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E learning 2011 rome ppt final version 0720

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IADIS Conference

IADIS Conference

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  • 1. 20-23 July, Rome2011 IADIS e-Learning Conference Analysis of the Structural Relationship between Teaching Presence, Cognitive Presence, Social Presence , Organizational Support and Satisfaction in Korean Cyber University Young Ju Joo Kyu Yeon Lim Sun Hee Kim Eugene Lim Na Yeon Yoo Ewha Womans University, Republic of KoreaSupported by National Research Foundation of Korea Grantfunded by the Korean Government (2009-0084920)
  • 2. 1. Introduction2. Theoretical Background3. Research Method4. Research Results5. Discussion and Conclusion 2
  • 3. Introduction Cyber University in South KoreaSince March of 2009, South Korea government revised relevant educational laws;distance learning institutions were converted into cyber universities.Total 18 cyber universities (2011).Among 18 cyber universities, 4 of them are providing Master degree programssuch as MBA .About 164,000 learners have been enrolled in Cyber Universities(Korean Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, 2011). 3
  • 4. IntroductionPurpose of study Quality and educationalRaised problems about the quality of Cyber University effect were degraded compared to their learning experience in Choose the satisfaction as a main variable traditional institutions affecting quality of Cyber University (Korea Institute for Electronic Commerce, 2009). Search for variables affecting satisfaction Choose teaching, cognitive, social presence and organizational support as exogenous variables Provide suggestions for better Cyber University through SEM 4
  • 5. Introduction When learning satisfactionRaised problems about the quality of Cyber University goes up, learners could meet their educational goals. Choose the satisfaction as a main variable Satisfaction is an important affecting quality of Cyber University variable to measure the learning outcome (Ellis, 2008; Johnson et al., 2008; Morgan, 2007). Search for variables affecting satisfaction Choose teaching, cognitive, social presence and organizational support as exogenous variables Provide suggestions for better Cyber University through SEM 5
  • 6. IntroductionRaised problems about the quality of e-Learning and educational effect Choose the satisfaction as main variables relate to e-Learning effect ? ? Search for variables affecting satisfaction Satisfaction ? ? Choose teaching, cognitive, social presence and organizational support as exogenous variables Provide suggestions for better Cyber University through SEM 6
  • 7. Introduction Raised problems about the quality of e-Learning and educational effect Choose the satisfaction as main variables relate to e-Learning effect Increased interest in Search for variables affecting satisfaction studying presences as key variables to improve the quality of learning.Choose teaching, cognitive, social presence and perceived The importance of organizational support as exogenous variables perceived organizational support in determining success or failure of student s’ learningProvide a guideline through structural causal relationship (Zirkle, 2004). 7
  • 8. IntroductionRaised problems about the quality of e-Learning and educational effect Choose the satisfaction as main variables relate to e-Learning effect Search for variables affecting satisfaction Limited focus on the correlations or predictionsChoose presence(teaching, cognitive, social) as the (Taylor, Schepers & learner’s internal and organizational support as Crous, 2006). external variables affecting satisfaction Lack of in-depth analysis of the integrated causal Provide suggestions for better Cyber University relationship(Morris, Wu & through SEM Finnegab, 2005). 8
  • 9. IntroductionResearch Question Teaching Presence Cognitive Presence Social Satisfaction Presence Perceived Organizational Support Do teaching presence, cognitive presence, social presence and perceived organizational support affect satisfaction? 9
  • 10. Theoretical BackgroundCommunity of Inquiry Model Teaching Presence Cognitive Social Presence Presence (Garrison & Arbaugh, 2007) 10
  • 11. Theoretical Background Teaching Presence1. Definition  Learner’s perception of the overall instruction, including instructional design, organization, and learning facilitation (Arnold & Ducate, 2006).2. Previous Studies  Difference in learning outcome based on the instructor’s role and teaching strategies in discussions and emphasized the critical role and skills the instructors play in cyber education. (Wu & Hiltz, 2007).  The interaction between instructors and learners contributes more to learner’s satisfaction than the interaction among learners (Garrison & Cleveland-Innes, 2005). 11
  • 12. Theoretical Background Cognitive Presence1. Definition  Construction and confirmation of the meaning of learner’s self-reflection and discourse (Garrison & Arbaugh, 2007).2. Previous Studies  Necessary to reflect on the intellectual aspects of content and context in learning.  An important variable in predicting the learning outcome such as satisfaction and achievement (Martinez, 2003; Kang et al., 2008).  When the level of two subordinated variables is higher, learners achieve a higher level of satisfaction and achievement in their e-Learning experience (Kang, 2005). 12
  • 13. Theoretical Background Social Presence1. Definition  Degree of learners perceive themselves socially and affectively in a media - mediated communication environment (Garrison & Arbaugh, 2007).  Communication and formation of relationship with others in individual – based cyber learning (Joo & Ha, 2010).2. Previous Studies  In on-line learning environment, social presence has meaningful effect on perceived learning and satisfaction (Richardson & Swan, 2003).  Social presence including application-specific computer self-efficacy (AS- CSE), perceived usefulness is strongly related course satisfaction in cyber learning (Johnson, Hornik & Salas, 2008). 13
  • 14. Theoretical Background Perceived Organizational Support1. Definition  The extent which the organization values to their contributions and cares about their well-being (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchinson & Sowa, 1986).  Consists of administrative services, instructional support services such as tutoring counseling, and feedback (Robinson, 1995).2. Previous Studies  Instructor’s expertise in e-learning, and his counseling and support were the best predictors for course satisfaction and learning achievement (Paechter, Maier & Macher, 2010).  Organizational support has strong relationship with learning outcomes, such as students satisfaction, perceived learning of the subject matter, and perceived skill development (Rossin, Ro, Klein & Guo, 2009). 14
  • 15. Theoretical BackgroundRecent Research Trends Variables Previous Studies Exogenous Endogenous Teaching Presence  Garrison & Cleveland-Innes (2005)  Wu & Hiltz (2004) Cognitive Presence  Kang, Kim & Park (2008)  Martinez (2003) Satisfaction  Gunawardena & Zittle (1997) Social Presence  Richardson & Swan (2003)  Shin (2003) Perceived  Robins (1995)Organizational Support  Zirkle (2004) 15
  • 16. Theoretical BackgroundHypothetical Research Model Teaching Presence Cognitive Presence Social Satisfaction Presence Perceived Organizational SupportHypothesisTeaching, cognitive, social presence and perceived organizationalsupport affect satisfaction. 16
  • 17. Research Method Participants Convenient Sampling Method : W Cyber University Initial sample : consisted of 788 students Data analyzed : 769 students Age distribution from 20 to 65 years old Subjects’ background Gender Age Semester Enrolled 3% 8% 15% 31% 27% 20% 41% 16% 69% 20s 5th & 6th 30s 1st & 2nd 42% 28% 40s 3rd & 4th Male 50s 5th & 6th 7th ~ 17 Female 60s 7th ~
  • 18. Research Method Research Procedure Web-based surveys End of the spring semester of 2009 For 2 weeks 18
  • 19. Research Method Measurement Instrument * 5 point Likert scale Components Source Cronbach’s α item Teaching Presence Swan(2008) .89 6 items The professor encouraged me to get involved in the study session through the phone calls, emails, and SMS. Cognitive Presence Swan(2008) .82 6 items I can understand the overall flow of the class session. Social Presence Kang et al. (2008) .82 11 items I felt closed to my peers.Organizational Support Kim (2008) .80 6 items My peers gave me information that helped me get involved in the class session. Satisfaction Shin (2003) .96 8 items I am satisfied with the on-line course on the whole. 19
  • 20. Research Results Descriptive Statistics and Correlation 1. Normality Curve All variables showed normality curve. 2. Descriptive Analysis Mean: 3.21~4.07, S.D.: .48~.73 3. Correlation Analysis All exogenous variables were found to be significantly correlated to endogenous variable. (n=769) Variable Mean S.D. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 121. Teaching Presence 1 3.88 .57 -2. Teaching Presence 2 3.80 .60 .82* -3. Cognitive Presence 1 3.81 .55 .54* .50* -4. Cognitive Presence 2 3.83 .48 .49* .44* .59* -5. Social Presence 1 3.21 .61 .42* .43* .43* .39* -6. Social Presence 2 3.21 .67 .33* .34* .37* .35* .81* -7. Social Presence 3 3.42 .58 .47* .49* .43* .37* .77* .79* -8. Perceived Organizational Support 1 3.40 .67 .55* .58* .45* .37* .50* .47* .53* -9. Perceived Organizational Support 2 3.47 .73 .51* .55* .41* .36* .58* .57* .60* .75* -10. Satisfaction 1 4.05 .63 .64* .61* .55* .45* .42* .34* .45* .51* .50* -11. Satisfaction 2 3.94 .65 .64* .61* .57* .48* .40* .34* .41* .55* .49* .84* -12. Satisfaction 3 4.07 .62 .63* .61* .55* .47* .39* .34* .43* .49* .48* .85* .87* - 20*p<.05
  • 21. Research Results Examination of Measurement Model3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis Teaching 1 e1 Presence .94 Teaching Teaching 2 .91 Presence e2 Presence .65 Cognitive1 .78 e3 Presence Cognitive . 64 .85 e4 Cognitive2 Presence Presence .67 .44 Social 1 e5 Presence .91 Social 2 .91 Social .39 e6 .45 Presence Presence Social 3 .91 e7 Presence .39 .38 e8 .87 Support 1 Perceived .41 .86 Organizational e9 Support 2 Support .55 e10 Sat 1 .93 .85 Satisfaction e11 Sat 2 21
  • 22. Research Results Examination of Measurement Model4. Fitness of the Measurement Model TLI value was .985, CFI value was .991 and RMSEA value was .051. (n=769) RMSEA χ2 df TLI CFI (90% Confidence Interval)Measurement 182.067 44 .985 .991 .051(.039~.063) Model Criteria - - >.90 >.90 <.08 Measurement Model fitness was good! 22
  • 23. Research Results Examination of Structural Model5. Fitness of the Structural Model TLI value was .973, CFI value was .982 and RMSEA value was .064. (n=769) RMSEA χ2 df TLI CFI (90% Confidence Interval) Structural 184.849 44 .973 .982 .064(.054~.073) Model Criteria - - >.90 >.90 <.08 Structural Model fitness was good! Teaching Presence .40 Cognitive .36 Presence Satisfaction Social Presence .14 Perceived Organizational Support 23
  • 24. Research Results Examination of Modified Model6. Fitness of the Modified Model TLI value was .989, CFI value was .994 and RMSEA value was .046. (n=769) RMSEA χ2 df TLI CFI (90% Confidence Interval) Modified 55.773 21 .989 .994 .046(.031~.061) Model Criteria - - >.90 >.90 <.08 Modified Model fitness was good! 24
  • 25. Research Results Examination of Modified Model 7. Effect Analysis of Path Coefficient Unstandardized Standardized Standard Path between Variables Coefficient Coefficient t Error (B) (β) Teaching .42 .40 .05 7.95* Presence Cognitive .60 .36 .08 7.25* Satisfaction Presence Perceived Organizational .13 .14 .04 3.25* Support*p<.05 Teaching presence > Cognitive presence > Perceived organizational support 25
  • 26. Conclusion and Discussion Discussion Teaching Presence .40 Cognitive .36 Presence Satisfaction .14 Perceived Organizational Support Teaching, cognitive presence and perceived organization support affected satisfaction. Same results of previous studies(Garrison & Cleveland-Innes, 2005; Kang, Kim & Park, 2008; Robins, 1995). Social presence did not affect satisfaction. Different result of previous studies(Richardson & Swan, 2003; Shin, 2003). 26
  • 27. Conclusion and DiscussionConclusion Teaching, cognitive presence and perceived organization support affected satisfaction To improve teaching presence, Cyber education should provide feedback from instructors, and instructors should confirm learners can follow what they learned frequently. To improve cognitive presence, The contents of cyber education should be designed to cause learners’ interests and connect learners’ previous knowledge. To improve perceived organizational support, Organization should provide various scholarships, counseling and effective LMS to facilitate learning. 27
  • 28. Conclusion and DiscussionConclusion Social presence did not affect satisfaction. 28
  • 29. Conclusion and Discussion Future Studies1. Subsequent research should be conducted to determine whether similar results will be found at other cyber university settings.2. Studies need to be conducted on a variety of learner motivation variables such as academic self-efficacy, the ability of self-directed learning and learner self-regulation.3. Ongoing research will be included affective presence components that the learners experience in cyber education . 29
  • 30. 30
  • 31. Young Ju Joo (youngju@ewha.ac.kr) Kyu Yeon Lim (klim@ajou.ac.kr)Sun Hee Kim (loveangel29@hanmail.net) Eugene Lim (jin7033@gmail.com) Na Yeon Yoo (dolphishgirl@gmail.com) Ewha Womans University, Korea 31