economy Ch4 part.1 _by louy Alhami

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economy Ch4 part.1 _by louy Alhami

  1. 1. CHAPTER 4 Part ….1 The Time Value of Money Created ByEng. Maysa Faroon Gharaybeh
  2. 2. • Engineering is :The profession in which a knowledge of mathematical and natural science is applied to develop ways to utilize Economically , the materials and the forces of the nature for the benefits of the mankind .• Engineering EconomyInvolves the evaluation of the economic merits of the proposed solutions of the engineering problems. • Benefits VS Costs
  3. 3. CAPITAL• Wealth in the form of money or property that can be used to produce more wealth.
  4. 4. why Consider Return to Capital?1. Interest (profit) pay the providers of capital for forgoing its use during the time the capital is being used .2. Interest (profit) is a payment for the risk.
  5. 5. Simple Interest & Compound Interest
  6. 6. Simple Interest• The total interest earned or charged is linearly proportional to the initial amount of the loan (principal), the interest rate and the number of interest periods for which the principal is committed.
  7. 7. When applied, total interest “I” may be found by I = ( P ) ( N ) ( i ), where •P = principal amount lent or borrowed •N = number of interest periods ( e.g., years ) •i = interest rate per interest period
  8. 8. Example:If someone borrowed $1,000 for 3 years with a simple interest of 10%........... then the total interest isI = P*N*iI = 1,000 * 3 * 0.1 = $300The total amount owed = P+I = 1,000+300 = $1,300
  9. 9. Compound Interest• Whenever the interest charge for any interest period is based on the remaining principal amount plus any accumulated interest charges up to the beginning of that period.
  10. 10. Exampleperiod Amount Interest Amount owed at amount per owed at the period the end of beginning period of period1 $1,000 $100 $1,1002 $1,100 $110 $1,2103 $1,210 $121 $1,331
  11. 11. Economic Equivalence• Established when we are indifferent between a future payment, or a series of future payments, and a present sum of money .
  12. 12. Considers the comparison of alternative options, or proposals, by reducing them to an equivalent basis, depending on:1. interest rate;2. amounts of money involved;3. timing of the affected monetary receipts and/or expenditures;
  13. 13. Cash Flow Diagrams / Table Notation • i = effective interest rate per interest period • N = number of compounding periods (e.g., years) • P = present sum of money; the equivalent value of one or more cash flows at the present time reference point
  14. 14. Cash Flow Diagrams / Table Notation• F = future sum of money; the equivalent value of one or more cash flows at a future time reference point• A = end-of-period cash flows (or equivalent end-of-period values ) in a uniform series continuing for a specified number of periods, starting at the end of the first period and continuing through the last period
  15. 15. Cash Flow Diagram Notation 1 1 2 3 4 5=N1 Time scale with progression of time moving from left to right; the numbers represent time periods (e.g., years, months, quarters, etc...).
  16. 16. Cash Flow Diagram Notation 1 1 2 3 4 5=N P =$8,000 21 Time scale with progression of time moving from left to right; the numbers represent time periods (e.g., years, months, quarters, etc...) and may be presented within a time interval or at the end of a time interval.2 Present expense (cash outflow) of $8,000 for lender.
  17. 17. Cash Flow Diagram Notation A = $2,524 3 1 1 2 3 4 5=N P =$8,000 21 Time scale with progression of time moving from left to right; the numbers represent time periods (e.g., years, months, quarters, etc...) and may be presented within a time interval or at the end of a time interval.2 Present expense (cash outflow) of $8,000 for lender.3 Annual income (cash inflow) of $2,524 for lender.
  18. 18. Cash Flow Diagram Notation A = $2,524 3 1 1 2 3 4 5=N P =$8,000 2 4 i = 10% per year1 Time scale with progression of time moving from left to right; the numbers represent time periods (e.g., years, months, quarters, etc...) and may be presented within a time interval or at the end of a time interval.2 Present expense (cash outflow) of $8,000 for lender.3 Annual income (cash inflow) of $2,524 for lender.44 Interest rate of loan.
  19. 19. Cash Flow Diagram Notation A = $2,524 3 5 1 1 2 3 4 5=N P =$8,000 2 4 i = 10% per year1 Time scale with progression of time moving from left to right; the numbers represent time periods (e.g., years, months, quarters, etc...) and may be presented within a time interval or at the end of a time interval.2 Present expense (cash outflow) of $8,000 for lender.3 Annual income (cash inflow) of $2,524 for lender. Dashed-arrow line indicates4 Interest rate of loan. 5 amount to be determined.
  20. 20. ‫اإلعالن واألعمى‬‫جلس رجل أعمى على إحدى عتبات عمارة واضعا ً قبعته‬‫بٌن قدمٌه وبجانبه لوحة مكتوب علٌها: أنا أعمى أرجوكم‬ ‫ساعدونً . فمر رجل إعالنات باألعمى ووقف لٌرى أن‬ ‫قبعته ال تحوي سوى قروش قلٌلة فوضع المزٌد فٌها و‬ ‫دون أن ٌستأذن األعمى أخذ لوحته وكتب علٌها عبارة‬‫أخرى وأعادها مكانها ومضى فً طرٌقه الحظ األعمى أن‬ ‫قبعته قد امتألت بالقروش واألوراق النقدٌة فعرف أن‬ ‫شٌئا ً قد تغٌر وأدرك أن ما سمعه من الكتابة هو ذلك‬ ‫التغٌٌر فسأل أحد المارة عما هو مكتوب علٌها فكانت‬ ‫اآلتً‬‫نحن فً فصل الربٌع لكننً ال أستطٌع رؤٌة جماله‬‫غير وسائلك عندما ال تسير األمور كما يجب ‬
  21. 21. example 4-1 Page 141
  22. 22. Investment of $10,000 Initial investment at the beginning of year 1
  23. 23. Uniform annual revenue of$5,310 for five years(at the end of each year )
  24. 24. Market recovery value of $2,000 at the end of year five
  25. 25. Annual expenses of $3,000 for the five years
  26. 26. Relating Present and FutureEquivalent Values of Single Cash Flows
  27. 27. If an amount of P dollars is invested at a point of time and i% is the interest rate (growth rate ) per period the amount will grow to a future amount F P N 0 1 2 3 4 F=?
  28. 28. 1. Finding F when given P:• Finding future value when given present value• F = P ( 1+i ) N (4-2) – (1+i)N single payment compound amount factor – functionally expressed as F =P ( F / P, i%, N ) – predetermined values of this are presented in column 2 of Appendix C of text. P N 0 1 2 3 4 F=?
  29. 29. Example4-3
  30. 30. 2. Finding P when given F:• Finding present value when given future value• P = F [ (1 + i ) ] - N (4-4) – (1+i)-N single payment present worth factor – functionally expressed as P = F ( P / F, i%, N ) – predetermined values of this are presented in column 3 of Appendix C of text F 0 N= P=?
  31. 31. Example 4-4
  32. 32. 3-Important Rules1. Cash flows cannot be added or subtracted unless they occur at the same point of time2. To move a cash flow forward in time by one time unit multiply by (1+i)3. To move a cash flow backward in time by one time unit divide by (1+i)
  33. 33. 3. Finding i when given P, F and N:• Finding interest rate when given present & future value for N period of time.• i = (F/P)1/N -1 (4-6)
  34. 34. Example 4-5
  35. 35. 4. Finding N when given P, F and i:• Finding #of periods when given present & future value at i% interest rate.• N = log(FP) / log(1+i) (4-7)
  36. 36. Example 4-6
  37. 37. Q 4-9 page195Q……Your cousin want to bay a fancy watch with $425 , instead you suggest that she bay an inexpensive watch with $25 and invest the difference (i.e. $400) for 40 years with an interest of 9% per year how much she will get after 40 years ?Solution…….F = p(1 + i)N = $400(1+0.09)40 = $12,563.76OR F = P(F/P, 9%,40) = $400*31.4094 =$12,563.76 Appendix C12
  38. 38. Q 4-17 page 195Q …… How long dose it take for $1,000 to quadruple(1000*4) in value when the interest rate is 8%?Solution …..P = $1,000 , F= $ 4,000 and i = 8%F = p(1 + i)NN = log(FP) / log(1+i) (4-7)N = log(4,000/1,000)/log(1+0,08) = 18.01Answer is 18 years…
  39. 39. Alternative solution: $4,000 =$1,000 (F/P, 8%, N)the value of (F/P, 8%, N) = 4 if you look atTable C-11,you find that (F/P, 8%, N) = 3.9960 when N = 18 years and (F/P, 8%, N) = 4.3157 when N = 19 years (F/P, 8%, 18) 3.9960 (F/P, 8%, N) 4 (F/P, 8%, 19) 4.3157Then the closest one is N= 18 years .
  40. 40. • End of Chapter 4 PART 1• See you with Chapter4 PART 2

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