Data are facts, figures, enumerations, charts or graphs which serve the basis of analysis.
There are mainly two types of data
Structured – Unstructured observation
Participative - Non participative
Disguised – Undisguised
Controlled – Uncontrolled
Enables to record natural behavior.
Problem of Observation Control
Check on only current Scenario
Face to face interview
Computer assisted interviews (CAI)
“ A questionnaire is a pre formulated set of questions to which respondents record their answers.”
Questionnaires can be:
Covers large geographical area.
Respondents can fill according to their convenience.
Free from Interviewers Bias
Adequate Time to Respond
More dependable and reliable results
Low rate of return
Depends on type of respondents
No Control over the questionnaire
Ambiguous or Omission of replies
True & Fairness of Replies
Question formulation and wording.
Type and forms of questions to be asked.
Sequencing of questions.
The personal data sought from respondents.
Questionnaires Schedules 1. Filled by Respondents 1. Filled by Research Workers 2. Cost Effective 2. Relatively Costlier 3. Response Rate is High 3. Response rate is Low 4. Identity of Respondents is not Essential 4. Identity of Research Worker 5. Very Low Pace 5. Comparatively in Time
Any data which has been gathered earlier by some one.
One’s Primary data may be Secondary data for others.
Secondary data may be published or unpublished.
Points to be borne in mind before using secondary data: