19th Century Art
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19th Century Art

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19th Century Art 19th Century Art Presentation Transcript

  • 19 th Century Art
  • 19 th Century in Europe and USA
    • Paris and New York as Cultural Centers
    • Industrial Revolution – new technology and machines
    • Urbanization – many people moving to cities
    • Science and Progress
    • Freedom of Expression
  • New Technology in Architecture 19 th Century Belief in Progress and Advancement of Civilization Through Science and Technology
  • Brooklyn Bridge John Augustus Roebling and Washington Augustus Roebling, Brooklyn Bridge (New York), late 19 th Century Architecture
  • Brooklyn Bridge John Augustus Roebling and Washington Augustus Roebling, Brooklyn Bridge (New York), late 19 th Century Architecture
    • Used Steel to make the bridge long
    • Architect designed twisted wire cable
    • Bridge 2000 Meters long ( longest bridge built at that time )
    • Gothic style arches
  • Eiffel Tower Gustave Eiffel , Eiffel Tower (Paris), Late 19 th Century Architecture
  • Eiffel Tower Gustave Eiffel , Eiffel Tower (Paris), Late 19 th Century Architecture
    • Tallest structure built at that time (used steel)
    • Built for 1889 Universal Exposition
    • Classical Round Arch
    • Exposed steel structure (not covered by walls)
    • Paris is the “center” of the Art World in 19 th Century
  • Photography and Its Affects
    • Photography had a profound influence on art in the 19 th Century
    • Portrait Photography became more popular than portrait painting
    • Many artists were influenced by the”realism” in the photos
    • Many artists starting using photography for sources
    • Some accepted photography as an art form, while others were against photography as art
  • First photograph Taken by Joseph Nicephone Niepce in France in 1826 - Niepce experimented with processes of reproducing still images starting in 1816 - But, the process wasn’t practical – exposure time was 8 hours for one photograph!
  • The Daquerreotype
    • • The first practical process of photography was the daquerreotype, introduced in 1839
    • • Invented by Louis-Jacque-Mande Daquerre , a French painter and printmaker
  • The first daquerreotype (Still life of Classic Roman Objects)
  • Eadweard Muybridge
    • • First motion photography which led into “moving pictures” (movies)
    • • Muybridge was hired by Leland Stanford (founder of Stanford University in USA) to see if there’s a moment when all horses hooves off the ground at same time
    • Eadweard Muybridge , Horse Galloping , 1878, Photograph (collotype)
  • Gertrude Kasebier , Blessed Art Thou Among Women , 1899, Photography (Platinum Print on Japanese Paper)
  • Gertrude Kasebier (American portrait painter who took up photography after raising her family )
    • • Pictorial Style
    • • Scene from everyday life with a sense of the spiritual and divine
    • • Title refers to a phrase from The Old Testament ( Bible ) by angel who announced to Virgin Mary that she’ll have a baby
  • Comparison
  • Impressionism
    • Style that began in France in mid-19 th Century (1860’s)
    • Term impressionism was given to this style by an art critic who thought the art looked unfinished and too “sketchy”
    • Interest in color and light
    • Painted outdoors “Plein air”
    • French culture
  • Claude Monet Claude Monet, Terrace at Sainte-Adresse , Painting (Oil on Canvas), Mid- 19 th Century
  • Claude Monet Claude Monet, Terrace at Sainte-Adresse , Painting (Oil on Canvas), Mid- 19 th Century Plein air Painting (painted outdoors) Upper class French culture Relaxing near the Sea
  • Pierre Auguste Renoir Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Moulin de la Galette , Painting (oil on canvas), Late 19 th Century
  • Pierre Auguste Renoir Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Moulin de la Galette , Painting (oil on canvas), Late 19 th Century
    • Relaxing on a Sunday afternoon in Paris
    • Light coming through the trees (color and light)
  • Berthe Morisot Berthe Morisot , Summer’s Day , Painting (Oil on Canvas), Late 19 th Century
  • Berthe Morisot Berthe Morisot , Summer’s Day , Painting (Oil on Canvas), Late 19 th Century
    • Loose, “brushy” style
    • Women accepted as artists in 19 th Century
    • Paintings of French Women
  • Georges Seurat Georges Seurat, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte , Painting (oil on canvas), Late 19 th Century
  • Georges Seurat
    • Used dots to create the painting (“pointilism” style
    • Made many drawings of people on this island near Paris
    • Upper Class French enjoying a Sunday afternoon
    Georges Seurat, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte , Painting (oil on canvas), Late 19 th Century
  • Realism
    • 19 th Century Movement in France that tried to show “real” human emotion
    • Artists painted indoors
    • Style more “realistic” – true colors, more detailed
  • Gustave Courbet , The Stone Breakers, 1849, Oil on Canvas
  • Gustave Courbet Leading Figure of the 19 th Century Realist Movement
    • • Image of workers
    • • Dreary colors convey the feeling of the labor
    • • In France in 1848, workers rebelled against the government for better working conditions
  • Comparison
  • Edouard Manet Edouard Manet , A Bar at the Folies-Bergere , Painting (Oil on Canvas), Late 19 th Century
  • Edouard Manet Edouard Manet , A Bar at the Folies-Bergere , Painting (Oil on Canvas), Late 19 th Century
    • Mirror in background with reflection
    • Self-absorbed and slightly depressed (not looking at the customer / bored)
    • Contrast of environment (Club) with the mood of the bartender
  • Manet’s Olympia Edouard Manet , Olympia , Painting (oil on canvas), Late 19 th Century
  • Manet’s Olympia Edouard Manet , Olympia , Painting (oil on canvas), Late 19 th Century
    • Based on a Renaissance Painting by Titian (Venus of Urbino)
    • Olympia stares out coldly at the viewer
    • Prostitute
  • Comparison
  • Japonisme
    • Name given to French art inspired by Japanese art during the 19 th Century
    • Japan began to trade with Western countries in the 19 th Century
    • Europeans become interested in Japanese culture (collected Japanese objects and art)
  • Japanese Woodblock Prints Utagawa Hiroshige , One Hundred Views of Edo , Graphic Arts , Late 19 th Century
  • Japanese Woodblock Prints Utagawa Hiroshige , One Hundred Views of Edo , Graphic Arts , Late 19 th Century
    • Traditional Japanese Medium
    • Flat Shapes
    • Dull color with a few areas of bright color
    • Looking down into the picture
    • Diagonal movement
  • Edgar Degas Edgar Degas , The Rehearsal on Stage , Painting (Oil on Canvas), late 19 th Century
  • Edgar Degas Edgar Degas , The Rehearsal on Stage , Painting (Oil on Canvas), late 19 th Century
    • Inspired by Japanese Woodblock Prints
    • Theme of Ballet Dancers (Movement of Dancers / French Culture)
  • Comparison
  • Henri de Toulouse Lautrec Henri de Toulouse Lautrec, Jane Avril , Graphic Arts (Lithograph), late 19 th Century
  • Henri de Toulouse Lautrec Inspired by Japanese Woodblock Prints Posters advertising Bars, Dancers, Musicians in Paris Lithograph – type of printmaking Henri de Toulouse Lautrec, Jane Avril , Graphic Arts (Lithograph), late 19 th Century
  • Mary Cassatt Mary Cassatt , Maternal Caress , Graphic Arts , Late 19 th Century
  • Mary Cassatt Mary Cassatt , Maternal Caress , Graphic Arts , Late 19 th Century
    • Inspired by Japanese Woodblock Prints (Cassatt collected them)
    • Universal Theme of Mother and Child
    • Mary Cassatt – American woman who went to Paris to study art
  • Paul Gauguin, Where Do We Come From? Where Are We Going? 1897, Oil on Canvas (4'6” x 12'3”)
    • Gauguin, French painter, moved to Tahiti , an island in the South Pacific, to paint native people in the tropical landscape (moved away from Western culture)
    • Gauguin struggled with questions about life (related to philosophy)
    • Expressive use of color
  • Vincent van Gogh , Starry Night , 1889, Oil on Canvas
    • • Theme: The vastness of the universe
    • • Image of church represents his conflicted feeling about religion
    • • Thick paint (impasto) to create texture, use of line , overall blue color represents his emotions