Young Ju Joo Hyun Soo Son Ae Ri Han  Sun Hee Kim Ewha Womans University, Korea 15 – 17 December 2010, Hong Kong 2nd EAI Co...
Content 1. Introduction 2.  Theoretical Background 3. Research Method 4. Research Results 5. Conclusion and Discussion
Introduction 1. <ul><li>49,000 undergraduate degrees and 8,700 graduate degree (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Total 19 cyber uni...
Introduction 1. <ul><li>Numerous studies on how to improve perceived learning persistence… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few studi...
Theoretical Background  2 . Learning persistence is a state in which learners continually participate in their educational...
Theoretical Background 2 . 1 Definition Flow is a status in which one simultaneously feels subjective satisfaction and hap...
Theoretical Background 2 . <ul><li>Locus of  control  is  the degree to  which  a person  believes  in their ability  to  ...
Theoretical Background 2 . Recent Research Trends Variables Previous research in cyber education Exogenous Endogenous Inte...
Theoretical Background 2 . Internal  Locus of Control Perceived Institutional  Support Flow Perceived Learning  persistenc...
<ul><li>W Cyber university is  one of the first online university   in South Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been systemat...
<ul><li>During the first semester of  2009 </li></ul><ul><li>586  completed the surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Subject’s backgr...
Research Method 3 . <ul><ul><li>Perceived  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flo...
Research Method 3 . * 5 point Likert scale Instrument Components Source Cronbach’s  α item Internal Locus of Control Leven...
Research Results 4 . 1 Descriptive Analysis <ul><ul><li>All variables showed normality curve. </li></ul></ul>2 Correlation...
Research Results 4 . 3 Confirmatory Factor Analysis <ul><ul><li>TLI value was .993, CFI value was .996 and RMSEA value was...
Research Results 4 . 4 Fitness of the Structural Model  <ul><ul><li>TLI value was .988, CFI value was .994, and RMSEA valu...
Research Results 4 . 5 Fitness of the Modified Model <ul><ul><li>TLI value was .987, CFI value was .993, and RMSEA value w...
Research Results 4 . 6 Effect Analysis of Path Coefficient <ul><ul><li>All exogenous variables significantly affected thei...
Conclusion and Discussion 5 . <ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control and perceived institutional support of cyber learners ...
Conclusion and Discussion 5 . Internal  Locus of Control Perceived Institutional Support Flow Perceived Learning Persisten...
Conclusion and Discussion 5 . <ul><ul><li>Other variables that affect learning outcomes need to be examined in future stud...
Thank You. Young Ju Joo(youngju@ewha.ac.kr) Hyun Soo Son(sondeborah@hanmail.net) Ae Ri Han (tracy3690@naver.com) Sun Hee K...
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홍콩학회 101214 최종안

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  • These are the literature reviews in this study
  • Based on the literature reviews we saw the previous slide, we established hypothetical research model and hypothesis here.
  • We used the convenient sampling method since we needed to use a cyber university which has well-established systems and history of supporting a cyber education process and satisfying the student’ needs better. W Cyber university is the one of the first online university in South Korea and founded in 2009 It has been systematically conducting cyber education. And furthermore, an overall evaluation of Korean cyber universities awarded W cyber university an outstanding cyber university by Korean Government. W cyber university has classes about Korean traditional culture like Korean Costume Science, Oriental Medicinal Cosmetics and Arts, Tea Culture Business and etc.
  • 586 subjects completed the surveys, and the details of the subjects are here.
  • We conducted the two surveys displayed in the students management systems on W cyber university’s website. First survey was displayed in the beginning of the first semester in 2009. And second survey was displayed at the end of the semester.
  • These are our research instruments. As it shows all the reliability of components are accepted.
  • Here is descriptive statistics and correlation. Click All variables showed normality curve and be significantly correlated to each other.
  • In order to confirm the measurement model, we conducted confirmatory factor analysis As you can see the measurement model fitness was good.
  • As a second step, we analyzed the structural model and examined the research hypotheses based on the result. The fitness index indicated that the structural model’s fitness was good. This figure shows the result of direct effects among structural model. All exogenous variables significantly affected their endogenous variables except the path through perceived Institutional Support to perceived learning persistence. So we modified the hypothetical model by eliminating the path which wasn’t significant.
  • This is the result of the modified model&apos;s fitness. As you see, The fitness index indicated that the modified model fitness was good. And after that, we conducted Sobel test to examine flow’s mediating effect and as a result, all of the mediating effects were proved significant. The indirect effect via the intermediation of flow was significant at the level of .05. Z value presented as follow.
  • This table shows the result of direct and indirect effects among modified model. From the table, we found that flow is the most effective variable on perceived learning persistence.
  • To sum up, for hypothesis 1 and 3 were fully accepted, but for hypothesis 2 was partially accepted.
  • From the results, we found that perceived institutional support did not directly affected perceived learning persistence. While the effects of internal locus of control on outcome variables show consistent results with previous works, But perceived institutional support showed inconsistent results. It may be appropriate to assume that most of the relevant previous studies only theoretically discussed the relationship between perceived institutional support and perceived learning persistence. Also, e-learning systems of W cyber university is not sufficient to support cyber learning efficiently. Few interactions are occurred in learning because of simple menu design and most materials are delivered in a text-based format. And, this study also found that flow intermediates the relationship between internal locus of control and perceived learning persistence, and that between perceived institutional support and perceived learning persistence. That is to say, through flow, we can find the way to improve perceived learning persistence. For this, Hoffman and Novak(1996) suggested that concrete support strategies, such as establishing clear learning objectives, encouraging the sense of challenge, and providing immediate feedback and practical projects are all necessary for flow.
  • Lastly, we suggest the following agenda for the further study of the cyber-learning environment. First, Other variables that affect learning outcomes need to be examined in future study. Also, further studies can utilize various other indices, such as achievement, satisfaction, participation, etc., as learning outcome variables. Second, We did not base learning persistence on factual student drop out data but on the learner’s emotional state. Therefore, we recommend further research on individual dropout.
  • Thank you for listening.
  • 홍콩학회 101214 최종안

    1. 1. Young Ju Joo Hyun Soo Son Ae Ri Han Sun Hee Kim Ewha Womans University, Korea 15 – 17 December 2010, Hong Kong 2nd EAI Conference Supported by National Research Foundation  of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (2009-0084920)
    2. 2. Content 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Background 3. Research Method 4. Research Results 5. Conclusion and Discussion
    3. 3. Introduction 1. <ul><li>49,000 undergraduate degrees and 8,700 graduate degree (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Total 19 cyber universities and 10,2000 enrolled learners (2010) </li></ul><ul><li>In the Open University, the U.K’s online higher educational organization, the continuous registration rate is only about 50% (Simpson, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Learning in a cyber environment has a completion rate 10-20% lower than that of a traditional learning environment (Herbert, 2006) . </li></ul>Perceived Learning Persistence Cyber education problems Cyber University in South Korea
    4. 4. Introduction 1. <ul><li>Numerous studies on how to improve perceived learning persistence… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few studies have created a structural explanation of the casual relationship among the multitude variables affecting perceived learning persistence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The studies examining multiple variables affecting perceived learning persistence in online programs limited their approach to the conceptual framework only . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many research studies suggested the desirability of simultaneously considering internal variables and external variables (Packham, Jones, Miller, & Thomas, 2004; Rovai, 2003) </li></ul></ul>Previous studies reported that internal locus of control and perceived institutional support control(Parker, 1999; Liu, Lavelle, & Andris, 2002) are important in perceived learning persistence Internal Locus of Control Flow Perceived Learning Persistence Perceived Institutional Support Very important learning outcome variable, which can success or failure(Martinez, 2003) Status maximizing one’s potential ability to complete activities and project and induces a superior learning outcome(Taylor, Schepers, & Crous, 2006). Purpose of study
    5. 5. Theoretical Background 2 . Learning persistence is a state in which learners continually participate in their educational programs and complete their courses, processes, and degrees to arrive at their educational goals (Müller, 2008). <ul><li>Important emotional variable that determines success or failure in the cyber environment (Martinez, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Provides important information for determining the appropriate directions for organizational decision-making and educational program management (Willging, & Johnson, 2004). </li></ul>1 Definition 2 Critical issues Perceived Learning Persistence
    6. 6. Theoretical Background 2 . 1 Definition Flow is a status in which one simultaneously feels subjective satisfaction and happiness, which increases one’s potential for performing one’s activities and projects (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). 2 Critical issues <ul><li>Feel pleasure in the learning process and participate more actively, acquiring a sense of satisfaction and achievement in the learning process (Clarke & Haworth, 1994). </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a positive emotional state and are likely to participate aggressively in learning, to select projects with a higher level of difficulty, and to concentrate on the learning situation (Skinner & Bermont, 1993). </li></ul>Flow
    7. 7. Theoretical Background 2 . <ul><li>Locus of control is the degree to which a person believes in their ability to control events and behavioral results that happen in their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Rotter(1966) - internal locus / external locus </li></ul><ul><li>Levenson(1981) - internality / powerful others / chance </li></ul>Administrative support and positive support from the educational organization can bring about positive learning outcomes, such as perceived learning persistence (Chung, 2000; Lee, 2003). In corporate educational environment, organizational support consists of superiors’ support, colleagues’ support, and positive organizational atmosphere. 1 Definition 1 Definition Perceived Institutional Support Internal Locus of control
    8. 8. Theoretical Background 2 . Recent Research Trends Variables Previous research in cyber education Exogenous Endogenous Internal Locus of Control Flow <ul><li>Keller & Blomann (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor, Schepers, & Crous (2006) </li></ul>Perceived Learning persistence <ul><li>Parker (1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Parker (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Morris, Wu, & Finnegan (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Martinez (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Liu, Lavelle, & Andris( 2002) </li></ul>Perceived Institutional Support Flow <ul><li>Maurer, Weiss, & Barbeite (2003) </li></ul>Perceived Learning persistence <ul><li>Martinez & Munday (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Zirkle (2004) </li></ul>Flow Perceived Learning persistence <ul><li>Clarke & Haworth (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Kim & Lee (2005) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Theoretical Background 2 . Internal Locus of Control Perceived Institutional Support Flow Perceived Learning persistence <ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control and perceived institutional support of cyber learners will affect flow directly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control, perceived institutional support and flow of cyber learners will affect perceived learning persistence directly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control and perceived institutional support of cyber learners will affect perceived learning persistence indirectly by intermediating flow. </li></ul></ul>H1. H2. H3. Hypothetical Research Model
    10. 10. <ul><li>W Cyber university is one of the first online university in South Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been systematically conducting cyber education. </li></ul><ul><li>An overall evaluation of Korean cyber universities has selected it as an outstanding cyber university (Korean Department of Education, Science, and Technology, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>It has many classes about Korean traditional culture like Korean Costume Science, Oriental Medicinal Cosmetics and Arts, Tea Culture Business, etc. </li></ul>Research Method 3 . <ul><li>W Cyber University was founded in 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Every year, it has recruited about 900 students, including transfer students, for its 14 departments. </li></ul>Research Subjects
    11. 11. <ul><li>During the first semester of 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>586 completed the surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Subject’s background </li></ul>Research Method 3 . Research Subjects
    12. 12. Research Method 3 . <ul><ul><li>Perceived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning persistence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>locus of control </li></ul></ul>End of semester <ul><li>The two surveys were conducted in the student management systems on W Cyber University's website. </li></ul>Beginning of semester 1 First Survey <ul><li>1 ST semester of 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>W cyber University in </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea </li></ul>2 Second Survey Research Procedure
    13. 13. Research Method 3 . * 5 point Likert scale Instrument Components Source Cronbach’s α item Internal Locus of Control Levenson (1981) .71 7 items Example I think I can study successfully in this course. Perceived Institutional Support Kim(2009) .89 6 items Example My peers gave me information that helped me get involved in the class session. Flow Kim(2009) .80 5 items Example I was able to concentrate on the course contents. Perceived Learning persistence Shin(2003) .85 5 items Example I would like to learn more about this course.
    14. 14. Research Results 4 . 1 Descriptive Analysis <ul><ul><li>All variables showed normality curve. </li></ul></ul>2 Correlation Analysis <ul><ul><li>All variables were found to be significant in the correlation among the relevant variables. </li></ul></ul>(n=586) * p<.05 Descriptive Statistics and Correlation Mean SD 1 2 3 4 1. Internal Locus of Control 3.84 .44 - 2. Perceived Institutional Support 3.35 .72 .29 * - 3. Flow 3.68 .59 .32 * .48 * - 4. Perceived Learning persistence 4.23 .56 .35 * .41 * .55 * -
    15. 15. Research Results 4 . 3 Confirmatory Factor Analysis <ul><ul><li>TLI value was .993, CFI value was .996 and RMSEA value was .033. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement model fitness was good! </li></ul></ul>(n=586) Examination of Measurement Model χ 2 df TLI CFI RMSEA (90% Confidence Interval) Measurement Model 24.80 14 .993 .996 .033(.009~.059) Criteria - - >.90 >.90 <.08
    16. 16. Research Results 4 . 4 Fitness of the Structural Model <ul><ul><li>TLI value was .988, CFI value was .994, and RMSEA value was .036. </li></ul></ul>(n=586) Internal Locus of Control Perceived Institutional Support Flow Perceived Learning Persistence .493 * .224 * .384 * .664 * .081 <ul><ul><li>Structural model fitness was good! </li></ul></ul>Examination of Structural Model χ 2 df TLI CFI RMSEA (90% Confidence Interval) Structural Model 24.80 14 .988 .994 .036(.009~.059) Criteria - - >.90 >.90 <.08
    17. 17. Research Results 4 . 5 Fitness of the Modified Model <ul><ul><li>TLI value was .987, CFI value was .993, and RMSEA value was .036. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified model fitness was good! </li></ul></ul>(n=586) Internal Locus of Control Perceived Institutional Support Flow Perceived Learning Persistence .273 * .333 * .487 * .705 * Examination of Modified Model χ 2 df TLI CFI RMSEA (90% Confidence Interval) Modified Model 27.82 15 .987 .993 .038(.014~.060) Criteria - - >.90 >.90 <.08 Indirect Effect via Flow Z-value p Internal Locus of control- Perceived Learning Persistence 4.203 .000 Perceived Institutional Support- Perceived Learning Persistence 7.389 .000
    18. 18. Research Results 4 . 6 Effect Analysis of Path Coefficient <ul><ul><li>All exogenous variables significantly affected their endogenous variables except Perceived Institutional Support -> Perceived Learning Persistence </li></ul></ul>(n=586) Examination of Modified Model Path between Variables Unstandardized Coefficient (B) Standardized Coefficient (β) Total Direct Indirect Total Direct Indirect Internal Locus of Control Flow .470 .470 - .273 .273 - Perceived Learning Persistence .598 .253 .345 .525 .333 .192 Perceived Institutional Support Flow .399 .399 - .487 .487 - Flow Perceived Learning Persistence .733 .733 - .705 .705 -
    19. 19. Conclusion and Discussion 5 . <ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control and perceived institutional support of cyber learners will affect flow directly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control and perceived institutional support and flow of cyber learners will affect perceived learning persistence directly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control and perceived institutional support of cyber learners will affect perceived learning persistence indirectly by intermediating flow. </li></ul></ul>H1. H2. H3. <ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control and perceived institutional support of cyber learners directly affected flow significantly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control and flow affected perceived learning persistence significantly but perceived institutional support didn’t . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow had mediating effect among internal locus of control, perceived institutional support and perceived learning persistence significantly. </li></ul></ul>Summary
    20. 20. Conclusion and Discussion 5 . Internal Locus of Control Perceived Institutional Support Flow Perceived Learning Persistence <ul><ul><li>Institutional support did not directly affect learning persistence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the relevant previous studies only theoretically discussed the relationship between institutional support and learning persistence. Also, e-learning systems of W cyber university is not sufficient to support cyber learning efficiently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow intermediates the relationship between internal locus of control and learning persistence, institutional support and learning persistence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoffman and Novak(1996) suggested that concrete support strategies are all necessary for flow. </li></ul></ul>Conclusion
    21. 21. Conclusion and Discussion 5 . <ul><ul><li>Other variables that affect learning outcomes need to be examined in future study. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also, further studies can utilize various other indices, such as achievement, satisfaction, participation, etc., as learning outcome variables. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We did not base learning persistence on factual student drop out data but on the learner’s emotional state. Therefore, we recommend further research on individual dropout. </li></ul></ul>1. 2. Recommendations
    22. 22. Thank You. Young Ju Joo(youngju@ewha.ac.kr) Hyun Soo Son(sondeborah@hanmail.net) Ae Ri Han (tracy3690@naver.com) Sun Hee Kim(loveangel29@hanmail.net) Ewha Womans University, Korea
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