsm;tm; t=urf;zufjcif;udk vl@tcGita&;csKd ;azmufrwcktjzpf tod hf _ trSwðf y&ef / tdrwi;f t=urf;zufrtm; vl@tcGita&;csKd ;azmufrwcktjzpf vufc&efw@kd ukd óud;yrf;aqmif f G _ hf _ H &Gufvmvsuf&Sdonf? Ð trsKd ;orD;rsm;tm; cJjG cm;zdEyr_ (Discrimination) qdonfh t"dym,fukd trsKd ;orD;rsm;tm; enf;rsKd ;pHjk zifcGJ dS f k ` h jcm;xm;r_rsm; yaysmufa&;oabmwlpmcsKyf(CEDAW) . tydf (1)wGif “Ediia&;/ vlra&;/ ,Ofaus;r_/ k kfH _ Ediiom;tcGita&;ESifh tjcm;aomu¾rsKd ;pHw@kd wif trsKd ;orD;rsm;tm; vdit&uJjG ym;r_utajccHIcJjG cm; kfH hf k G f kd jcif;/ oD;oef@jzpfapjcif;/ uef@owfxm;jcif; wdk@udkqdkvdkonf”[k qdkxm;onf? Deepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;.vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h E d _ i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) Ð oifwef;om;rsm;tm; tkyfpkoHk;pkcJGI rdrd.rdom;pktwGif;/ vkyfief;cGif odk@r[kwf jyifytodkif;t0dkif;twGif;/ EdkifiHawmf. Oyarsm;twGif; trsdK;orD;rsm;tay: cJGjcm;zdESdyfonfhtjzpftysufrsm;udk aqG;aEG;cdkif;yg? Ð xdkaqG;aEG;csufrsm;udk tkyfpk}uD;wGifjyefvnfwifjycdkif;yg? 148 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 148 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 149. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf Synthesis (rnf u J h o d k @ vk y f a qmif / umuG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f o nf u d k tajz&S m vk y f a qmif a pjcif ; ) Ð oifwef;om;rsm;tm; usm;/ rtvkduf tkyfpkESpfpkjyefcJGyg? Ð xdkcJGjcm;zdESdyfr_rsm;yaysmufatmif trsdK;orD;rsm;taejzifh b,ft&mrsm;vkyfaqmifoifha=umif;/ rdrdwdk@ trsdK;om;rsm;taejzifh rnfonfhtcsufrsm;udk owdjyKvkyfaqmifoGm;rnfjzpfa=umif;wdk@udk trsdK;om; rsm;tm; aqG;aEG;wifjycdkif;yg? Ð xdk@twl xdkcJGjcm;zdESdyfr_rsm;yaysmufatmiftrsdK;om;rsm;taejzifh b,ft&mrsm; vkyfaqmifoifha=umif;/ rdrw@kd trsKd ;orD;rsm;taejzifh rnfonftcsursm;udk owdðyvkyaqmifom;rnf jzpfa=umif;wd@k ukd trsKd ;orD;rsm; d h f f G tm; aqG;aEG;wifjycdkif;yg? rS w f c suf Ð rdausmif;/ zm;/ =um&Gufv_yf&Sm;enf;tpm; cJGjcm;zdESdyfr_udkay:vGifaprnfh tjcm;v_yf&Sm;enf;rsm; toHk;ðyEdkif onf? (Oyrm- teDtjymv_yf&Sm;enf;) xdkenf;tcsdK@udk TpmtkyfwGif azmfjyxm;ygonf? Ð v_yf&Sm;r_udktoHk;ðyrnfqdkygu Tpmtkyfyg v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;toHk;ðy&mwGif owdðy&eftcsufrsm;udk aoao csmcsmavhvmxm;&efvdkonf? Ð v_yf&Sm;r_enf;vrf;udk toHk;ðyjcif;jzpfojzifh vkyfaqmifaecsdefwGif oifwef;om;wOD;csif;. ðyr_ajymqdkyHk/ wkef@jyefyHkESifh cHpm;csufrsm;udk taotcsmrSwfxm;I aemufqufwJGar;cGef;ar;&mwGif xnfhoGif;ar;Edkifygu ydkaumif;rnf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 149hre pack.pmd 149 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 150. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf oifcef;pm (4) vdiujJG ym;rItay: cGjJ cm;qufqc&jcif; tjzpftysuf f H H (Gender Action) &nf & G , f c suf Ð trsKd;orD;rsm;óuHawG@&avh&Sdaom vdifcJGjcm;qufqHcH&jcif; tjzpftysufrsm;udk &SmazGavhvmI owdðy rdwwfap&ef/ Ð xdkvdifcJGjcm;qufqHr_rsm; yaysmufap&eftwGuf enf;vrf;rsm;udk xkwfazmfwwfap&ef/ Ð xdenf;vrf;rsm;udk jyefvnftoH;cs&mwGif rdrowdxm;oifonfh tcsursm;udjk yifqifxm;wwfap&ef/ k k d h f Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) Ð oifwef;om;rsm;udk tkyfpkav;pkcJGyg? Ð azmfjyyg rmvm.ta=umif;t&mudk oifwef;om;rsm;tm; a0iSay;I tptqHk;zwfcdkif;yg? Ð tm;vHk; tptqHk;zwf+yD;v#if wzJG@udk tydkfwydkfpD *±kwpdkufjyefzwfcdkif;yg? rmvm. tjzpf t ysuf rmvmonf armifEprajcmufa,mufwif ti,fq;kH rde;f uav;jzpfonf? olrwGif tudav;a,mufEihf Sf G k S trwpfa,muf&Sdonf? olr.rdom;pkonf v,f,mvkyfief;jzifh toufarG;olrsm;jzpfonf? rdom;pkrSm pD;yGm;a&;tqifrajyojzifh wcgw&Hwif rdom;pktm;vH;k avmufXatmifyif rpm;Ediay? xdtcgrsK;d wGif rdom;pk G kf k wGif zcifjzpfoEihf tudav;a,mufukd OD;pm;ay;au|;I rmvmESitrjzpfouaemufr/S rdcifjzpfouaemufq;kH rS lS k hf l l useonftpm;tpmrsm;udk pm;&avh&onf? rmvmonftoufEirvduatmif ao;auG;ydevvsu&aomf f h dS S hf k f f DS f dS vnf; b,folurS olrudk*±krpdkuf=uyg? toufajcmufEpwif rmvmausmif;wuf&onf? od@k aomf ausmif;ESpEpwuft+yD; rdom;pk. pD;yGm;a&; Sf G fSf tajctaea=umifh rmvmausmif;rS xGufvdkuf&onf? tudkjzpfolav;a,mufrSm ausmif;qufwuf=u+yD; trjzpfoEihf rmvmwd@k rm tdrwircifuunjD cif;/ v,f,mwGiunjD cif;rsm; vkyuionf? rmvmtouf l S S f Gf d kd l f l f kd f (12)ESpfa&mufaomtcg v,f,mtxGufaumif;vmojzifh tdrf.pD;yGm;a&; ydkrdkaumif;rGefvmaomfvnf; rmvmudausmif;jyefrxm;awmhyg? zcifjzpfoucGirðyyg? wuf&rnfausmif;onf rmvmwd@k trEihf a0;vGe;f vS k l hf h d f S onf? tysKaygujf zpfaeaom rmvmudk tjcm;a,musm;av;rsm;ESihf twlausmif;wufrnfukd pdwrcs[qonf? d f f k kd r=umcifrmvmhukd tdraxmifðyay;awmhrnfjzpfI tdraxmifrusrD wckcjk zpfom;rnfukd pd;k &draoma=umifjh zpf f f G f onf[k zcifuqdygonf? tdraxmifzufu &Smau|;rnfjzpfI rmvmtaejzifh ausmif;wuf&efrvd[vJ qdyg k f k k k onf? xdktcsdefwGif rmvm.trjzpfol oDwmrSmvnf; touf (17)ESpfom&Sdao;aomfvnf; tdrfaxmifus ae+yD; uav;wa,mufyif&ae+yDjzpfonf? touf (15)ESpfwGif rmvmhudk rdbrsm;u pdk;atmifESifh tdrfaxmifcsay;vdkufonf? av;vtwGif; rmvmudk,f0ef&SdcJhonf? touf (18)ESpfwGif rmvmrSm uav;oHk;a,muf&Sdae+yDjzpfonf? olronf t+rJ armyrf;aewwf+yD; usef;rma&;vnf;raumif;/ pdwfxJwGif txD;usefovdkcHpm;ae&vsuf&Sd+yD; pdwftm;i,f aewwfonf? rmvmonf pmaumif;pGmrwwfaomfvnf; tjcm;olrsm;.ajymjycsuft&oaE<udkwm;qD;I &a=umif;odvmonf? a,mufsm;jzpfop;kd atmifukd xdo@kd oaE<wm;qD;&ef/ od@k romolrtem;,lEirnf [kajymjy l k S kd f aomtcg pd;k atmifagoxGu+f yD; olrud±uEuygonf? arG;vmor#uav;awGxrm a,mufsm; av;rygao; k dk f S f J S ojzifh aemufxyfuav;vdI oaE<wm;jcif;onf obm0rusI[kqonf? rmvmrSm aemufxyf Dta=umif; k kd udk yg;pyfr[&Jawmhyg? 150 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 150 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 151. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf rmvm.usef;rma&;rSm wae@wjcm;ydkqdk;vmonf? aq;cef;udk r=umc%oGm;&onf? aq;cef;rS q&mrrsm;u ud,0efr,loifojzifh vdiqufqygu vdiwpyuo;kH &ef t}uHay;onf? t}uHay;onfh twdi;f k f h f H f H G f kd k rvkyojzifh rmvmudpwq;kd =uonf? rmvmu xdo@kd o;kH jcif;onf jynfwefqmrsm;omoH;k onf[k ,lqojzifh f kd f k h roH;k csiovdk pd;k atmifuvnf; vufcrnfr[kw[k odae+yD;om;jzpfonf? DvEihf pwkwajrmuf &ifaoG;av;udk f H f kd S W arG;zGm;vm&m xdk&ifaoG;av;rSm a,mufsm;av;jzpfonf? pdk;atmifrSm tvGefauseyfoGm;cJh+yD; aemufxyf a,musm;av;ESpa,mufavmuf xyf,t;Hk rnf[qonf? rmvmrSmawmh ydrpwq;kd 0rf;enf;um yifyrf;&if f f l k kd k kd d f armaerdawmhonf? Discussion (tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;) xdktkyfpkav;pktwdkif; atmufygtcsufrsm;udk 0dkif;0ef;aqG;aEG;cdkif;yg? Ð tzJG@vdkufrdrdwm0efusonfh tydkfwGifyg 0ifonfh trsKd;orD;jzpfonfhtwGuf vdif cJGjcm;qufqHcH&onfh tcsufrsm;udk azmf xkwfyg? Ð xdk@aemuf xdktjzpftysufrsm;jzpf&onfh ta=umif;&if;rsm;udk 0dkif;0ef;pOf;pm;cdkif;yg? Ð xdk@aemuf tzJG@vdkufwifjycdkif;yg? Input (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) Ð A[kokwrsm;ay;&mwGif oifwef;ydk@csolrsm;taejzifh rdrdodxm;onfh vdifcJGjcm;onfh tjzpftysufrsm;udk tpysKd;I oifwef;om;rsm;. tawG@tóuHrsm;xJrS tjzpftysufrsm;udk wifjyvmap&ef vrf;!$efay;yg? Deepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;.vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h E d _ i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) Ð tkyfpkoHk;pkjyefcJGyg? Ð xdktkyfpkrsm;udk rmvmuJhodk@tjzpfrsKd; trsKd;orD;rsm;róuHawG@&atmif rdom;pk/ ywf0ef;usifESifhEdkifiHawmf tqifhwGif b,fvkdvkyfaqmifoihfa=umif; wzJG@v#ifwckaqG;aEG;I wifjycdkif;yg? Synthesis (rnf u J h o d k @ vk y f a qmif / umuG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f o nf u d k tajz&S m vk y f a qmif a pjcif ; ) Ð oifwef;om;rsm;udk vdkif;ESpfvdkif;cJGI twJGvdkuf rsufESmcsif;qdkif rwfwyf&yfcdkif;yg? Ð yxrvdkif;(u)onf xdktjzpftysufxJrS rmvmudkaq;ukay;onfh aq;q&mrjzpfonf? rmvm. usef;rm a&;raumif;r_udk aq;q&mru tvGefpdk;&drfrdonf? aemufxyfuav; xyf,lrnfqdkv#if rmvm.touf yif xdcdkufEdkifonfudkodonf? xdk@a=umifh rdom;pkpDrHudef;enf;jzifh uav;udkwm;qD;&ef pdk;atmifudk t}uH ay;vdkonf? xdk@a=umifh aemufxyfuav;r,l&ef pdk;atmifudk oGm;a&mufajzmif;zs&rnfjzpfonf? b,fvdk ajymqdk csOf;uyfrvJqdkonfudk pOf;pm;jyifqifcdkif;yg? Ð vdkif;(c)onf pdk;atmifjzpfonf? pdk;atmifonf om;a,musfm;av; aemufxyfvdkcsifao;onf? zcif. tarGudk qufcHEdkif&ef om;a,musfm;av; rsm;rsm;vdkcsifonf? aq;q&mrwa,mufu pdk;atmif. rdef;r rmvmudk aemufxyfuav;rarG;zdk@ vmajymonf? b,fvdkwkef@jyefrvJqdkwmudk pOf;pm;jyifqifxm;cdkif;yg? Ð xdkvdkif;ESpfvdkif;pvHk;rS olrsm;udk b,fvdkajymqdkrvJ tcsdefay;I pOf;pm;cdkif;yg? tqifoihfjzpf+yDqdkygu pwifIajymygap? Ð oifwef;ydk@csoltaeESifh twJGwwJGtem;wGif&yfI em;axmifjcif;rvkyfbJ tm;vHk;udkvdkufI tuJcwfyg? tu,fI twJGvdkufajym=um;r_rsm; avoHavsmhoGm;+yD; &yfoifh+yD[k,lqygu &yfckdif;yg? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 151hre pack.pmd 151 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 152. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Ð oGm;a&mufajymqdonfh vdi;(u)rSvrsm;tm; b,fvcpm;&vJ/ bma=umiftckvcpm;&ovJar;yg? tm;vH; k kf l kd H h kd H k tm±Hkpl;pdkufem;axmifygap/ wa,mufrusef ajymEdkifatmifvrf;zGifhyg? Ð xdk@aemuf vdkif;(c)rSvlrsm;udk vmajymaomvdkif;(u)rSolrsm;uaeI olwdk@pdwfajymif;csifvmatmif vkyf oGm;Edkifaom trlt,m/ tajymtqdk/ csOf;uyfr_rsm;udk ar;I rSwfwrf;wifygonf? Ð xd@k aemuf b,ftrlt,m/ tajymtqd/k csO;uyfrrsm;u aumif;rGeaomyHprsm; r[kwb;vJ[k ar;jref;I f _ f k H f l oifykef;wGifrSwfwrf;wifygonf? Ð xdk@aemuf vdkif;(u)rSvlrsm;udk vdkif;(c)tjzpf/ vdkif;(c)rS vlrsm;udkvdkif;(u)tjzpfajymif;vJI ,cifvkyfcJh onfhtqifhtwdkif;jyefoGm;ygonf? xGuay:vmaom tcsutopfrsm;udk oifye;f wGirwwrf;wifygonf? f f k fS f Ð vdkif;ESpfvdkif;vHk;+yD;ygu oifykef;wGifa&;xm;aom aumif;onfhtcsufrsm;ESifh raumif;onfhtcsuf rsm;udk tm;vHk;0dkif;0ef;avhvmI aqG;aEG;ygonf? (xdkenf;toHk;ðy&mwGif owdxm;&rnfhtcsufrsm;udk o±kyfaqmifjcif;aqmif;yg;wGif avhvmEdkifygonf?) Synthesis (rnf u J h o d k @ vk y f a qmif / umuG , f w m;qD ; Ed k i f o nf u d k t ajz&S m vk y f a qmif a pjcif ; ) Ð ckeuvkyfaqmifcJhaom v_yf&Sm;r_udk avhvmI trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: cJGjcm;onfhtjrif&Sdolrsm;tm; csOf;uyf pnf;±Hk;&mwGif owdðy&rnfhtcsufrsm;udk pm&if;ðypkI ed*Hk;csKyfyg? 152 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 152 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 153. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf oifcef;pm (5) trsKd;orD;tcGita&; hf (Women Rights) &nf & G , f c suf Ð trsKd;orD;rsm;tm; enf;rsKd;pHkjzifh cGJjcm;zdESdyfxm;r_rsm; tm;vHk;zsufodrf;a&;oabmwlpmcsKyf(CEDAW)wGif yg0ifonfh trsKd;orD; tcGifhta&;rsm;ta=umif;udk od&Sdap&ef/ Ð trsK;orD;rsm;tm; enf;rsK;pHjk zifh cGjJ cm;zdEyxm;r_rsm; tm;vH;zsuor;a&;oabmwlpmcsKyf(CEDAW)wGifyg0if d d dS f k f df onfh tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh rdrdywf0ef;usif&Sd trsKd;orD;rsm;tajctaeudk E_dif;,SOfoHk;oyfwwfap&ef/ Activity (v_y&m;r_) – Video showing f S Caught in the Cross Fire by Images Asia jrefrmEdiiwif jzpfym;vsu&aeaom jynfwi;f ppfyrsm;t=um; kfH G G f dS G JG acsmifywraeaom rde;f uav;rsm; ta=umif;udk 1995-96 twGi;f u d f d Images Asia rSaeI ±kuu;xm;aom AD,tacGujkd yoyg? d f l G D kd Discussion (tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;) Ð Zmwffum;=unfh+yD; b,fvdkcHpm;&ygovJ? Ð rnfonfhvl@tcGifhta&;rsm;t"ducsKdf;azmufcH&ovJ? oifykef; ay:wGif rSwfwrf;wifyg? Ð xdkcsKd;azmufcH&aomtcsufrsm;teuf rnfonfhtcsufrsm;onf trsKd;orD;jzpfaoma=umifh ydkrdkcHpm;&onf[k xifygovJ? oifye;f ay:wGif aumfvcI rSwwrf;wifyg? k H GJ f Ð bma=umifhtckvdktrsKd;orD;rsm;ykdtcuftcJóuH&w,fvdk@ xifyg ovJ? I nput (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) vl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;wGif vlom;tcsif;csif;cJGjcm;r_r&SdbJ tcGifhta&;rsm;udk wef;wlcHpm;Edkifonf[k qdkxm;onf? odk@aomf vdifuJGjym;r_udktajccHI trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: cJGjcm;zdESdyfr_rsm;/ t=urf;zufr_rsm;wnf&Sd aeonfhtwGuf trsKd;orD;rsm;tcGifhta&;udk oD;oef@azmfjyonfh trsKd;orD;pmcsKyfw&yfvdktyfa=umif; oabm aygufvm=uonf? xdk@twGufa=umifh trsKd;orD;tcGifhta&;pmcsKyfwckudk a&;qJG&efóud;yrf;vmonf? trsKd ; orD ; tcG i f h t a&;qd k i f & m pmcsKyf a y:ayguf v myH k ord k i f ; a=umif ; tusOf ; csKyf Ð 1972 ckESpf ukvor*~ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;r_;csKyfu trsKd;orD;rsm;pmcsKyfwckwGif rnfonfhtcsufrsm; yg0if oifha=umif;avhvm&ef trsKd;orD;tqifhtwef;qdkif&maumfr&Sifudk wm0efay;cJhonf? Ð 1973 wGifpmcsKyfopfudk rl=urf;a&;qJG&ef tzJG@0if(15)OD;ygonfh tvkyftzJG@udk wm0efay;cJhonf? Ð 1979 wGif wifjyvmonfh xdkrl=urf;udk taxGaxGnDvmcHwGif twnfðyjyXmef;cJhonf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 153hre pack.pmd 153 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 154. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf trsKd ; orD ; rsm;tm; enf ; rsKd ; pH k j zif h cG J j cm;zd E S d y f x m;r_ r sm; tm;vH k ; zsuf o d r f ; a&;oabmwl p mcsKyf Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) Ð 1979 / DZifbm (18) &ufae@wif jyXmef;cJonf? G h Ð 1981/ pufwifbm (3) 7uffae@wGif touf0ifvmcJhonf? Ð 1997/ Zlvdkifv (22) &ufae@wGif jrefrmEkdifiHrS vufrSwfa&;xkd;cJhonf? Ð tykaygi;f (30) yg0ifygonf? d f Ð 2003ck/ puffwifbmvtxd - EdkifiHaygif; (174) EkdifiHtwnfðy vufrSwfa&;xkd;xm;+yD;jzpfonf? trsKd ; orD ; rsm;tm;enf ; rsKd ; pH k j zif h cG J j cm;zd E S d y f x m;r_ r sm; tm;vH k ; zsuf o d r f ; a&;oabmwl p mcsKyf a umf r wD Committee on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) Ð pmcsKyfEdkifiHrsm;. vkyfaqmifr_udk apmifh=uyf&ef? Ð vGwfvyfu|rf;usifaom trsKd;orD;(23)OD;yg0ifygonf? Ð aumfrwDrSm oufwrf;(4)ESpf&Sdonf? Ð aumfrwDtpnf;ta0;udk tar&duef/ e,l;a,mufòrd@wGif ESpfpOfZEM0g&dDvukefwGifokH;ywf=umusif;yavh &Sdonf? pmcsKyf E k d i f i H r sm; wm0ef r sm; Ð tpD&ifcHpmwif Ð óudwifar;cGef;xkwfjcif; Ð yxr tpD&ifcHpmudk yxrESpftwGif; wifoGif;&/ Ð tpD&ifcHpmukd avhvmjcif; Ð ykHrSeftpD&ifcHpmudk av;ESpfw}udrfwifoGif;&/ Ð odvdkonfrsm;udk ar;cGef;xkwfjcif; Ð tpdk;&r[kwfaom zGJ@rsm;u(pifòydiftpD&ifcHpmwifEdkif) Ð t}uHay;csufxkwfjyefjcif; trsKd ; orD ; rsm;tm; enf ; rsKd ; pH k j zif h cG J j cm;zd E S d y f x m;r_ r sm; tm;vH k ; zsuf o d r f ; a&;oabmwl p mcsKyf (CEDAW) . tm;aumif;csuf Ð tpdk;&tay: wm0efftjynfht0ay;tyfxm;onf? Ð trsKd;orD; pmcsKyftjzpf av;pm;todrSwfðycH&onf? tm;enf ; csuf r sm; Ð ¹cGif;csufxm; vufrSwfxdk;aom EkdifiHrsm;jym;jcif;/ Ð owif;ay;ydk@zdk@tm;enf;jcif;/ Ð trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: t=urf;zufr_ pum;vkH; vkH;0rygjcif;/ vuf & S d w k d ; wuf r _ r sm; Ð 1999ckESpf/ rwfv (16) &ufae@wGif wOD;csif;wkdif=um;r_udkvufcHaom aemufqufwGJpmcsKyfudk twnf ðycJhonf? Ð 2000ck/ arvtxd (62) EkdifiH twnfðyvufrSwfxdk;xm;onf? Ð trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: t=urf;zufr_qdkif&m txl;pkHprf;ppfaq;a&;t&m&Sd. tcef;u¾ydkrdktm;aumif;vmcJh onf? D eepening ( oif w ef ; om;rsm;. vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h E_ d i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) oifwef;om;rsm;tm; tkypEppcI tkypwi;f tm; pmcsKyf f k S f k JG f k kd 154 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 154 11/28/2007, 5:14 HREIB
  • 155. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf wGifyg0ifaom tcGifhta&;rsm;xJrS rdrdywf0ef;usifwGif trsm;qkH; jzpfaeaom trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: t=urf;zufr_ta=umif;t&m wpfckudk a&G;cs,fI jyZmwftjzpf wifjyaponf// wzJ@G .wifjycsursm;udk usetzJ@G u=unfI bmta=umif; f f h t&mjzpfa=umif; cef@rSef;cdkif;yg? xdk@aemuf xdkta=umif;t&mrsm; jzpf&onfh ta=umif;&if;rsm;udkaqG;aEG;I yifhuluGufZ,m;jzifh jyefvnfwifjycdkif;yg? Synthesis (rnf u J h o d k @ vk y f a qmif umuG , f w m;qD ; Ek d i f o nf u d k tajz&S m vk y f a qmif a y;jcif ; ) trsKd;orD;tcGifhta&;rsm;udk tpdk;&rSvdkufem&ef trsKd;orD;pmcsKyfaumfrwDu wm0eftjynfht0ay;xm; ygonf? odk@aomf,ckwifjycsufrsm;t& rdrdwdk@ywf0ef;usifwGif trsKd;orD;tcGifhta&; csKd;azmufr_rsm;&SdaeqJjzpfonf udawG@&onf? xdo@kd jzpfae&onftay:tpd;k &u b,fvwm0efysuuuaer_rsm;&Sa=umif;udk qef;ppf&efvtyfonf? k k h kd f G f d kd vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;tm; av;pm;vdkufem&ef tpdk;&wGifwm0ef&Sdr_udk wdkif;wm&mwGif tpdk;&.av;pm;r_ (respect) umuG,ay;r_(protect)/ wd;k wufatmifvyaqmifay;r_ (promote)/ jznfqnf;ay;r_ (fulfill) ponfh tydi;f av;ydi;f jzifh f kf h k k wdkif;wmavh&Sdygonf? av;pm;r_qonfrm xdtcGita&;rsm;udk tpd;k &ud,wiu csK;d azmufjcif;&Sr&Sd tcsujf zpfygonf? umuG,r_ kd S k hf k f kd f d f qdkonfrSm tjcm;olrsm;u xdktcGifhta&;rsm; csKd;azmufjcif;rðyEkdifatmif vdktyfovdkumuG,fapmifha&Smufay;r_ jzpfygonf? wdk;wufatmifvkyfaqmifay;r_qdkonfrSm xdktcGifhta&;rsm;udk jynfolvlxktaejzifh trSefwu,f&&SdcH pm;&±kHomru xdk@xufydkaumif;vmatmif ynmay;r_tygt0if tjcm;aomenf;rsm;jzifh vkyfaqmifjcif;jzpfonf? jznfqnf;ay;r_qonfrm jynfow@kd taejzifh xdtcGita&;rsm;twdi;f cHpm;Edi&eftwGuf vdtyfovdk axmufyjHh znfh h kd S l k hf k kf k qnf;ay;jcif;jzpfonf? tzJG@av;zJG@jyefcJGyg? txufwGifwifjycJhaom trsKd;orD;tcGifhta&;rsm; csKd;azmufr_wifjycsuf ESpfckteuf wckudka&G;cs,fI tzJG@wckpDtm;xdkcsKd;azmufr_wGif tpdk;&wm0ef&Sdonfh tydkif;wckpDudk avhvmqef;ppfcdkif;yg? wzJG@udk av;pm;r_/ useftzJG@rsm;udk umuG,fay;r_/ wdk;wufatmif vkyfaqmifay;r_/ jznfhqnf;ay;r_ wydkif;pDavhvmapI jyefvnfwifjycdkif;yg? aemufqHk;wGif wifjyr_rsm;tm;vHk;ukd tESpfcsKyfjyefvnfwifjyI ed*Hk;csKyfyg? rSwcsuf f oifwef;om;rsm;. vufawG@tjzpfESifh E_dif;,SOfqufpyfay;jcif; tydkif;wGif o±kyfaqmif wifqufr_tpm; oifwef;om;rsm;t=um;wGif tjyeftvSeajymqdaqG;aEG;r_ (Debate) vkyfEkdifygonf? f k Oyrmtm;jzifh- Ð zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOyajzifh trsKd;orD;rsm;tm; v$wfawmfwGif 50μ yg0ifcGifhðy&rnf// Ð trsK;orD;rsm;udk trsK;om;ppfonfrsm;ESiwef;wl a&Swef;ppfrsuEmjyifwif wm0efxrf; aqmifcihf ðy&rnf? d d hf › f S G G Ð tu,fI vufawG@tjzpfESifh E_dif;,SOfqufpyfay;jcif;tydkif;wGif o±kyfaqmifwifqufr_udk oHk;rnfqdkygu xdkwifqufr_rsm;onf oifwef;om;rsm;. vufawG@ywf0ef;usifwGif jzpfysufaeonfh rnfonfhta=umif; t&mrsm;jzpfa=umif; aoaocsmcsmrSwfom;xm;yg? xdkta=umif;t&mrsm;onf aemufxyftao;pdwf qufoGm;&rnfh oifcef;pmacgif;pOfrsm; jzpfvmvdrfhrnf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 155hre pack.pmd 155 11/28/2007, 5:15 HREIB
  • 156. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf oifcef;pm (6) ta&SUawmiftm&StwGi;f &Sd trsKd;orD;rsm; tcGita&;tajctae hf Women Rights Situation in South East Asian Region &nf & G , f c suf Ð trsK;orD;rsm;tm; enf;rsK;pkjH zifcjJG cm;xm;r_tm;vk; zsuor;a&;oabmwlpmcsKyf (CEDAW)wGifygaom d d h H f df tcsufrsm;udk tao;pdwfydkrdkem;vnfI jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd trsKd;orD;rsm;tajctaeESifhE_dif;,SOfwwfap&ef/ Ð tm&SaotwGif;&SdEdkifiHrsm;&Sd trsKd;orD;rsm;tajctaeudk avhvmod&Sdap&ef/ Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) (1) oifwef;om;rsm;udk tkyfpk (4)pkcJGyg? (2) tzJG@wzJG@pDudk atmufygZ,m;uGufrsm;ygaompm&Gufrsm;jzef@a0yg? (3) tzJG@wzJG@v#if tydkf(4)ydkfpDcJGa0I xdktydkfrsm;wGifyg0ifaomta=umif;t&m/ ar;cGef;rsm;udk zwf±_avh vmI xdkta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifh oufqdkifonfh jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif;&Sd Oyrmrsm;udka&;cscdkif;yg? tydkfESifht"dy`m,fzGifhqdkcsuf qef ; ppf a vh v m&ef t csuf r sm; Oyrmrsm; tydkf(1-3)tpdk;&. Ð tpd;&onf CEDAWpmcsKyfEihf aemufquf k S wm0efrsm; wJpmcsKyfrsm;udk twnfðy vufrwx;kd xm; G S f ygovm;? Ð zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOyawGif vdifuJGjym;r_udk tajccHonfcjGJ cm;r_r&SapbJ usm;rwef;wlcH h d pm;cGifh&Sdonf[k azmfjya&;om;xm;ygo vm;? Ð Ekiiawmf&w&m;Oyarsm;xJwif trsK;orD; dfH dS G d rsm;tm; cJjG cm;r_yaysmufa&;udk OD;wnfonfh Oyarsm;&Sdygovm;? tydkf(4) ,m,Dtxl;ðyvkyf Ð tpd;k &ydi;f wGif trsK;d orD;rsm;yg0ifap&ef txl; k aqmifcsuf cGifhðyxm;aom yHkpH&dSygovm;? Ð trsKd;orD;rsm;tcGifhta&;twGuf pDrHudef;cs rSwfvkyfaqmifr_&Sdygovm;/ Ð trsK;orD; zH@G òzd;wd;wufa&;jzpfaomynma&;/ d k pDyGm;a&;/ pGrf;&nfjrêifhvkyfief;rsm;twGuf b¾maiGrsm;udk oD;oef@z,fxm;ygovm;? 156 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 156 11/28/2007, 5:15 HREIB
  • 157. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf tyd(5) yHpcursm;yaysmuf Ð ausmif;rsm;/ rDD,mrsm;wGif usm;ryHkpHcGuf k f k HG f apa&; tpJGrsm;jzpfaponfh yHkazmfwifjyr_rsm;&Sdyg ovm;? Ð CEDAW wGifygaomtcsufrsm;ESifhrudkufnD onfh ,Ofaus;r_usipOf/ "avhx;kH pH tavh hf txrsm;&Sdygovm;? tydkf (6)ul;oef;a&mif;0,f Ð vlueu;l oef;a&mif;0,frwm;qD;a&; Oya kf _ jcif;ESifh jynfhwefqmtjzpfap ESifhuav;jynfhwefqmwm;qD;a&;Oyarsm; cdkif;jcif; jyXmef;xm;ygovm;? Ð jynfhwefqmvkyfief;tay: vlxkub,fvdk rsKd;jrifavh&SdygovJ? tyd(7) trsK;d orD;rsm; rJay; Ð trsKd;orD;rsm; rJay;cGifh&Sdygovm;? kf cGifh/ a&G;cs,fcHydkifcGifh Ð Ediia&;ESihf vlxtycsKyfa&;Xmersm;wGif trsK; kfH k k f d orD;rsm; wm0efxrf;aqmifr_ &Sdygovm;? tyd k f (8) Ed k i f i H w umwG i f Ð EdkifiHwumudk,fpm;vS,ftzJG@rsm;wGif trsKd;orD;rsm; udk,fpm;ðycGifh trsKd;orD;rsm; yg0ifr_&Sdygovm;? Ð EdkifiHwumtpD&ifcHpmrsm;wGif trsKd;orD; tajctaeudk trSeftwdkif; wifjyygovm;? tydkf(9)EdkifiHom;jzpfcGifh/ Ð trsKd;orD;wOD;onf EdkifiHjcm;om;wOD;udk ajymif;vJyici/hf av#mufxm; vufxyfvdkufI rdrd.EdkifiHom;tjzpfudkpGef@ kd f G ydkifcGifh v$wf&ygovm;/ Ð trsKd;orD;rsm;onf olwdk@. tdrfaxmifzuf ESifh &ifaoG;rsm;twGuf EdkifiHom;jzpfcGifhudk trsKd;om;rsm;enf;wl vGwfvyfpGm av#muf cGifh/ &&SdcGifh/ ajymif;vJcGifh&Sdygovm;? tyd k f (10) ynma&;wG i f Ðusm;rwef;wlynmoif=um;cGi&&ef cGiðhf yxm; hf dS cJGjcm; r_r&Sd&ef aom Oyarsm;&Sdygovm;? Ð oif±dk;!$ef;wrf;wGif usm;ryHkpHcGuftjrifrsm; jzpfatmif v_H@aqmfay;aomta=umif;t&m rsm;udk y,fzsufcJhbl;ygovm;? tyk d f (11) tvk y f c J G j cm;r_ Ð trsKd;orD;wdkif;onf tvkyftudkiftm;vHk; r&Sd&ef wGif tusKd;cHpm;cGifh&&Sdygovm;? Ð wlnDaomtvkyftwGuf wlnDaom vkyfc cHpm;cGifh&Sdygovm;? Ð trsKd;orD;rsm;trsm;qHk;vkyfudkifonfh pdkufysKd; a&;vkyief;rsm;ESihf tdrwi;f ae0ifaiG&mtvkyf f f G S rsm;udk tvkytjzpf owfrwygovm;? f S f o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 157hre pack.pmd 157 11/28/2007, 5:15 HREIB
  • 158. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Ð udk,f0efaqmifrdcifrsm;twGuf txl;tusKd; cHpm;cGifh&Sdygovm;/ tydf (12) use;f rma&;apmifh Ð ud,0efaqmifrcifrsm;twGuf tm[m&wduf k k f d k a&Smuf cH,l ydicihf kfG au|;r_/ aq;ppfr_ tpDtpOfrsm;&Sdygovm;? Ð om;zGm;q&mrrsm;ESihf aq;¶Hrsm; vHavmufr_ k k &Sdygovm;? Ð &ifaoG;usef;rma&;twGufapmifha&Smufa&; tpDtpOfrsm;&Sdygovm;? Ð uk,0efaqmifpOfEihf uav;arG;zGm;pOfaoqH; d f S k r_E_ef; jrifhrm;aeygovm;? tyd k f ( 13) pD ; yG m ;a&;vk y f Ð tpdk;&u trsKd;orD;rsm;pD;yGm;a&;vkyfudkifEdkif udkifcGifh &eftwGuf txl;acs;aiGtpDtpOfrsm;&Sdyg ovm;? Ð udk,fxludk,fx tao;pm;pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief; rsm;vkyfudkifEdkif&eftwGuf ynmay;ydk@csr_rsm; &Sdygovm;? ÐtrsKd;orD;pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;&Sifrsm;&Sdygovm;? tyd(14) aus;vufaetrsK;d Ð aus;vufESifh wdkif;&if;om;trsKd;orD;rsm;zHG@ k f orD;rsm; wef;wltcGifhta&; òzd;a&;twGuf txl;pDrHudef;rsm;csrSwfvkyf aqmifaeygovm;/ Ð aus;vufaewdkif;&if;om;trsKd;orD;rsm;ESifh òrd@aetrsK;d orD;rsm;t=um; Ediia&;/ ynma&;/ kfH use;f rma&;/ vlaer_tqiftwef;uGm[r_ &Syg h d ovm;? tydkf(15)w&m;Oyaa&S@wGif Ð Oyarsm;/usix;kH rsm;ESihf vkyx;kH vkyenf;rsm; hf f f usm;rwef;wlcGifh onf trsK;d om;ESihf trsK;d orD;wd@k tay: wef; wl&dSygovm;? Ð zrf;qD;/ tjypfp&if&mwGif trsK;orD;rsm;udk D d om &nf&G,faom OyarsKd;&Sdygovm;? Ð tarGqufcH&mwGif trsKd;orD;/ trsKd;om; wef;wltarGqufcHr_udk cGifhðyaomOya&Sdyg ovm;? tydkf (16) rdom;pkb0wGif Ðtdraxmifa&;Oyarsm;onf Ediiom; tcGihf f kfH wef;wlnDcGifh ta&;ESifh rd±dk;zvmxHk;xrf;pOfvmOyarsm; ESifh udkufnDr_&Sdygovm;? Ðvufxyf&mwGif usm;rESpO;pvH;qENwrS om fD k l vufxyf&ef owfrSwfxm;ygovm;? 158 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 158 11/28/2007, 5:15 HREIB
  • 159. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf Ð trsKd;orD;rsm;onf rdrdqENt& rdrdESpfouf ovdk enf;rsm;jzifh rdom;pk pDrue;f rsm; csrwf H d S aqmif&GufEdkifygovm;? Ð vifr,m;uGm&Sif;&mwGif vdktyfaom ta=umif;jycsufrsm;onf usm;rESpfOD;pvHk; tay:wGifnDr#r_&Sdygovm;? Ð vifr,m;uGm&Si;&mwGif nDr#aom w&m;pD f &ifa&;Oyarsm;&Sdygovm;? Discussion (tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;) Ð tkyfpkvdkufawG@&Sdcsufrsm;udk tzJG@}uD;wGifjyefvnfwifjycdkif;yg? Ð useftzJG@rsm;tm; rdrdwdk@od&Sdxm;onfh tjcm;Oyrmrsm;udk xyfrHjznfhpGuf&ef vrf;zGifhay;yg? Input (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) trsdK;orD;tcGifhta&; avhvmolrsm;taejzifh rdrdwdk@EdkifiHwGifomru aotwGif;&Sdtjcm;EdkifiHrsm;wGif jzpfysuaeaom trsKd ;orD;qdi&m ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk od&&efvtyfojzifh aotwGi;f &Sd tjcm;EdiitcsK@d ukd avhvm f kf dS kd kfH oifha=umif;ajymI atmufygA[kokwrsm;ay;yg? Z,m; (1) vlom;zGH@òzd;wkd;wufr_pm&if;Z,m; cefŒrSef;ajcvlŒ touf15ESpfESifh rlvwef;tv,fwef; t&SiarG; 1000 wpfESpftwGif;udk,f cef@rSef;ajc f oufwrf; txuf pmwwf ESitqifjh rifynma&;wGif wGif arG;uif;p 0efaqmifjcif;a=umifh vkyftm;c hf h wdkif;jynfrsm; ajrmufr_E_ef; oif=um;aeaomausmif; uav; rdcif 100000 wGif 0ifaiG om;ta&twGuf μ aoqHk;r_E_ef; aoqHk;r_E_ef; r usm; r usm; r usm; r usm; b&lEkdif; 78 @ 8 74 @ 1 91 @ 4 96 @ 3 75 72 6 0 b*Fvm;ah&Sf 61 @ 5 60 @ 7 31 @ 4 50 @ 3 54 53 51 380 1150 2035 rav;&Sm; 75 @ 6 70 @ 7 85 @ 4 92 @ 0 72 69 8 30 5219 13157 jrefrm 60 @ 1 54 @ 5 81 @ 4 89 @ 2 48 47 77 230 zdvpfykdif 71 @ 9 67 @ 9 92 @ 7 92 @ 5 82 81 29 170 3144 5326 tifdkeD;&Sm; 68 @ 6 64 @ 6 83 @ 4 92 @ 5 64 66 33 380 2138 4161 eDayg 59 @ 4 59 @ 9 26 @ 4 61 @ 6 55 67 64 550 891 1776 AD,uferf 71 @ 4 66 @ 7 86 @ 9 93 @ 9 61 67 30 95 1888 2723 uarBmD;,m; 59 @ 5 55 @ 2 59 @ 3 80 @ 8 53 64 96 440 1622 2117 vmtkd 55 @ 6 53 @ 1 55 @ 5 77 @ 4 53 65 87 530 1358 2082 ygupPwef 60 @ 7 61 @ 0 28 @ 5 53 @ 4 31 43 83 530 915 2789 tdENd, 64 @ 4 63 @ 1 46@ 4 69 48 62 67 540 1442 3820 xkdif; 73 @ 4 65@25 90 @ 5 94 @ 9 72 74 24 36 5284 8664 pifumyl 80 @ 2 75 @ 8 88 @ 6 96 @ 6 75 76 3 6 15822 31927 pmuk;d ? ? ukvor*~zGH@òzd;wkd;wufr_tpDtpOf. vlom;zGH@òzd;wkd;wufr_tpD&ifcHpm 2004 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 159hre pack.pmd 159 11/28/2007, 5:15 HREIB
  • 160. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Input (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) pifumyl Ð vlom;zH@G òzd;wd;k wufrEe;f jrifrm;aomEdiijH zpfonf? 1997 ckEpwif trsK;d orD;csmwmudk jyifqifa&;om; _ _ h kf S f G cJ+h yD; ZeD;ESicifye;f wd@k t=um; wef;wlnr#a&;udk taxmuftuljzpfaponfh vufxyf+yD;aemuf tdraxmifðycGihf hf G D f udk wm;jrpfjcif;/ cifyGef;a,mufsm;taejzifh ZeD;ESifhom;orD;rsm;udk axmufyhHjcif;/ tdrfaxmifwm0ef,ljcif;wdk@ udk vdkufemapjcif;/ ESpfOD;oabmwl uGm&Sif;jywfpJEdkifjcif;/ uGm&Sif;t+yD; vufxufyGm;tarGrsm;udk wef;wlcH pm;cGifh&Sdjcif;/ t=urf;zufcH&aomZeD;onf OyaumuG,fr_&,lcGifh&Sdjcif;/ trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: t=urf;zuf olrsm;tm; Oyajzifhtjypfay;jcif;wdk@udk xnfhoGif;jyXmef;vmcJhonf? Ð pifumylEiiwif tvkyorm;Oyaudk jyXmef;xm;aomfvnf; a&G@ajymif;tvkyorm;rsm;tm; umuG,f kd f H G f f ay;r_r&Sday? xdk@a=umifh a&$@ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;onf pifumylEdkifiHom; tvkyf&Sifrsm;. csKd;azmufr_rsm;udk wdkif=um;&mwGif tcuftcJ&Sdonf? EdkifiHjcm;om;tdrfazmf trsdK;orD;rsm;onf udk,f0ef&Sd/ r&Sdppfaq;+yD;rSom tvkyf&+yD; pifumylEdkifiHom;trsKd;om;rsm;ESifh vufxyfcGifhr&Sdyg? Ð pmrwwfoEe;f wGif trsK;d orD;rsm;u 12 &mcdiEe;f &SI trsK;d om;rsm;u 4 &mcdiEe;f &Sonf? wuUovf l _ kf _ d kf _ d kd bJG@&rsm;wGif trsKd;orD; 50 &mcdkifE_ef;&Sdonf? Ð pifumylEdkifiHonf CEDAW pmcsKyftydkf (2)ESifh (16) udk ¹cGif;csufxm;vufrSwfxdk;xm;onf? awmif u d k & D ; ,m;Ed k i f i H Ð awmifu&;D ,m;Ediiwif 1987 ckEpY tvkyorm;wef;wla&;Oya/ 1991 ckEpwif uav;oli,f ðypkapmifh kd kfH G Sf f Sf G a&Smufa&;Oya/ 1993 ckEpwif vdiyi;f qdi&mt=urf;zufc&olrsm;udk umuG,ay;aomOya/ 1995 ckEpwif S f G f kd k f H f S f G trsK;d orD;rsm;zH@G òzd;wd;k wufa&;Oya/ 1999 ckEpwif vdicjGJ cm;r_ qef@usiaomOyawd@k ukd toD;oD;jyXmef;cJonf? S f G f f h orw. trsdK;orD;a&;&maumfr&Sifudk oD;oef@zJG@pnf;xm;+yD; EdkifiHawmftqifh trsKd;orD;pDrHudef;rsm; taumif txnfazmfr_udk }uD;=uyfonf? Ð 1998 ckESpfwGif wEdkifiHvHk;&Sd ausmif;oHk;jyXmef;pmtkyfrsm;wGif vdifuJGjym;aomyHkpHcGuftpJGrsm; uif;ap&ef jyefvnfjyifqifcJhonf? a,musfm;av;rsm;twGuf oD;oef@bmom&yfjzpfaom pufr_ESifh rdef;uav;rsm;twGuf oD;oef@bmom&yfjzpfaom tdrwi;f r_oyukd wbmomxJtjzpf owfrwconf? 1991 ckEpwif jyXmef;cJaom f G d H` S f hJ S f G h uav;oli,fðypkapmifha&Smufa&;Oyat& ukr`%Drsm;wGif uav;rdcif0efxrf;rsm;. uav;rsm;twGuf uav; xdef;Xmersm;zGifhay;&ef jyXmef;xm;onf? Ð od@k &mwGif rd±;kd zvm,H=k unfrrsm;a=umifh trsK;d orD;rsm;tay: cJjG cm;ESrcsonftjrifrsm; qufvuf wnf&ap _ d hf h dS qJuawG@&onf? om;a,musm;av;udk OD;pm;ay;aom "avhtpOftvm&SaeqJjzpfonf? Ediia&;wGif trsK;d orD; kd f d kfH rsm;yg0ifap&ef cJGwrf;pepfr&Sdao;yg? trsKd;orD;rsm;tay:t=urf;zufr_rsm; qufvufrsm;jym; aevsuf&Sdonf? touf (16)ESprjynfao;aom vdiyi;f qdi&m t=urf;zufapmf um;cH&olrsm;. xGuqcsuukd oufaotjzpf f h f kd k f f kd f vufrcHaom Oya&SdaeonfudkawG@&onf? Ð udk&D;,m;EdkifiHonf CEDAW tydkf (9) udk ¹cGif;csufxm;vufrSwfxdk;xm;onf? 160 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 160 11/28/2007, 5:15 HREIB
  • 161. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf zd v pf y d k i f Ð zdvpfyiEiiwif vdicjGJ cm;r_yaysmufap&ef&nf&,I Gender Respsonsive Development (PPGD) pDrue;f udk kd f kd f H G f G f H d taumif t xnf a zmf a qmif & G u f v suf & S d o nf ? CEDAW pmcsKyf u d k ¹cG i f ; csuf r &S d vuf r S w f x d k ; xm;onf ? zdvpfyiEiiajrmufyi;f aorsm;wGif ,ae@wijf zpfym;aeonfh vufeufuif yÉdyuQrsm;a=umifh trsK;d orD;rsm;ESihf kd f kd f H kd dk G kd uav;rsm; tcuftcJrsm;pGm óuHawG@&vsuf&Sdonf? Ð zdvpfyiEiionf urBmb%f. tpDtpOftjzpf pduysK;d a&;pepfrS vGwvyfaom aps;uGup;D yGm;a&; pepfo@kd kd f kd f H k f f f ul;ajymif;onftpDtpOfukd usio;kH aevsu&onf/ xdtpDtpOfa=umifh aus;vufpuysK;d a&;u¾rsm;wGif vkyuif h hf f dS k kd f f kd aeaom trsK;d orD;v,form;rsm;tay: oufa&mufrrsm;pGm&Sconf? v,form;rsm;rSm xdtpDtpOfu owfrwf _ d hJ k S ay;xm;aom aiG&oD;ESrsm;udk ajymif;vJpuysKd ;&jcif;/ rd¶;kd zvmwHig ig;zrf;vkyief;cGirsm;rS wHigonfrsm;udk c&D;oGm; H kd f f f vkyfief;twGuf ae&yfrS twif;t=uyfa&$@ajymif;jcif;rsm;óuHawG@cJh&onf? Ð zdvpfydkifEdkifiH. 1987 ckESpf rdom;pkqdkif&mOyawGif vdifcJGjcm;r_udkyaysmufatmif óud;yrf;vkyfaqmif xm;aomfvnf; vifr,m;uGm&Si;f jywfpjJ cif;qdi&m ta=umif;tcsuf wvH;k wygrSrygyg? tu,fI ZeD;jzpfou kf l oD;jcm;uJumaevdygu vifa,musm;jzpfou tavhtxwcktjzpf ¶duEurom oD;jcm;pGmuJum aexdiEif G G k f l k f S f S G G k f kd onf[qxm;onf? ud,0efzsucsrrmvnf; w&m;r0ifjzpfonf? ud,0efysurEihf ud,0efaqmifra=umifh aoqH;k k kd k f f _S k f f_S k f _ ol wae@v#if 5 OD;rS 6 OD;cef@&onf? ud,0efaqmifrEihf tdraxmifðyr_a=umifh tvkyrxuci;f jcif;rsm;&Sonf? dS k f _ S f f S G f kd d tjcm;Ediirsm;od@k oGm;a&muftvkyvyorsm;teuf trsKd ;orD;rsm;rSm 55 &mcdiEe;f &Sonf? xdtvkyf orm;rsm; kfH f kf l kf_ d k rSm tvkyorm;or*~ zJ@G pnf;cGir&SI tjrwfxwrrsK;d pHukd óuH&avh&onf? EkiijH cm;wGif tdrwi;f tvkyvyaom f hf d k f_ k dS df f G f kf zdvpfydkiftrsdK;orD; 85&mcdkifE_ef;onf t=urf;zufr_udk &ifqdkif&onf[k EkdifiHwum tvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf(ILO). tpD&ifcHpmwckuqdkonf? EkdifiHjcm;odk@ oGm;a&muftvkyf vkyfolrsm;toGifjzifh vlukeful;oef;a&mif;0,fr_rSm wdk;yGm;vsuf&Sdonf? AD , uf e rf Ð 1989 ckESpfESifh 1990 ckESpfrsm;wGif AD,uferfEdkifiHodk@axmufyhHcJhaom qdkAD,uftultnDrsm; &yfwhH+yD; cJhaemuf A[dkOD;pD;csKyfudkifaompepfrS yk*~vduydkifrsm;udk cGifhðycJh&onf? xdk@a=umifh tpdk;&0efxrf; trsm;tjym; tvkyfvufrJhjzpfcJh&onf? Ð AD,uferfEkdifiH. zJG@pnf;yHkOyaxJwGif vkyfccHpm;cGihfESifh ynma&;tcGifhtvrf;rsm;Y usm;rwef;wlr_&Sd &rnf[jk yXmef;xm;onf? ypPn;f ydiqir/_ Ediiom;jzpfr/_ vufxyfxr;f jrm; tdraxmifxaxmifrw@kd wif wef;wl k f kd f k f H d f l _ G jzpfap&ef OyajyXmef;xm;.? AD,uferfEdkifiHonf tm&SypdzdwfaotwGif;ygvDrefwGif trsdK;orD;udk,fpm;ðyr_ kwd,tjrifhrm;qHk;EdkifiHjzpfonf? EdkifiHawmftqifh trsKd;orD;rsm; wdk;wufjrifhrm;a&;aumfr&Sifu trsKd;orD;rsm; b0wdk;wufa&;tpDtpOfrsm;udk taumiftxnfazmfaqmif&Gufonf? Ð rdom;pkb0rsm;wGif trsKd;orD;udk rsKd;¶dk;*k%fxdef;odrf;onfholrsm;tjzpf owfrSwfvsuf&Sdao;onf? &ifaoG;ESpO;D xufryd&aom pDrcsuusio;kH aevsu&&m rdbrsm;onf om;a,musm;av;udk ydrwefz;kd xm;aom f k H f hf f dS f k kd tpJG&Sdaeao;onf? Ð jynfhwefqmvkyfief;rSm }uD;xGm;vsuf&Sdonf? AD,uferftrsKd;orD;rsm;tm; tdrfeD;em;csif;EdkifiHrsm;odk@ ul;oef;a&mif;0,fI jynhfwefqmtjzpfoGyfoGif;r_rSm wGifus,faeonf? tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_/ uav;rsm;tm; vdifapmfum;r_/ vrf;ray:a&mufuav;rsm; ponfhjyemrsm;udk &ifqdkifae&vsuf&Sdonf? Ð tv,fwef;tqifhwGif trsKd;orD;i,frsm; ausmif;xGufE_ef;jrifhrm;r_rSm jrifomaomta=umif;tcsuf jzpfonf? xdk@jyif cifyGef;onf. vdifapmfum;r_onf &mZ0wfr_rajrmufovdk aus;vufao&Sd trsKd;orD;awmf o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 161hre pack.pmd 161 11/28/2007, 5:15 HREIB
  • 162. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf awmfrsm;rsm;onf cifyGef;jzpfol ti,ftaESmif;xm;jcif;udk onf;cHae&.? Ð AD,uferfonf CEDAW pmcsKyfudk ¹cGif;csufr&SdvufrSwfxdk;xm;onf? rav;&S m ; Ð tm&SwGif zHG@òzd;wdk;wufr_ tiftm;aumif;onfh rav;&Sm;EdkifiHonf 1970 ckESpfydkif;rSpwifI EdkifiHjcm; ydk@ukeft"duxm;xkwfvkyfvmcJh+yD; tvkyftudkifaygrsm;vmcJhonf? xdk@twl tv,ftvwfwef;pm;trsdK;orD; tvkyform;rsm; wdk;yGm;vmcJh+yD; xdktrsKd;orD;rsm; jyifyxGuftvkyfvkyfpOf tdrfaxmifxdrf;odrf;&ef EdkifiHjcm; tdrazmftvkyorm;rsm;udk rSm,lwifoi;f vmcJ&onf? zdvpfyi/f tife;D &Sm;/ xdi;f / b*Fvm;ah&/fS od&vuFmESihf f f G h kd kd k d jrefrmEdkifiHwdk@rS trsKd;orD;tvkyform;rsm;pGmwdk@ rav;&Sm;EkdifiHodk@ vma&muftvkyfvkyfudkifcJhonf? Ð EdkifiHjcm;trsdK;orD; tvkyform;trsm;tjym;onf tem;,l&ufcHpm;cGifhr&Sd/ tvkyform;tzJG@tpnf;rsm; xlaxmifcGifhr&SdbJ tvkyf&Sifrsm;. ESdyfpufr_udk cHpm;ae&a=umif; vl@tcGifhta&;tzJG@rsm;uqdk.? tvkyfvkyfcGifh ADZmr&SdbJ vkyfudkifol/ ADZmoufwrf;ausmfvGefolrsm;tm; zrf;qD;+yD;csKyfaESmifonfh tusOf;pcef;rsm;tajctae onf tvGefqdk;0g;vSonf[k xdktzJG@rsm;uqdkonf? Ð rav;&Sm;Ekiionf dfH CEDAW pmcsKyf tyd2/ 5/ 7/ 9/ 11/ 16 wd@k ukd ¹cGi;f csuxm; vufrwx;kd xm;onf? kf f S f tif d k e D ; &S m ; Ð trsK;d orD;rsm;wef;wlnr#r_ &S&rnf[aomtqdukd tife;D &Sm;Edii. 1945 ck zJ@G pnf;yHOyaxJwiawG@& D d l k kd kfH k Gf onf? trsK;d orD;rsm;tcef;u¾qdi&m0ef}uD;Xmeu trsK;d orD;rsm;qdi&m pDrue;f rsm;csrwtaumiftxnfazmf kf kf H d S f aqmif&ua&;udk vkyaqmifvsu&onf? trsK;d om;ESihf trsK;d orD;wef;wl tarGqufcyici&a=umif; A[dw&m;±H;k G f f f dS H kd f G hf dS k awmfu 1960ckEpf pD&ifcsuwif qH;k jzwfxm;onf? vlom;t&if;tjrpftoH;k csrEihf vlaer_tqiftwef;tajcðy S f G _ S h Z,m;t& tm&SaowGif tife;D &Sm;Ekiitqifrm edrusaeaomfvnf; pmwwfajrmufrEe;f ESihf tvky&&SrEe;f rsm; kd dfH h S hf __ f d__ wdk;wufvmonf[k tifdkeD;&Sm;tpdk;&uqdkonf? Ð tpdk;&wGif trsKd;orD;rsm;udk,fpm;ðyr_ enf;aomtcsufrSm odomxif&Sm;vSaom tcsufjzpfonf? trsKd; orD;rsm; txufwef;ynmtqifhwGif ausmif;xGufE_ef;rSm jrifhrm;vSonfudkawG@&.? rlqvifvlrsKd;trsm;qHk;jzpf onfEiijH zpf+yD; Ediiom;wOD;csi;f qdi&m tcGita&;/ vufxyfxr;f jrm;r_qi&mOyaESihf bmoma&; Oyarsm;wGif h kd f kfH kf hf d kd f trsKd;orD;rsm;. qHk;jzwfcsufudk xnfhoGif;qHk;jzwfjcif;enf;vSonf? · tifdkeD;&Sm;EdkifiHonf CEDAW pmcsKyf tydkf (29)udk ¹cGif;csufxm;vufrSwfxdk;xm;onf? w±k w f Ð w±kwEiivO;D a&. av;yHwyHEihf tpd;k &0efxrf; 33 &mcdiEe;f onf trsK;d orD;rsm;jzpfonf? trsK;d orD;rsm; f kd f H l k kS kf_ tm; ,m,Dtxl;vkyfaqmifay;csufrsm;ESifhywfoufaom Oyarsm;udk v$wfawmfuaeI csrSwfcJhonf? Ð w±kwftrsKd;orD;ESifh trsKd;om;wdk@t=um; EdkifiHom;jzpfcGifh/ jiif;y,fcGifhwdk@wef;wl&Sdonf? vGwfvyfpGm vufxyfxr;f jrm;cGi/hf ypPn;f OpPmydiqici/hf tarGqufcciw@kd wef;wl&onf? trsK;d orD;jynfo@l u,pm;vS,rsm; d k f kd f G H G hf dS kd f f twGuf ,m,Dtxl;ðy vkyfaqmifay;csufrsm;vnf;&Sdonf? trsKd;orD; tvkyform;rsm;onf wEdkifiHvHk;tvkyf orm;ta&twGuf. 44 r 8 &mcdkifE_ef;&Sdonf? Ð od@k aomf rd±;kd zvmtrsK;d om;udk wefz;kd xm;aom tavhtxrSm aus;vufaorsm;wGif tjrpfw,vsu&dS G f f 162 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 162 11/28/2007, 5:15 HREIB
  • 163. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf aeao;onf? wtdraxmifwa,muf rdom;pkprue;f ESifh om;a,mufsm;av;udk wefz;kd ydxm;aom "avhw@kd a=umifh f DH d k rdef;uav;udk,f0efzsufcsr_trsm;tjym;jzpfaeonf? Ð w±kwfEdkifiHonf CEDAW pmcsKyftydkf (29) udk ¹cGif;csufxm;vufrSwfa&;xdk;xm;onf? td E N d , Ð tdEdN,EdkifiH. zJG@pnf;yHkOyatydkf 14/ 15/ 16 wdk@wGif trsKd;orD;ESifhtrsKd;om; tvkyfcGif/ vkyfcwdk@wGif wef;wlnDr#r_&Sd&rnf[k qdkxm;onf? tydkf (325)wGif usm;r ra&G; rJay;cGifh&Sda=umif;azmfjyxm;ovdk 73 }udrfajrmuf zJG@pnf;yHkOyajyifqifcsufwGif tpdk;&Xmewdkif;. oHk;yHkwyHkonf trsKd;orD;rsm;twGuf vsmxm; owfrway;&rnf[k qdxm;onf? od@k aomf cJjG cm;zdEyrqonfh t"dym,fukd zJ@G pnf;yHOyawGif razmfjyxm;ovdk S f k dS f _ kd ` k cJGjcm;zdESdyfjcif;qef@usifa&; OyarsKd;vJ r&Sdao;yg? Ð v$wfawmfwGif trsKd;orD; trwfta&twGuf 33 &mcdkifE_ef;&&Sdapjcif;/ trsKd;orD;rsm;rJay;cGifh ta&G;cH ydkifcGifhrsm;&Sdjcif;wdk@onf tpdk;&. ,m,Dtxl;ðy vkyfaqmifay;csufrsm;jzpfonf? rdef;uav;rsm; touf (14) ESpftxd tcrJhESifh roifrae& ynma&;pepf&Sdonf? orD;rdef;uav; jzpfaoma=umifh udk,f0efzsufcsr_udk ydwfyifxm;onf? Ð EdkifiHawmftqifh trsKd;orD;aumfr&Sifudk 1992 ckESpfwGif zJG@pnf;wnfaxmifcJhonf? EdkifiHawmftqifh vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sifudk 1993 ckESpfwGif wnfaxmifcJh+yD; vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufcH&olrsm;. wOD;csif;wdkif =um;r_udk vufcHpHkprf;vsuf&Sdonf? tcsKd@jynfe,frsm;wGif trsKd;orD;rsm;oD;oef@ tcsKyfcef;ESifh trsKd;orD;oD;oef@ &Jpcef;rsm;udk zGifhvSpfxm;onf? Ð ±dk;&m,Hk=unfr_rsm;udktajccHI trsKd;orD;rsm;tm; t=urf;zufr_E_ef;rSm jrifhrm;vsuf&Sdaeonf? trsdK;orD; rsm;taejzifh owdk;om;rsm;udk wifawmif;&onfhpepf/ bk&m;ausmif;rsm;wGif uav;vdiftvkyforrsm;tjzpf apcdkif;onfhpepf/ t&G,frwdkifcifuav;rsm;tm; tdrfaxmifcsay;onfhpepf/ Zmwfedrfh[kowfrSwfum tEdkifusifh onfhpepfrsm;rSm ,ae@wdkif jzpfyGm;vsuf&Sdonf? Ð ynma&;zufwGifvnf; oif±dk;!$ef;wrf;rsm;Y usm;rcJGjcm;onfhyHkpHcGufrsm;/ yHkazmfr_rsm; &Sdaevsuf&Sdonf? Ð tdEdN,EdkifiHonf CEDAW pmcsKyftydkf (29) udk ¹cGif;csufxm;vufrSwfxdk;xm;onf? D eepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;. vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h E_ d i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) Ð oifwef;om;rsm;tm; ,ckaqG;aEG;cJonfh Ediirsm;wGirnfonftcGita&; csK;azmufrrsm;udk trsm;qH; awG@&yg h kfH f h hf d _ k ovJ? Ð xdkEdkifiHrsm;wGif jzpfaeaomrnfonfh trsKd;orD;tajctaersm;onf jrefrmEdkifiHESifh qifwlI rnfonfhtajc taersm;onf uJGjym;aeygovJ[lI ar;+yD;aqG;aEG;cdkif;yg? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 163hre pack.pmd 163 11/28/2007, 5:15 HREIB
  • 164. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Synthesis (rnf u J h o k d @ vk y f a qmif umuG , f w m;qD ; Ek d f i f o nf u d k tajz&S m vk y f a qmif a y;jcif ; ) Ð tm&SaotwGif;&Sd tpdk;&rsm;vdkufemoifhaom t}uHay;csuf (Recommendation) rsm;udk tzJG@i,frsm; cJI a&;om;ap+yD; jyefvnfwifjycdi;f yg? t}uHay;csursm;udk pkpnf;I a=unmcsuf (Declaration) yHkpHjzifh G k f xkwfjyefyg? 164 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 164 11/28/2007, 5:15 HREIB
  • 165. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf oifcef;pm (7) tdrwi;f tMurf;zufrI f G Domestic Violence &nf & G , f c suf Ð tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_onf vlwOD;wa,muf odk@r[kwf rdom;pkwck. udpPomr[kwfbJ vltrsm;ESifh oufqdkif+yD; jypfr_ajrmufa=umif; od&Sdvmap&ef? Ð tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_. aemufqufwGJtusKd;oufa&mufr_rsm;udkyg odjrifvmap&efESifh umuG,fwwfvm ap&ef? Activity (v_y&m;r_ ) f S oifwef;om;rsm;twGif;rS trsKd;om;wOD; trsdK;orD;wOD;udkac:I tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_ESifh ywfoufaom Zmwfvrf;wckudk o±kyfaqmifcdkif;yg? cifyGef;onfjzpfolonf tjyifY aomufpm;rl;,pfI jyefvm+yD; ZeD;jzpfoltm; tjypf&Smqlyl}udrf;armif;um ±dkufESufonfh tjzpftysufjzpfonf? Discussion ( tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;) Ð b,fvdkcHpm;&ovJ// Ð b,folawG yg0ifywfoufaevJ? Ð rdom;pktay: b,fvdktusdK;oufa&mufr_awG jzpfvmEdkifovJ// (zcif/ rdcif/ uav;wOD;csif;tvdkuf) I nput (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A [k o k w ay;jcif ; ) td r f w G i f ; t=urf ; zuf r l . t"d y ` m ,f z G i f h q d k c suf tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_qdkonfrSm vifr,m;t=um; (odk@r[kwf) twlaexdkif=uaom orD;&nf;pm; rsm;t=um; wOD;u tjcm;wOD;tay: yHko¿meftrsdK;rsKd;jzifh xdcdkufusL;vGefjcif;jzpfonf? tdrfwGif;t=urf; zufr_qdkonfrSm w}udrfwcgomv#if tcef@roifhI jzpfyGm;jcif;r[kwfay? tcsdefumv=umjrifh+yD; pepfwusESifh xyfcgwvJvJ jzpfyGm;jcif;jzpf+yD; &mZ0wfr_ajrmufonf? (ud;k um;csu? Understanding Domestic Violence by Manohari Subramaniam, ERA Malaysia) f td r f w G i f ; t=urf ; zuf r _ yH k p H r sm;rS m 1? ¶kyfykdif;qdkif&m t=urf;zufjcif; (udk,fxdvufa&muf t=urf;zufjcif;) 2? pdwfydkif;qdkif&m t=urf;zufjcif; 3? vdifydkif;qdkif&mt& apmfum;jcif; txufyg tcsufoHk;csufudk pm&Guf}uD;ay: Y tuGufoHk;uGufðyvkyfI oifwef;om;rsm;ESifhtwl wckcsif; ESifhoufqdkifaomtrsdK;tpm;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;Ioifykef;wGifrSwfwrf;wifyg? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 165hre pack.pmd 165 11/28/2007, 5:15 HREIB
  • 166. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf urB m h t rsKd ; orD ; rsm;tajctae Ð urBmay:wGif trsdK;orD;rsm;t=urf;zufcH&r_trsdK;rsdK;Y trsm;qHk;awG@&aomykHo¿mefrSm tdrfwGif;t=urf; zufrj_ zpfonf// Ð urBmw0ef;Y trsKd ;orD; 3 OD;v#if 1 OD;onf olr.b0wGif ±duEuc&jcif;/ t"rRviqufqc&jcif; k f S fH df HH od@k r[kwf tjcm;yko¿mefjzifh t=urf;zufrukd cH&onf// H _ Ð trsKd ;orD; 5 a,mufv#if wa,mufonf b0twGi; vdiyi;qdi&mapmfum;r_ukd }uHKawG@c&bl;onf/ f f kd f k f hJ Ð wurBmvHk;wGif trsdK;orD;tm;vHk;. 20 &mcdkifE_ef;onf tdrfaxmifonfb0twGif;wGif tdrfwGif;t=urf; zufrwrsKd ;r[kwwrsKd ;udk cHpm;cJ=h u&onf// _ f Ð trsKd ;orD;rsm;. 10 - 50 &mcdiEe;onf rdrw@kd vufwazmfrsm;. ±kyyi;qdi&m t=urf;zufrukd cHpm;cJ=h u kf _ f d GJ f kd f k f _ &onf// urB m @Ed k i f i H w csKd @ trsKd ; orD ; rsm;tajctae Ð *syef - 1993 ckEpwif trsK;orD; (796) a,mufukd pHprf;ar;jref;&mwGif ZeD;onf 59 &mcdiEe;rSm vif S f G d k kf _ f a,musm;jzpfow@kd . ud,xvufa&mufapmfum;jcif;udk cH&onf[qonf? f l k f d k kd Ð e,l;ZDvef - trsKd;orD; (314)a,mufudk ar;jref;&mwGif trsKd;orD; (20)&mcdkifE_ef;rSm vifa,musfm;rsm;. ud,xvufa&muf apmfum;jcif; (od@k r[kw) ±duEujf cif;udk cHc&onf? k f d f k f S hJ Ð qGpZmvef - 1997 ckEpwif trsK;orD; (1500)udk ppfwrf;aumufcsursm;t& trsK;orD; (20) &mcdiEe;rSm f Sf G d f d kf_f ud,xvufa&muf ðyusijhf cif;cH&onf? k f d Ð t*Fvef - trsK;orD; 25 &mcdiEe;rSm ‚if;wd@k b0wGif vifa,musm; od@k r[kwf ,cif&nf;pm;/ vifa,musm; d kf_f f f . ±duEujf cif;/ yg;±dujf cif;udc=H u&onf? k f S k k Ð tar&duef - trsK;orD; (28) &mcdiEe;rSm vifa,musm; od@k r[kwf &nf;pm;jzpfo. ud,xvufa&muf d kf _ f f l k f d t=urf;zufjcif;udk tenf;qH;k cHpm;=u&onf? tm&S E S i f h y pd z d w f a o Ð uarBmD;,m; - trsK;orD; (16)&mcdiEe;rSm vifa,musm;jzpfo. ud,xvufa&mufapmfum;jcif;udc&+yD; d kf _ f f l k f d kH (8) &mcdiEe;f rSm %f&mtemw&jzpf=uonf[qygonf? kf _ k kd Ð tdE, - 1996 ckEpwif tdE,Edii.jynfe,fwckY trsK;om; (9602)a,mufukd ppfwrf; aumufcsuf dN S f G dN k f H d t& (45) &mcdkifE_ef;rSm ‚if;wdk@.rdef;rrsm;tm; udk,fxdvufa&muft=urf;zuf=ua=umif;udk 0efcHajym qd=k uonf? Ð udk;&D;,m; - trsdK;orD; (38) &mcdkifE_ef;rSm udk,fxdvufa&muf t=urf;zufjcif;cH=u&a=umif; wdkif=um; xm;onfukd awG@&&onf? dS ta&S @ tv,f y d k i f ; Ð tD*spf - trsKd;orD;(35) &mcdkifE_ef;rSm ‚if;wdk@.tdrfaxmifoufwrf;twGif; w}udrfawmh t±dkufcH&onf[k qdygonf? k Ð tpPa&; - 1997 ckESpfwGif tm&yftrsdK;orD;aygif; (18269) a,muftm; avhvmppfwrf;ðyxm;onfh pm&if;t& trsK;d orD; (32) &mcdiEe;f rSm olw@kd . tdraxmifbuf trsK;d om;rsm;. ESypufrrsm;teuf kf _ f d f _ tenf;qH;k w}udrf ±kyyi;f qdi&m ESypufrukd cH&+yD; (30) &mcdiEe;f rSm vifa,musm;jzpfo. twif;t=uyf f kd k f d f _ kf _ f l vdiqufqrrsm;udk cH=u&onf? f H_ tmz&d u Ð uifnm - òrd@e,fwckwGif trsKd;orD;aygif; (612)a,mufudk ppfwrf;aumufcsuft& (42) &mcdkifE_ef;rSm 4if;wd@k traxmifbufrsm;. ±duEujf cif;udk cH&a=umif;owif;ay;yd@k +yD; (58) &mcdiEe;f rSm &Hzef&cgwit±ducH df k fS kf_ H Gf k f 166 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 166 11/28/2007, 5:15 HREIB
  • 167. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf &a=umif;qdygonf? k Ð ,l*efg - òrd@e,fESpfck ppfwrf;aumufcsuft& (41) &mcdkifE_ef;rSm tdrfaxmifbufrsm;. ±dkufESufjcif;udkcH =u&+yD; trsK;d om; (41) &mcdiEe;f rSm ‚if;wd@k traxmifzufu±uEua=umif; ajymqd0efc=H uonf? kf _ d f kd kd f S f k Ð ZifbmabG - trsK;orD;aygi; (966)a,mufwif (32) &mcdiEe;rSm touf 16 ESpf t&G,uwnf;u d f G kf _ f f rdom;pk0ifwOD;OD; od@k r[kwf rdom;pk. t=urf;zufrukd cH&onf[k (1996) ckEpppfwrf;t&od&onf? _ S f vuf w if t ar&d u ES i f h u&pf b D , ef Ð udvefb,m - trsK;orD;aygi; (6097) a,mufuppfwrf;aumufcsut& (19) &mcdiEe;rSm 4if;wd@k b0wGif k D d f kd f kf_f ‚if;wd@k traxmifbuf. ±kyyi;f qdi&mt& t=urf;zufjcif;udk cH=u&onf? d f f kd k f Ð ruUqukd - jynfe,fwckwif trsKd ;orD;aygi; (650) wGif (30) &mcdiEe;rSm ‚if;wd@k b0wGif tdraxmif D G f kf _ f f zuf. ud,xvufa&muft=urf;zufruc&onf[k wdi=f um;+yD;/ (13) &mcdiEe;f rSm ,cifEptwGi;f ud,f k f d _ kd H k kf _ S f k xdvufa&muft=urf;zufc&onf[k 1997 ckEpf tpD&ifcpmu qdygonf// H S H k Ð eDum&m*Gg - trsdK;orD; (52) &mcdkifE_ef;rSm tdrfaxmifzuf. t=urf;zufr_udk tenf;qHk;w}udrfcH&onf[k owif;ay;yd@k +yD; (27) &mcdiEe;f rSmvnf; ud,xvufa&mufðyjcif;udc=H u&onf[k 1996 ckEpf tpD&ifcpm kf _ k f d k S H u qdygonf// k tv,f y d k i f ; / ta±S @ Oa&myES i f h abmvwpf E d k i f i H r sm; Ð tpfpwde;,m; - touf (65) ESpEitxufrsm;/ touf (18) ESpEihf (24) ESpt=um; trsKd ;orD;rsm;onf kD f S hf fS f tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_ESifhywfoufI pdk;&drfa=umifh=uae=u&onf[k 1994 ckESpfwGif trsdK;orD;aygif; (2315) a,mufukd aumuf,caom pm&if;t&od&onf// l hJ Ð ydvef - 1993 ckEpwif tdraxmifuGJ trsKd ;orD;rsm;udk avhvmcsut& trsKd ;orD;aygi; (60) &mcdiEe; k S f G f f f kf _ f rSm yxrtdraxmif.xk±ujf cif;udk cH=u&+yD; (25) &mcdiEe;f rSm t}udr}f udrt=urf;zufjcif;udc=H u&onf[k f kd kf _ f k qdygonf// k Ð ±k&m; - touf (14) ESprS (17) ESpre;uav; (174) a,mufEihf a,musm;av; (174) a,mufuppfwrf; S f fdf S f dk aumufc&m rde;f uav; (25) &mcdiEe;f ESihf a,mufsm;av; (11) &mcdiEe;f wd@k rmvdiyi;f qdi&mt& t=urf; H kf _ kf _ S f kd k f zufjcif;udcae&onf[k tpD&ifcxm;onf// kH H Ð xm*spupfpwef - touf (18) ESprS (40) t=um; trsKd ;orD;aygi; (550) udk ppfwrf;aumufc&m(23) f f f H &mcdkfifE_ef;rSm udk,fxdvufa&muft=urf;zufjcif;udkcH&onf// (ud k ; um;csuf - ,l e D q uf E S i f h urB m h u sef ; rma&;tzJ G @ wd k @ . tpD & if c H p mrsm;/ jref r mh t rsd K ;orD ; or*~ td r f w G i f ; t=urf ; zuf r _ p mapmif ) tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufESifhywfoufI rSm;avh&Sdaomt,ltqwcsdK@rSm t,l t q(1)qif ; &J + yD ; ynmrwwf a omtrsKd ; om;rsm;omv#if td r f w G i f ; t=urf ; zuf r _ u d k u sL;vG e f = uonf ? tdrwi;f t=urf;zufotrsKd ;om;rsm;onf rwlnaomvlrb0aemufctrsKd ;rsKd ;wd@k rS ayguzm;vmaom olrsm;jzpf f G l D _ H fG a=umif;awG@&onf? tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_onf qif;&Jaomrdom;pkrsm;. t"dujyemtjzpf jrifomay:vGifae wwfaomfvnf; trSewu,f okawoeðyvkyIxGuay:vmaom pm&if;tcsutvufrsm;t& tv,ftvwfwef; f f f f pm;rdom;pkrsm;ESifh txufwef;pm;rdom;pkxJYvnf; jzpfyGm;vsuf±Sdonf? qif;&Jaomrdom;pkrsm;Y jzpfyGm;aomtdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_onf ydkrdkjrifomavh&Sdonf? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf 4if;wdk@onf tjcm;olrsm;xHrS tultnDvkdtyfaoma=umifhjzpf+yD; ynmwwfaom/ aiGa=u;csrf;omaomtxuf wef;v$mvlwef;pm;rsm;Yrl tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_udk rdom;pk*k%foduQmESifh tqifhtwef;wdkŒudkiJh&I trsm;qHk; o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 167hre pack.pmd 167 11/28/2007, 5:15 HREIB
  • 168. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf zHk;uG,fxm;avh&Sdonf? xdk@a=umifh xdkvlrsm;t=um;wGifjzpfavh&Sdaom tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_tm; rjrifomjcif;jzpf avh&Sdonf? odk@aomf tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_onf trsdK;om;}uD;pdk;aomrdom;pkrsm;wGif tv$mra&G;/ tqifhtwef; ra&G; jzpfyGm;avh&Sdonf? t,l t q (2) rl ; ,pf a q;0g;oH k ; pG J o l r sm;onf t=urf ; zuf r _ u d k jzpf y G m ;aponf ? trsKd;om;rsm;onf t&ufrl;aoma=umifh ‚if;wdk@ZeD;rsm; udk t=urf;zufr_usL; vGefjcif;jzpfonf[k qifajcay;wwf=u aomfvnf; trSewif rl;,pfaq;0g;oH;k pGjJ cif;r&Saom trsK;d om; f G d rsm;vnf; t=urf;zufrukd usL;vGeaewwfonf? tcsKŒd trsKd ; _ f om;rsm;onf rl;,pfaq;0g;udktoHk;jyKI pdwfxGufayguf&Sm wwfaomfvnf; tcsdK@trsdK;om;rsm;onf rdrdwdk@.ZeD;rsm;udk t=urf;zufI pdwxuaygu&mp&m wefqm cHvyavh&onf? f G f fS k f dS ‚if;udk=unfhjcif;tm;jzifh trsKd;om;rsm;onf trsKd;orD;rsm; tay: av;pm;r_r&Sdonfhtjyif ±kyf0wWKypPnf;tjzpf oabm xm;um ðyrlqufqHonfudkawG@&onf? t,l t q (3) td r f w G i f ; t=urf ; zuf r _ o nf rd o m;pk w ck . td r f w G i f ; a&;omjzpf o nf ? wpHkwa,mufrS olpdrf;wa,muftm; emusifatmifðyvkyfjcif;/ apmfum;jcif;usL;vGefygu xdkodk@ðyrljcif;onf &mZ0wfr_ajrmuf+yD; xdkolonf tjypfay;ta&;,ljcif;cH&rnfjzpfonf? wpHkwa,mufrS rdrd.rdom;pk0if wOD;OD;tm; t=urf;zufr_ usL;vGefygu 4if;udkrdom;pkjyem[lIom jrifwwf=u+yD; rnfolrS0ifa&mufwm;qD;&ef róud;pm; =uyg? trSefpifppf tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_onf tdrfwGif;a&;jyemr[kwfbJ &mZ0wfr_omjzpfonf? tb,f a=umifhqdkaomf rnfolwOD;wa,mufurS tjcm;olwOD;tay: t=urf;zufr_ usL;vGefcGifhr&Sdyg? t,l t q (4) trsKd ; om;rsm;onf trsd K ;orD ; rsm;tm; ±d k u f c G i f h & S d o nf ? tu,fI rdrdZeD;onfu opPmr&SdcJhaomf odk@r[kwf vifjzpfol. pum;udkem;raxmifcJhaomf trsKd;om; rsm;onf rddrd.ZeD;udk ±dkufydkifcGifh&Sdonf[k vltrsm;u rSm;,Gif;pGm,Hk=unf=uonf? ‚if;onf trsKd;om;rsm;onf tdraxmifwck. txGwtjrwf od@k r[kwf tdrO;D ewf jzpfonf[aom t,ltqa=umifh r,m;jzpfoukd rdryiqif f f f l l d kd f kd aom t&m0wWKypPn;f uJo@kd jrifvmum rdrEpoufovdvyEionf[k xifjrifvm&mrS tajccHIjzpfym;jcif;jzpfonf? h d S f k k f kd f G TuJo@kd aom t,ltqtm;aumif;tjrpfw,vmap&ef rdrw@kd .vlr,Ofaus;r_Eihf bmoma&;qH;k rr_rsm; onfvnf; h G f d _ S wGef;tm;ay;ajrawmifajr‡mufay;vsuf&Sdonf? t,l t q (5) trsd K ;orD ; rsm;ud k ±d k u f E S u f & ef v d k u d k v d k o nf ? rdef;rrsm;onf trsdK;om;rsm;. tvdkqENtwdkif;rvkyfbJ trSm;t,Gif;vkyfwwfaoma=umifh ±dkufESufjcif; cH&onf[k vltrsm;ucH,l=uonf? xdkodk@ t=urf;rzufbJ wOD;ESifhwOD;aphpyfaqG;aEG;ajymqdkaomenf;udk toHk;ðy& aumif;rSe;f trsm;pkuem;rvnf=uay? rSm;,Gi;f Iom t=urf;zufq;kH roifonfqv#if rnfort=urf;zufc&jcif;rS h kd l S H uif;vGwfEdkifrnfr[kwfay? t=urf;zufavh&Sdaom trsdK;om;rsm;udk,fwdkifvJ t=urf;zufcH&rnfudk rvdkvm;ovdk trsdK;orD;rsm;taejzifhvnf; t=urf;zufcH&rnfudk vdkvm;ESpfòcdufvdrfhrnfr[kwfyg? trsdK;orD;rsm;rSm t=urf;zufcH ae&r_vwajrmuf&ef tultnDr&SmazGjcif;/ }udwrwonf;cHaejcif;onf t=urf;zufc&jcif;udk ESpoufve;f I r[kwbJ G f f dS f H f G f xdtrsKd ;om;rsm;. pufui;f ESihf tdrwi;f t=urf;zufrrS rvGwajrmufEiaoma=umifEihf xduo@kd t±ducae&jcif;onf k G f G _ f kd f h S k hJ k fH uH=urRm0ÉfaºuG;t& cH&jcif;jzpfonf[kyif vufcHxm;aoma=umifhjzpfonf? 168 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 168 11/28/2007, 5:15 HREIB
  • 169. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf D eepening (oif w ef ; om;rsm;. vuf a wG @ tjzpf E S i f h Ed k i f ; ,S O f q uf p yf a y;jcif ; ) oifwef;om;rsm;tm; tkyfpkvdkufcJGI rdrdwdk@ywf0ef;usifwGifjzpfavh&Sdaom tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_yHkpHwckudk o¶kyfaqmifcdkif;yg? xdko¶kyfaqmifr_rsm;udk =unfhI bma=umifhjzpf&wmvJ// vufawG@rSma&m bma=umifhjzpfwwfovJ? bma=umifhtrsdK;om;u ¶dkuf&J&wmvJ? bma=umifhtrsdK;orD;u xGufrajy;&J&wmvJ? bma=umifhywf0ef;usifu r0ifzsefajzwmvJ ponfjzifhar;cGef;rsm;ar;yg? xdk@aemuftzJG@vdkufjyefcJGyg? tzJG@rsm;udk tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufonfh trsdK;om;tm; xdkodk@rvkyfaqmif&ef pnf;¶Hk; odrf;oGif;Edkifrnhfenf;vrf;rsm;/ t=urf;zufcH&aomtrsdK;orD;udk ta&;ay:ulnDEdkifrnfh tpDtpOfrsm;/ ywf0ef; usiftwGif; tjcm;ol.tdrfwGif;a&;jzpfonf[k ,lqaeaomtjrifrsm;udk ajymif;vJEdkifrnfhenf;vrf;rsm;udk oD;jcm; aqG;aEG;wifjycdkif;yg? rSwfcsuf v_y&m;r_vyonftcgwif o¶kyaqmifrtpm; f S k f h G f _ Case-study od@k r[kwf ¶kyy/kH yef;csD od@k r[kwf ¶kyaoo¶kyf f f aqmifr_wdk@jzifh tpm;xdk;Edkifonf// o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 169hre pack.pmd 169 11/28/2007, 5:15 HREIB
  • 170. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf oifcef;pm(8) tdrwi;f tMurf;zufrI f G (Domestic Violence) &nf & G , f c suf tdrwi;f t=urf;zufr. rSm;,Gi;f aomt,ltqrsm;udk odjrifvmap&efEihf tdrwi;f t=urf;zufr_ avsmenf; f G _ S f G h vmatmif 0dkif;0ef;umuG,fwwfvmap&ef? Activity (v_yf&Sm;r_) oifwef;om;rsm;rS oifwef;om;wpfO;D ESihf oifwef;olwpfO;D udk tdrwi;f t=urf;zufrcae&aom trsKd ;orD; f G _H wpfO;D ta=umif; o±kyaqmifwifjycki;f yg? xd@k aemuf tdrwi;f t=urf;zufrc&aom trsKd ;om;wpfO;D ta=umif;udvnf; f d f G _H k jyefvnfo±kyfaqmifcdkif;yg? Discussion (tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;) o&kyfaqmifwifjyr_rsm;jyD;qHk;ygu atmufygar;cGef;rsm;udk oifwef;om;rsm;udkaqG;aEG;apyg? tdrfwGif; t=urf;zufr_cH&aom trsdK;orD;.ta=umif;omru trsdK;om;.ta=umif;udkyg oD;oef@pD aqG;aEG;apyg? bmawGjzpfaevJ? tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufcH&olawG pdwfrSm b,fvdkcHpm;&rvJ? bma=umifh tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_jzpf&wmvJ? cH&olawG jyemudkb,fvdkajz&Sif;csifrvJ? b,fvdkajz&Sif;EdkifvJ? txufygaqG;aEG;csufrsm;udk atmufygZ,m;twdkif; oifykef;ay:wGifrSwfwrf;wifyg? cH&oltrsdK;orD; cH&oltrsdK;om; bmawGjzpfaevJ pdwfcHpm;csufrsm; bma=umifhjzpfvJ b,fvdkajz&Sif;csifrvJ tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_jzpfvmygu ywf0ef;usiftodkif;t0ef;u b,fvdkwkH@jyefavh&SdvJ? tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_ESifh ywfoufI rdrdywf0ef;usifwGif rnfodk@xifjrif,lqavh&SdvJ? Input (ta=umif ; t&mES i f h q uf p yf o nf h A[k o k w ay;jcif ; ) td r f w G i f ; t=urf ; zuf E S i f h y wf o uf I rS m ;avh & S d a omt,l t qwcsd K @rS m t,l t q (1) qif ; &J + yD ; ynmrwwf a om trsKd ; om;rsm;omv#if td r f w G i f ; t=urf ; zuf r _ u d k usL;vG e f =uonf ? tdrwi;f t=urf;zufotrsKd ;om;rsm;onf rwlnaomvlrb0aemufctrsKd ;rsKd ;wd@k rS ayguzm;vmaomolrsm; f G l D _ H fG jzpfa=umif;awG@&onf? tdrwi;f t=urf;zufronf qif;&Jaomrdom;pkrsm;. t"dujyemtjzpf jrifomay:vGiae