Early Renaissance Art in Italy

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Early Renaissance Art in Italy

  1. 1. Early Renaissance in Italy(1400’s / 15thCentury)
  2. 2. “An explosion of creativity and learning inEurope in the 15thand 16thCenturies.”
  3. 3. Historical Reasons for Renaissance• People were ready for change after 14thCenturyWars, the plague, and social upheaval• Change in Political power – the new “monarchs”exerted and expanded their authority, includingspending money on art• Emerging capitalism – trade, new credit, andexchange systems created a network of enterprisingEuropean cities• The Pope makes Rome him home again
  4. 4. The birthplace of the Renaissance was ItalyThe Renaissance quickly spread to other parts ofEurope.
  5. 5. HumanismRevival of classical learning and literature (interestin Ancient Greek and Roman cultures)Focus on Human Beings• education that perfected humans through thestudy of past models of civic and personal virtue• value system that emphasized personal effortand responsibility• physically and intellectually active life that wasdirected at a common good as well as individualnobility
  6. 6. Renaissance art influenced byAncient Greek and Roman ArtAncient GreekSculptureRenaissanceSculpture
  7. 7. Nude figures• Renaissance artists often depictednude figures• The beauty of the human body• Based on Classical Greek Art• No shame in showing nude humanfigure (freedom of expression)
  8. 8. Donatello, David,1432, Bronzesculpture, 5’2”.Florence, Italy• Donatello studied ancientsculpture in Rome• David is a character from theBible. In the story, he fights thegiant (Goliath) and wins• First life-sized nude sculpturesince Ancient Greek and Romantimes (Nude wasn’t shown inMiddle Ages – consideredindecent)• Tribute to “male beauty”• Contrapposto – the way he’sstanding
  9. 9. The main subject matter in Renaissance Art wasReligion. The main religion in Europe at that timewas Christianity. Art included depictions of storiesfrom the Bible, stories about the life of Christ andthe Holy Family, etc.
  10. 10. Composition during the Renaissance(Composition is the organization of the elements to forma unified whole in an artwork)Renaissance artists carefully planned their artworks,making many sketches and plans in advance of thefinal work
  11. 11. Shapes wereused as a wayto organize acompositionThe triangle shapeis symbolic inChrisitianity“The holy trinity”
  12. 12. Engraving, a printmaking technique wasinvented in 15thCenturyThe process involves using a tool to carvelines into a metal or wood plate, adding ink,and printing copies from the plate
  13. 13. Antonio Pollaiuolo, Battle of the Ten Nudes, 1465,Engraving
  14. 14. Visual MovementHatching – Technique ofusing a series of parallellines to create the imageHatching was used in Italianstyle engravingAntonio Pollaiuolo, Battle of theTen Nudes
  15. 15. Fresco PaintingWall paintings / Part of the architecturePopular Medium in Italy in RenaissanceFresco means “Fresh” in Italian, the word refers tothe processBuon Fresco (“True Fresh”) – technique of paintingon wet plaster where you have to work quickly
  16. 16. Masaccio, Expulsion of Adam andEve from Eden, 1425, Fresco
  17. 17. Masaccio, Expulsion ofAdam and Eve fromEdenAdam and Eve (first man andwoman according to the Bible)stumble blindly led by angelExpulsion – forced to leaveEden – “Paradise”Feeling of Despair / Deep SadnessStrong Light and ShadowSimple Composition with eloquentmessage
  18. 18. Fra Angelico, Annunciation, 1440 – 1445, Fresco
  19. 19. Painted by a monkSeries of Paintings of stories ina Monastery in ItalyAnnunciation is the story ofangel Gabriel telling the VirginMary that she will have a baby(Jesus)Frescos illustrate a 13thCentury TextSimple and Humble CharacterFra Angelico, Annunciation
  20. 20. PerspectiveDepicting the illusion of three-dimensionalspace on a flat 2-D surfaceRenaissance artists discovered ways to showspace that looked more real (one and two-pointperspective)
  21. 21. Andrea Mantegna, Dead Christ, 1501, Temperaon Canvas
  22. 22. Andrea Mantegna, Dead ChristPerspective /Foreshortening of the humanfigureSize of feet reduced to looksmallerOverwhelming emotionTwo mourning figures on theleft added later by Mantegna’sstudentsMantegna’s style and sense ofhuman emotion influencedother artists
  23. 23. Masaccio, Holy Trinity,1428, Fresco
  24. 24. Masaccio, Holy TrinityMasaccio leading innovator in 15thCentury ArtPainting based on Observation(looking at real humans as a model)“Calm monumental style”Perspective – looking up andlooking down at tomb of ChristVirgin Mary on the left, St. John onRight, portraits of patrons kneelingon left and right (patron = personwho gives money for art)
  25. 25. Classical Greek and Roman Themesin Renaissance Art
  26. 26. Botticelli, Birth of Venus, 1482, Tempera on Canvas
  27. 27. Botticelli, Birth of VenusVenus – Roman Goddess of Love and BeautyZephyrus – God of Wind with his lover, ChlorisPomona – Nymph greeting Venus with a robe• Painting inspired by a poem by Angelo Poliziano, an ItalianHumanist• Commissioned by the Medici for the Medici family, a powerfulwealthy Italian family• From a series of paintings based on Classical themes
  28. 28. Italian RenaissanceArchitecture
  29. 29. Filippo Brunelleschi, Dome of Florence Cathedral,1420 – 1436 (Florence, Italy)
  30. 30. Brunelleschi, Dome of FlorenceCathedralBruneslleschi designed thedome – the building stoodunfinished for almost 100 yearsHe devised new buildingmethods and invented newmachinery for architectureProblem was the huge span(140 feet wide)Brunelleschi made the dometaller and created a pointeddome / used a thin shell tosupport the weight
  31. 31. Lorenzo Ghiberti, Sacrifice ofIsaac, 1401 – 1402, GildedBronze relief
  32. 32. Lorenzo Ghiberti,Sacrifice of IsaacRelief sculpture – figuresprotruding from a flat backgroundSpatial IllusionWon a Design Competition todesign the east doors of FlorenceBaptistry (Part of FlorenceCathedral)Ghiberti designed 28 door panels,depicting scenes from The OldTestament of the Bible

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