Early 20th Century Art


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Early 20th Century Art

  1. 1. Early 20th Century Art Modernism
  2. 2. The Evolution of Modernism and The Avant-Garde• Modernism rejected and challenged anything traditional• Searched for new ways to communicate about the “modern world”• Avant-garde means before the group – Avant-garde art is radical and is critical of political and social institutions (Revolutionary)
  3. 3. Abstraction• Abstraction involves simplifying and changing shape and form to be less realistic / less naturalistic• Expressive• Affects of Photography (Move away from Realism – “the camera can already take real images”)• Multiple Views (element of time and movement)
  4. 4. Joan MiroJoan MiroDutch InteriorOil on Canvas1928
  5. 5. Joan Miro Hendrick SorghDutch Interior The Lute PlayerOil on Canvas Oil on Canvas1928 1660
  6. 6. • Joan Miro was a Spanish Artist associated with Surrealist Movement• Miro was inspired by Dutch Renaissance Art• Miro used same theme as the original Renaissance painting, but changed the colors, shape / form, composition• Distortion of the original image Joan Miro Dutch Interior Oil on Canvas 1928
  7. 7. Franz MarcFranz Marc, Fate of the Animals, 1913, Oil on Canvas
  8. 8. • Distorted image “shattered glass” • Experimented with color and color symbolism • Founder of The Blue Rider Group “Der Blaue Reiter” (Expressionist Movement) • He believed animals wereFranz Marc, Fate of the Animals, 1913, “more beautiful, moreOil on Canvas pure” than humans
  9. 9. Color and Form• Continuing from the 19th Century (influence of Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, and artists such as Van Gogh and Gaugin)• Symbolism of Color• Emotion / Feeling
  10. 10. Henri Matisse Henri Matisse The Dance 1909 Oil on Canvas
  11. 11. Matisse was a FrenchArtist who was part ofFauvism MovementExpressive color /symbolic colorCircular composition(rhythm)Celebration of Life Henri Matisse, The Dance, 1909, Oil on(optimism) Canvas
  12. 12. Making Art in Times of WarPeople and artists greatly affected by warWorld War I (1914 – 1919)World War II (1939 – 1945)Russian Revolution (1917 – 1923)Spanish Civil War (1937)
  13. 13. Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso, Guernica, 1937, Oil on Canvas
  14. 14. Black and White large-scalepaintingBased on Images from Newspaperabout bombing of civilians inGuernica, Spain (Spanish CivilWar) Pablo PicassoCubist Style (Picasso helped to Guernicainvent the movement) 1937 Oil on CanvasSymbols – Horse, Bull, Light 3.5 m x 7.8 m
  15. 15. Effects of PsychologyDevelopments in the study of PsychologyNew understanding of Psychology influenced artistsSigmund Freud• developed psychoanalysis in early 20th century• wrote The Interpretation of Dreams in 1900Carl Jung• Further studies of dreams and the subconscious / unconscious mind
  16. 16. Frida Kahlo, The Two Fridas, 1939, Oil on Canvas
  17. 17. Frida Kahlo • Paintings based on personal emotions • Symbolism • Kahlo associated with the Surrealist Movement • Two “sides” / parts of her personality and background • Inability to have children and many operations due to accident • Relationship withFrida Kahlo, The Two Fridas, 1939, Oil Diego Rivera, Mexicanon Canvas artist
  18. 18. Major Early 20th Century Art Movements• Fauvism• Expressionism• Cubism• Futurism• De Stijl• Suprematism / Constructivism• Dadaism• Surrealism
  19. 19. Fauvism• Used pure hues (unmixed colors from the color wheel)• Rejected “imitative” colors (colors that imitate real life) to create “stronger reactions” to their work• Color as a conveyer of meaning / symbolism
  20. 20. Henri MatisseHenri Matisse, Red Room, 1908 – 1909, Oil on Canvas
  21. 21. Henri Matisse Matisse was one of the main artists in the Fauvist group Feeling of warmth and comfort in the room Used color to express emotionsHenri Matisse, Red Room, 1908 –1909, Oil on Canvas
  22. 22. Expressionism• “Raw human emotion”• Expressiveness of form – distorted color, line, shape, etc.• Movement started in Germany in 1905• Die Brucke (The Bridge)• Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider)
  23. 23. Egon Schiele Egon Shiele, Self-Portrait, 1911, Drawing (Gouache and pencil on paper)
  24. 24. Egon Schiele Physical and psychological torment Use of line and textures to convey feeling Egon Shiele, Self-Portrait, 1911, Drawing (Gouache and pencil on paper)
  25. 25. Max BeckmannMax Beckmann, Night, 1918 – 1919, Oil on Canvas
  26. 26. Max Beckmann Violence and brutality in society Rape, torture, theft Work is “powerful” and honestMax Beckmann, Night, 1918 – 1919, Oilon Canvas
  27. 27. Wassily Kandinsky Wassily Kandinsky, Improvisation 28, 1912, Oil on Canvas
  28. 28. Wassily Kandinsky Non-representational – based on formal elements (line, color, shape) Avant-Garde Expressive style Der Blaue Reiter (Blue Rider) Group Expression of inner feelings / spiritualityWassily Kandinsky, Improvisation 28,1912, Oil on Canvas
  29. 29. Kathe KollwitzKathe Kollwitz, Memorial to Karl Liebknecht, 1919, Woodcut (graphic arts)
  30. 30. Kathe Kollwitz Liebknecht (leader of Socialist revolution in Germany in 1919) was assassinated Surrounded by poor people Bold black and white of woodcut adds to theKathe Kollwitz, Memorial to Karl powerful feelingLiebknecht, 1919, Woodcut (graphic arts)
  31. 31. Cubism• Cubists rejected naturalistic / realistic art• Preferred using abstract shapes and forms• Viewing the subject from many different anglesusing geometric forms• Neutral Colors• Interested in connecting music to visual art• Analytic Cubism – first phase of cubism started byGeorges Braque and Pablo Picasso• Synthetic Cubism – Collage (mixed media) –materials from different sources
  32. 32. Georges BraqueGeorges Braque, The Portuguese, 1911, Oil on Canvas
  33. 33. Georges Braque Analytic Cubism Based on an image of a Portuguese musician (connection between visual art and music) Perception of 2-D and 3-D space Contains numbers and letters – 2-DGeorges Braque, The Neutral colors – pure color eliminatedPortuguese, 1911, Oil on in early cubismCanvas
  34. 34. Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso, Still Life with Chair-Caning, 1911-1912, Oil and Collage on Canvas
  35. 35. Pablo Picasso Synthetic Cubism New Medium of collage (from French word “to stick”) Illusion of seat of a chair Jou – from “Journal” (French newspaper) also word refers to “play” and to “game”Pablo Picasso, Still Life with Chair-Caning, 1911-1912, Oil and Collage on Canvas
  36. 36. Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso, Three Musicians, 1921, Oil on Canvas
  37. 37. Pablo PicassoLater CubismMusic and Visual Art /RhythmReintroduced colorinto his compositions Pablo Picasso, Three Musicians, 1921, Oil on Canvas
  38. 38. FuturismBegan as a literary movement in Italy in 1909,but later included visual arts, film, theater,music, and architectureInspired by the CubistsArtists had a socio-political agendaPublished several manifestos – a writtendocument that explains the overall intentions ofthe group – in this case, advocating arevolution in society and art
  39. 39. Umberto Boccioni Umberto Boccioni, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913, Bronze
  40. 40. Umberto Boccioni Feeling of Motion Symbolic of Dynamic modern life Figure moving ahead in a brave, new worldUmberto Boccioni, Unique Formsof Continuity in Space, 1913,Bronze sculpture
  41. 41. Giacomo BallaGiacomo Balla, Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, 1912, Oil on Canvas
  42. 42. Giacomo Balla The effect of motion by repeating shapes Several different views at the same timeGiacomo Balla, Dynamism of a Dog on aLeash, 1912, Oil on Canvas
  43. 43. Suprematism• Russian movement• Pure language of shape and color• Non-objective (no recognizable image)• Based on Inner Feelings
  44. 44. Kazimir MalevichKazimir Malevich, Suprematist Composition: Airplane Flying, 1915,oil on canvas
  45. 45. Kazimir Malevich Feeling unattached to objects “The Suprematist artist does not observe and does not touch – they feel” Dynamic movement of shapesKazimir Malevich, SuprematistComposition: Airplane Flying,1915, oil on canvas
  46. 46. Constructivism• Art movement that began in Soviet Union after the Russian Revolution• Experimented with new materials• Moving toward the future
  47. 47. Vladimir TatlinVladimir Tatlin, Monument to the Third International, 1919-1920,model (wood, iron, glass)
  48. 48. Vladimir Tatlin “Tatlin’s Tower” Design for a monument to honor the Russian Revolution Tower never built (only model) Vladimir Tatlin, Monument to the Would have been twice Third International, 1919-1920, as tall as the Eiffel model (wood, iron, glass) Tower
  49. 49. De Stijl• De Stijl means “the style”• Movement formed by a group of young artists in Holland in 1917• Believed in “birth of a new age”• Integration of Art and Life• Focus on Universal, rather than the individual
  50. 50. Piet Mondrian Piet Mondrian, Composition in Red, Blue, and Yellow, 1930, Oil on Canvas
  51. 51. Piet Mondrian One of the founders of the de Stijl movement Believed the primary colors and values are the purest colors to create harmony in a composition Influenced by Cubism (Mondrian saw AnalyticPiet Mondrian, Composition in Red, Cubism in Paris in 1917)Blue, and Yellow, 1930, Oil on Canvas
  52. 52. Comparison
  53. 53. Dadaism• Random word chosen from a French-German Dictionary• Irrational and Intuitive• Reaction to “insane” spectacle of war• Anti-tradition• Artistic and Literary Movement• Dada is a “state of mind”
  54. 54. Man RayMan Ray, Gift, 1921,Painted flatiron with rowof tacks
  55. 55. Man RayMan Ray was a GraphicDesigner and PortraitPhotographerManipulated Found ObjectInterest in mass-producedobjects and technology Man Ray, Gift, 1921, Painted flatiron with row of tacks
  56. 56. Marcel Duchamp Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917, Ready-made sculpture
  57. 57. Marcel Duchamp “Ready-made” sculpture Challenged the idea of What is art? Radical, avant- gardeMarcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917, Ready-made sculpture
  58. 58. Hannah HochHannah Hoch, Cut with theKitchen Knife, 1919-1920,Photomontage (collage)
  59. 59. Hannah Hoch Chaotic and contradictory Images of German Military leaders, Dada artists, dancers, animals, etc. Self-portrait in the lower corner Found text – “The GreatHannah Hoch, Cut with the Kitchen dada World”Knife, 1919-1920, Photomontage(collage)
  60. 60. Kurt SchwittersKurt Schwitters, Merz 19,1920,Paper Collage
  61. 61. Kurt SchwittersInspired by cubist collagePaper found in the trash(trash elevated to art)Non-objective (norecognizable images ofobjects)“Merz” refers tocommerce bank becausethe word appears in the Kurt Schwitters, Merz 19, 1920, Paperfound paper text Collage
  62. 62. Surrealism• Dada artists joined the Surrealist movement• Dreams and the Unconscious Mind (Psychology)• Bring together outer and inner reality
  63. 63. Max ErnstMax Ernst, Two Children are Threatened by a Nightingale, 1924, Oil on Woodwith Wood construction
  64. 64. Max Ernst Ernst’s dream Follows the rules of aerial and linear perspective, but the proportions are not true to lifeMax Ernst, Two Children are Title is mysterious andThreatened by a Nightingale, 1924, unclearOil on Wood with Wood construction
  65. 65. Rene MagritteRene Magritte,The Treacheryof Images, 1928– 1929, Oil onCanvas
  66. 66. Rene Magritte Ceci n’est pas une pipe (This is not a pipe) Discrepancy between the image of the pipe and the text (relationship of text and image) The illusion of artRene Magritte, The Treachery of Treachery = dishonestyImages, 1928 – 1929, Oil on Canvas (from an old French word meaning to trick)
  67. 67. Rene Magritte Rene Magritte, The Son of Man, 1964, Oil on Canvas
  68. 68. Rene Magritte Modern man Symbolism of the Apple, clouds, water, etc. Rene Magritte, The Son of Man, 1964, Oil on Canvas
  69. 69. Comparison
  70. 70. Salvador Dali
  71. 71. Salvador DaliSalvador Dali, The Persistence of Memory, 1931, Oil on Canvas
  72. 72. Salvador DaliTime andMemoryLandscape fromDali’s childhoodin SpainDreamlike Salvador Dali, The Persistence of Memory, 1931, Oil on Canvas
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